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This book was repoired by 






jSattbt antl dTorttsii, f^arHs sLxtti l^al&j^artfii, 









BY J- C. LOUDOJf, F.L. k H.S. kc. 






7B0M OARBTil'cJ?^, P. 203 l.y TO THE EKD. 







Tha RoDiaii namerali refer to the Oeneral Tatde of Contents» Vol. I. p. xtU. to cliii., wliere the ipecIeB 
and Tarfetlfa, with all thdr nynonymes, wfU be foond syitematicalljrarranged ; the fint column of Arablc 
figura, to the pages of the text in tliis Tolume ; and the 8eoond,,to thoao of the aupplementary matter at 
tbe end of it. 

The namea of the half-hardy aod suflhitlcose orders and genera are in smail ^rpe. 


Crorr^acese. - cxxxL 


Plaiandce€B. - 




PUtme Tree, 

Balsamdce{B. - cxxxiL 

laquicUunbar L, - cxxxiL 

MyricdceiB* - 

Caa^beny Myrtle. 
Comptdnia Banks - 


CasttardcecB. - cxxxiL 

Casuariua - 


iB^phcdra L, • 


Tlaxus L. - 
Yeu» Tree. 

SaliBb^ria Sm. 

^- lapi. . 


- cxxxiii. 

- cxxxiii. 

. cxxxili. 

- cxxxiii. 

- cxxxiiL 

c«nl il. 

Ccv^ercB^ ar 

ndcecB, - i cxxxiiL 


Plnus L. - 

A^nes D. Dan 

Sprmce Ftr. 
i^eesL D. Don 

SOder Fir. 
lArix Toara. 


• oxxxm. 

- cxxxiiL 

- cxxxviL 

- cxxxTiiL 

- cxxxix. 



























C^drus Barrd. 

Arauc^ria A. ef P. •. 

Cunninghilmta R. Br. 

Dammara Rumph. - 


Amboyna Pine. 


rhi^a i. - 

Arbor Vitee. 
CdUitris Fent. 
Cupressus JL. 

Taxodium - 

Bedduotu Cyprett, 
Junlperus L, 


^mpetrdceiB, - 

£'mpetrum L, 

Corema D. Don 
CeratioU Mx. 

5biUax jL. 


.^8p6ragu5 X. 
126scus L. 

^ Butcher^t Broom. 
Yucca L. 

Adam*t Needte, 















Fauxaoia Karw. ct Zacc 
Uttm^a Brlff. 

AKttncon ^lotm 

H*w Zeaimid Plar. 
ChaiiiK^Popt £,. 

Di90if Piam Pttlm. 


A 2 







IV. IV. 

2402 2603 

2432 2603 

2447 2603 

2453 2605 


2464 2605 


2487 2605 







cxlv. 2521 

MonocotyleddneiE. cxlv. 2527 










Only the nameB of thoM generm ire given, onder which a new species or variety li Introdttcod. 
New genera are dlstingubhed by the sign of additioD, thuf -f ; and generic namea which havc bcen altered, 
by parallei linet, thos i|. 

Fart I. Of thb Uistort and Study of Obographt 
Pm II. Of the Science of the Study of Trbbs 




Part in. Arboretuh 

AND Fruticetuh Britannicum. 





I. ^ 











CoridcecB. - 







Cehgtrdcea. - 











+ Nandina 











riex L, 






















0x1 vL 





+ B^ititfa 









iS^i&rtium - 
(^enista - 









^ypdricum - 


0x1 vi. 
cxlviL . 



PHASaoYBiB. - 
















^ FUBd^Dec. 




















^ Oartma Sm. 
4. BortateSm. 







+ Cowiinia D. Don 

















1 StnmvaB^sta 
CoCone4rter - 















GraruUdc^B. - 



















+ Notdae^a 






























BignomkcevB. - 















EeocUlormcegR. - 



Scrophularidc&B. - 



EscaUdnta - 





















Flumbagindcere. • 



Hamameliddcea. - 



Chenopodidcea. - 
























Thymeldceoi. - 












ArisU^lochidcea. - 








£ttpAor6i^ceffi. - 






+ CVdton L. 
+ Addia L. 

















Juglanddcea. - 





Balsamdcea:, - 




























CuTAtfsSlVM. • 



FlaiandceiB. - 







App. I. Form of Return Paper ..... 2609 

App. II. List of Trees and Shnibs growing in Italy, with their systexnatic and 
popular Italian Names ..... 2610 

App. III. Prioed Catalogues of Trees and Shrubs, contributed by Britlsh and 

Continental Nurserymen - - - - -2617 

I. Catalogue of American and other Tree and Shrub Seeds, imported fbr Sale 

by George Charlwood - .... 261 8 

II. Catalogue of Forcst and Omamental Trees, American Plants, and Flower- 

ing Shrubs, sold by Richard Forrest .... 2620 

III. A List of Trees, Plants, &c. sold by Peter Lawson and Son, Edinbuigh 2626 

IV. Catalogue of Hardy Trees and Shrubs cultivated for Sale in the Nursery 

of the Brothers Baumann, at Bollwyller ... 2635 

V. List of Trees and Shrubs taken from the Retail Catalogue of James Booth 

and Sons, Hamburg - • ... 2646 


Index to Gencra, induding the English Names and scientific Synonymes 
Index to Miscellaneous Subjects ... 

Index to Persons and Places . . . . 

- 2655 

- 2667 

- 2672 










A^es 2>. £hn 




Garryacete - 

- cxxxii. 







- cxxxiii. 


Adaiii*8 Needle 




• cxxxiii. 



Amboyoa Pine 








HorseTail - 

- cxxxiii. 



Arauc4ria R.etP. . 




/unlperus X. - 




Arbor Vit« 




- cxxxix. 






Larix Towm. 

- cxxxix. 









BeUuundcea ~ 





- cxxxii. 



BMnbao ' ■ .' 




LlUa*o Brlff. 






ailitris Veni, 



Myrica L. - 

- cxxxiL 



Candleberry Myrtle 





' cxxxii. 






Ncv Zcolaiid riax • 

















Cedrus Barrei. 




Picea D. Don 

- cxxxviii. 







- cxxxiiL 



rhili*?ine 1 - 






- cxxxiiL 



Chinese Fir . 



Hnus L. - 

- cxxxiii. 






Pldtanus L. 




Comptoma Banks . 



Planc Tree - 








VlatandceiB - 




CartfM D. Dtm 



Podoctfrimi I.. 



Cimninghamui R. Br 



/26scus L. - 



CtqMrctsina - 




SAlisbdrta Sm. 

- cxxxiii. 


Cupr£ssiu L. ' 




Silver Fir - 

- cxxxviiL 










J>acrfiiam Sal. 



S^mHax L. 







Spruce Fir 

- cxxxvii. 



JJammara Rumph. - 





- cxxxiiL 



Deciduous Cypress - 






T^xus L. - 

- cxxxiiL 



A^mpotrBm L, 

f^phedra L. - 






Thuja L. - 


■ • 





Yew Tree 

- CXXXlll. 






yiicca L. - 




Only the munet of thoM genera we giren ander which a new ipecieB or variety is Introduced. 
New geDera «re dlitinguubed by^ tbe lign of addition, thus, + ; and generic namcs which have been alterrd^, 
by iiaranel linet* thui, H. 


+ Ad^iML. 




1. ^ 













- cxlviL 


4- AvMajrit 

• CXlTUi. 



- cxlvL 







- cxlvii. 




- cli. 






' .^rmeniaca 

•f BsptisU 


4- Uorteia Sm. 





Conifera § Ctqtrestina 
CotUfertB § Abietina 



+ Cowanta D. Don 



4> Cr6wea 8m. 
4- Ctoton L. 


+ Cyiilltf 





J^ndcete <• 




















/nex /.. 





luaurdceas - 




























































































































































+ LueMa SwU 

























































+ Poincb^ Dac. 





















+ Reamunkceai 



+ Reaumdria 



















































S^)4rtium • 












|( StranvaW 










































Ga^abtj Doufflas. Flowers uniBexiial ; those of the two sexes upon distinct 
plants. — Maie. Flowera in pendulous catkin-like racemes witnin connate 
bracteas. Calyx 4-leaved. Stamens 4. — Female ? Flowers in penduloua 
catkin-like racemes, within connate bracteas. Calyx connate with the 
OTary, 8-toothed. Ovary 1-ceIled. Stvles 2, setaceous. Ovules 2, pen- 
dulous, with iuniculi as long as themselves. Fruit a berried pericarp, not 
opening, containing 2 8eedi|. Embryo very minute, in the base of a j?reat 
mass of fleshy albumen. — Species, 1. A native of the west side of the 
dividing mountain range of North America, in temperate latitudes. A 
shnib. Leaves opposite, without stipules, persistent Wood without dis- 
tinct concentric zones, or vasiform tissue (dotted ducts). (Lindleyt Nai. 
Sytt. afBoiany^ p. 173.) 

Genus L 

QA"RRYA Doug. The Garrya. Lm. Syst. Dicecia Tetr^ndria« 

MaHffhaUom. Lindl. in Bot Reg., 1 16B6. 

Deri^aikm. Named by Mr. Douglas in omnpUment to Niekoiat Garrp, Bsq.t SccreUiy to the Hud- 

•on'1 Bay Com|MnT, to whoie Ktndnen and anistanoe he was much Indcbted during hia traTelt in 

North-weit America. 

Detcriptumy S^c. An evergreen shrub, with thick coriaceous leaves, like 
some spedes of evergreen vibumum. 

A I. O. BLLi^PTiCA Doug. The elliptic4pim«f Garrya. 

likn^ficaikm. Douc. MS. ; Lindl. Bot Reg., 1 1686. 
Engravfmgt. Bot Reg ., t IfiSa ; and our fig. 1951. 

Detcription, ^TC A shrub, hitherto seen only firom 3 ft. to 4 ft. high, but 
which will probably grow much higher. Branches, when young, pubescent 
and purplish ; when older» smooth and grevish. Leaves opposite, exstipu- 
late, wavT, on short footstdks, oblong-acute, leathery, evergreen ; dark ereen 
and shining above; hoary beneath, with simple, twisted, interwoven hairs. 
(LhuU.) This verv handsome true evergreen is a native o(^ North Caro- 
limiy wnere it was discovered by Douslas. It was introduced in 1828, and 
flowered for the first time, in the Chiswick Garden, in October, 1834. The 
Ibllowiug observations, abridged firom the Botamcal Regitter^ are by Dr. 
Lindley : — This plant is probaby the greatest botanical curiosity sent home 
by Douglas; for it appears to represent a natural order altogether distinct 
fifom any previously known, and connecting certain well-known natural orders 

♦6 Q 




in an unexpected and satisfactory manner. In its amen- 

taceous inflorescence, iraperfect flowersy superior calyx, 

and mode of germination, Garrya is very suniiar to Cu- igt? 

puliferae, froro which it difiers most essentialiy in its wood 

without concentric circles or dotted vewels, its opposite 

exstipulate leaves, simple fhiit, and minute embryo lying 

in a great mass of aibumen. The latter characters bring 

it near Piperacee and their allies, especially Chiorantheae, 

with which its zoneless wood (for Chloranthus has no 

annual sone8\ simpie fruit, and opposite leaves, also 

agree$ but toe scipuies of Chlohuitoese, together with 

its achlamydeaus bisexual flowers, and articuutted stems, 

distinctly separate that order." (Bot. Reg., t. 1686.) 

Oniy the maie plant of Qirrva elllptica is in the country. 

When in flower (which it is n^om December till April), the 

plant has a most striking and graceful appearance, from 

its slender pendulous uitkins, many of which are 8 in. to l ft. in length. It 

was at first grown in peat, but appears to prefer a loamy soil. It is readily 

increased by layers; and by cuttmgs in sand under a hand-glass. Plants, in 

the FuUuuD NuTBery, in 1837, were 21«. each. 



Pla^tanus Toum, Flowers unisexual; those of the two sexei upon one 
plant, and those of each sex dbposed many together, and densely, in 
globular catkins, that are sessile upon pendulous rachises, 2 generally upon 
a rachis ; the flowers of each sex upon a separate rachis, produced from a 
separate bud. — Catkin of male flowers constituted of minute, rather fleshy, 
persistent bracteas, and of deciduous stamens. Filaments very short, 
situated between the bracteas, and of about their length. Anthers of 
2 cells, longer than the fiiament ; attached longitudinally to a connectivum, 
which is broader than the filament, and has a peltate tip. — Catkin of female 
flowers constituted of bracteas and pistils. Pistils numerous, approxi- 
mately pairs. Ovary of 1 cell, including 1 — 2 pendulous ovules. Stigmas 
2, long, thread-shaped, glanded in the upper part. Fruit a utricle, densely 
coverra with articulated hairs, includine 1 pendulous, oblong, exalbuminous 
seed.-— Species, about 4. Natives of the temperate zones of the eastem 
and western hemispheres. Tall trees. Leaves altemate, palmate, annual; 
their margins revolute in the bud. Leaf-bud covered with a conical enve- 
lope; and unmersed, in the prectding year, in the base of the petiole. (T, 
Neet ab Ettenb. Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ., and observation.) The young shoots, 
leaves, and stipules are thickly covered with down, which as soon as they 
become fully expanded is cast off, and, floating in the atmosphere, is inhaled 
by gardeners and others who have occasion to be much among the trces, 
and produces a cough which is extremely disagreeal^Ie, and is not got rid 
offorseveral weeks. The inconvenience ari&ing from this down, Michaux 
informs us, is well known in America, and it has been long faniiliar to 
French nurserymen. M. Ch. Morren, Professor of Botany at the Uni« 
versity of Liege, gives an account of it in the Tratuactiont of the Royal 
Academy of Brusseis, under the title of ** Note sur rEffet pernicieux du 
Duvet du Piatane;" the only preventive which he mentions is the ob- 
vious one adopted by M. Henriurd, nurseryman at Lie?e, viz., that of co* 
vering the nose and the mouth with a handkerchief of fine gauze. (See 
p. 2015., and UEcho du Monde Savant, Jan. 6. 1838.) 


i>LATAlfA'cKJt. i>I.&'TANUS. 
Obnos I. 

i^LATANUS £. Thi Planb Tbbb. Lin. Sytt. MoWda Polrindria. 

. Uo. Oa, IDTA^RdclL, 1173.1 Sehnh, lUl.; OHtiL.t 90. j TMirm., LKS. ; Juk, 

)\b lUnalon (o IM •pmidliii bnuMliH ■nil iludf flillw. !%■ 
«rBlwnHbiI>pH*d,taSBtlBid, toiUia ..Tcst PHilda.riiluiu (•ttp.tlt.)i pnbtblj 
m tbe Fnndh, ■candlna to Puklnm, llni uU«d thit thc plua trw, nmii tlw d^UiIh o/ 
IMIiilk «Ib AndM, Ihai tba ImadBHi at lu lem, tlut II wu Ibe plint tng iif th* lodenti. 

Dacription, ^c. Loftj deciduouB treea, with widel]' spreadiiig bmDches, 
dense foUagc, and hark eadiag off in hHrd irregulBr patchei. NatiTes of the 
eaat of Europe, weat of Asia, and north of Africa, and o{ North Americii. 
In Britain, they are chiefl; planEed fbr omament, and they nicceed in any free 
nxnat soil, in a aheltered »tuation. They are reailily propagated bj lajera, 
OT ereti by cuttingB, and Bometiniea bv seeds. The ceiue of the blhng off of 
the berkiDr. Lindlej states to be the rigidit; of its tisBue ; 

which it is incanable of stretching 

meter. (Ifat. Syit., ed. 

8., p. 187.) There are 

onlj two speciea intro* 

duocd into EuTope ; one 

of which, P. onentUia, 

u fbund to be hardier 

increase* in di». 

though the latter growk 

iDore r^idlj, attains a 

la^er sue, aiid maj be 

piopagated nuch more 

reodilj bj cuttings. Both 

speciea ripen leeds ia 
BritaiD, in fine Eeasona. P. ocddentalis is readilj known from P, orientilia, 
in thc winter season, bj its bark scaling off much lesa freelj, or, in ^oung or 
iniddle«zed trees, scarcelj at all ; and, iu the Biunmer season, by its leaves 
bdng but slightW lobed(seej^. 1958. a), instead of beiogpalmate like thoie 
of P, occideutiUs, as showa in /ig. lUfiS. b ; and bj its globular catkins, or 
balls, BS th^ are commonly call^, btdng nearlj smooth, while those of P, 
orienUdia Brerough. The appearauceofthese CBlkins.or balis, hanging &om 
the tree bj iong tbreadB, in winter, when it is without leave*, is pet^liarlj 
graceful ; whether they hang f^m the pcrpendicular or from the horizontal 
bianchM (see JlgM. 1953. ond 19M.); remmding ua of the divi ladner of 
Cejlo», the TabmifemontW nltemiKiIia of botaniats (fig. 1 964.) ; which, tt 
isbbled,wBS the fbriiidden fruit of Faradise. (8ee Jkfi^. .Vn^ /&f., vol. i 

1 ungular fiic^ that many of the large tr 
■e especially in Eng' " ' ■" " 

_ _. _. . ^ n of P. occidentilis 
kngland, were *o far i^jured bj a frost in Maj, 
!809, tbat thej have since died. 

1 l. P. L. The Oriental Plane. 

U«U1fltal*m. Wim*Pl.*.p.«3-i Hort,CT(r.,t4T.i RoTLuidb..78.iH«rt,, Il.,«T.( 
fCrlTfiZIZZ. «• . aiii A^ «n I . Hnrt. KtW; 3. Jt.**j N> "" H»m., 3. f. 1. 

ratjlg. tsM. , taa 

Dt.eni iBu.i5m*.,Ko.I.j Hort. Km.S. jMet ; I 
„ FiUtBiu «tcalUU Tinu Fart. matT.,iai., Dm 
lont, A'.i UornnlindlicherFlmCuiuLCer. 1 Doolb, ,<raWc i CI 

«i. DnHwn. AitL,tSS.l K. Dn ttim.,S. 1 1. 1 D.™!, BriL, 

piwiotllitivwlMlnourlHtVoluiDK In A laMa ilio" the I 

^Kc. Char.,^e. Leavee fi4obed, pahnate, wedge.«haped at the baae; the 
divisions lanceolate, ainuated. Sdpulea newlj entire. (Wiiid.) A tree, 
growxng to theheight of from 60 ft. to 80ft.i a uative of theLevant; 




flowering in April and May, and, in some seasons, in England, ripening its 
seedfl in October. Cultivated in British gardens before 1548. 


1t P. o. 2 BcerifdSa Ait. Hort. Kew., iii. p. 364. ; P. o. il^ceris fc^lio Taum, 

Cor.y 41., Arb.y 2. ; P. acerifSlia WUld. Sp. PL, iv. p. 474s ; P. inter- 

mddia Hart.; the Maple-leaved 

Plane Tree (see the plate of this 

tree in our last Volume) ; has the 

leaves cordate, 5-lobed, remotely 

dentate, truncate at the base. 

( WtUd.\ In ffeneral appearance, 

habit of growUi, and every other 

pardcular, it closely resembles 

the species. The leaves on the 

trees in the Horticultural So- 

ciety's Garden, and at Messrs. 

Loddiges'8, are, perhaps, not 

qiiite so large; and they are 

somewhat like those of the sugar 

maple. Therearevigorousyoung 

trees in the Horticultural So- 

dety^s Garden ; and a fine speci- 

men in the grounds of A. Sdvin, 

Esq., at Finchle^, of which a 

portrait is given m our last Vo- 

5 P. o. 3 Mspdnica; P, hisp4nica 

Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; P. macro- 

phyila Cree in Don Cat.; the 

Spanith Maple; has the leaves 

rather longer than those of the 

species, but is in other respects 

the same. 
5 P. o. 4 cunedta ; P. o. unduiata Ait. 

Hort. Kew.y iii. p. 364 ; P. cu- 

neata WiUd. Sp. Pl., iv. p. 473., 

Baumucht, p. 283.; and the plate l 

of this tree m our last Volume ; \, 

has the leaves 3 — 5-lobed, den- 

tate, and wedge-shaped at the 

base; somewhat glabrous. {WiUd.) This is a stunted-looking low 

tree, or bush, seldom seen above 20 ft. in height, with small deeply 

cut leaves. It may be usefiil in small gardens, or miniature arbo- 

retums, as affording a specimen of the genus. There is a young 

tree of tliis kind in the Horticultural Society'8 Garden, of which the 

plate in our last Volume is a portrait 
Olher Farieiiet might be selected from beds of seedlings, if it were thought 
worth while to keep them distinct ; and, if a pendulous-branched or fastigiate 
plane could be procured, or one subevergreen, in point of variety they 
would be acquisitions. 

Detcription, 4rc. The Oriental plane is one of the noblest trees of the East, 
where it grows to the height of 70 ft. and upwards, with widely spreading 
branches and a massive trunk ; forminf altogether a majestic tree. The bark 
of the trunk is smooth, and of a whitish grey ; scaling off every year in laree 
irregular patches. The branches are numerous, round, and generally a litUe 
crooked, or zigzag, at the joints ; the bark of the young shoots is brown, 
inclming to purpie. The leaves are lai^ge, alternate, and on long petioles, 
which are swelled at the base, and cover the buds : they are cut into five deep 


pmnted lobei, or n^menl 
the 6ve \arge lobca nave i 

itB, the ti 

^ o outer of whiefa are again ■lightly lobed ; 

the 6ve lai^ lobea ^ave numeroua acute iadentationB on their margins, and 
have each a atrong midrib, with many lateral veina apreading from it ; the 
npper aur&ce is ^broua, and of a shiDing green j and the under auiface 
paler, and slightly tomentose 
at the anglea of the veim. 
The flowera are produced in 
globular cetkina, from two to 
five on an axillary [leduncle, 
which is Botnetimea 6 in. long i ', 


kint. Theae catkini 
VBiy very much ir 

\ J:.4-i' 

,or balU, 

n drcumte- 
rcnce, and sotnetimea not quite { 
lin. Theflowersaresosmall 
•■ to require a elaw ' 
dDguish them. The bslls ap- 
pear before the leavea, r- 
apring ; and the Eeeds, io fine 
seasona, ripen hite in autumn; the ballB remainins on the tree till tbe fol- 
towing ^rmg ; and, whm they open, the bristly down wbich BurroundE the 
■eeds, helps to convey them to a distance. The seeds, when d^rived of their 
down, are browD, linear, smaller thau thoae of the lettuce, and quite bb U^t ; 
Cobbett describes the aeed of the pbine tree as " a little brown thing, in the 
eb»pe of a round nail without a head." The growth of the plane is very rapid ; 
j^oung Crees, in die climate of London, under favourable circumstancea, attain- 
mg tae height of 30ft. io ten yearH, and arriving ot the heieht of 60fl. or 
70 ft. in 30 years. The longevity of the tree wos supposed, b^ the ancienU, 
to be considerable ; hut there are very few old trees in Bntsin. One of 
llie oldest is that aull eiisting at Lee Court, in Kent, which was mentioned 
by Evelyn, in 1883, as one of the oldeet introduced into thia country, aod as 
being celd)rated both for its age and its magnitude. (8ee Recorded Trta.') 
8ome of the targeat trees in the neighbourhood of LondoD are at Mount 
Grove, Hsmpstead, where thev are between 70 ft. aud 60 fl. in height. The 
ftd 3 


Urgeat we kaowof, howeTer, (of which^. 1957. ig a portnit, takeo in Mbj, 
1837,) stsnds in the groundi ot Lanibeth Palace, adjoining a magnificeDt 
■pecimen of P. occidentUia ; it ia 90 ft. higb, with a truok 4 fl. 6 in. in di»- 
meter. The pUtaaus, when of not more than SO or 60 yean' growtfa, atolea 
readilf when cut down to the grouud, and, when ao treated, wiU make Bhoota 
iu one aeaaon of 6 ft. or S fl., or eren more, in length. 

Get^raphy, The Orientid plane is a native of Oreece, and of other parta 
of tbe Lmnt : it ia found in Aaia Minor, and Penia, wfaere, acc<vdiniE to 
Royle, it extendH u hi «outfa aa Caihniere. (^llltal,) AcconUog to FWH, 
it ifl doubtful wbether it is indigenoos to Oeorgia, tbou{^ tbere are treea of it 
there, with trunka 1 ! ft. in drcumference, and of a great hdght. On Hount 
Caucaius, it ia not muc^ hicber than a shrub. It ia found oa the coaat of 
Barbar^, ai it is in the bouUi of Italy, and in Bidly ; but ia probably not in- 
digenoiis to those countries. (See livtoty.) On Homit Etna, it i* found aa 
b^ B8 2000 f^ above the level of the sea. It ia not a gregaiious tree, lehkKn 
•rowing in eitbnsive maasea; and the inviduals, when of liage Biie,are alwaya 
found oQ plains, Hnd in a ligbt deep aoil, not br froin water. Olivio- tella us 
that it is common on tbe lunka of the riTulela in Greece, in tbe islands of 
the Archipelago, snd on tbe coaat of Asia Minori but he never found it of 
a large size, except in good soil near water. 


IBtlory, The platanus is celd)rated in the earlieat records tliBt ne hvtt of 
GredBn history. Herodotua tella ua that Xerxea, when he inraded Oreecf^ 
WM K) eDcbanted with n beaudfid pleme tree that he found in Lfcia, that he 
eDcircled it with a collar of gold, and confided the charge of it to one of tba 
Ten TbouauKL £li«n ndds to thia, that Xerxea pasaed ha eatire day under 
ita Bhadc^con^eUinghia whole amiy to encamp in ite neigbbourtiood ; andthat 
the del^ thu occanoned wu one of the cauwa of his defeat. ETelni adda, 
from the wne author (vix. iBlian), that Xersea became so fbnd of tnis tne, 
" that, sp«Mling both himseli^ his concubines, and great peraana of all thdr 
jewela, he covered it with gold, gema, necklacea, st^s, bracelets, and infinite 
ricbea. In eato, he was so cnamoured of it, that, for some daja, neither the 
ooDcenunent of hia eipedidon, nor int^eat of honour, nor the neceaaai^ 
DKrtioa of hii pcMtentous army, could persuade him from it He stvled it fais 
nMtreaa, his mmion, hi« goddess ; and,when he was forced to part Irom it,he 
caused a figure of it to b« stamped on ■ medal of gold, which he coatinually 
woce about faim." {Hmt. Evel, ii. p. 52.) PauBaniaa (a. d. 170) mentions 
a piane tree of extraordinarv BJie and beautj in Arcadia, which waa aaid to 
hare beenplanted bj Blenelaus, the husband of Helen, and to have been, at 
the tiflM Kuiaanial saw ic, 1300 y eara old. According to the sBme author, 
tfae Lacedemoiuana gave die name of Fiataniste to an island ia the Leraat, 
connectod bi two btidges with tfae Morea, which was covered with pEane 
troes, and wuere the young men uBed to perform their eierciaea. Same of 
theaetrees,)tissaid, stillexist. It was in this ialBnd, accorduu to Theocritus, 
tbat the Aowera were gathered of whicb HeleD's weddins garUnd waa com- 
poaed, on the dayof her ai^tials with Menelaus. We are alao told that, 
m At time of Fliny, tha peasants in Phry^ showed a plane tree, whicb tbej 


iffinned wu the tree agaiiut whiGh Harsyw mu hanged up when he wm 
flayed by Apollo. Plane treea were planted near all tLe public ■choola in 
Athens. The grovee of Epicurus, in which Amtotle taught his peripatetic 
discipiet; the shady wbIIeb planted near the OymnaMa, and otoer public 
buildingi of Atheiu; and tbe groves of Academus, in which Plato dehvered 
his celefarated discourses; were all fonned of this tree. Socrates swore bj' 
the plane tree; ftod this was one of the thin^ whicb o&ended Melitue, who 
tboueht it a great crime to ewear by ao beautiKil a tree. Pliny infonns us that 
the plane was first btought from the EaM, over the lonian S», into the Istand 
of Diomedes, for e oionument to tliat bero. Thence it passed into Sidly, 
where DionymuBtheelderpJBntedit in his garden at Syracuse.about 400 b.c; 
Bnd thii garden, in after times, became a place of exercise for youths. Soon 
after the pJane tree was planted in Sicily, it was introduced into Ilaly, and 
thence, Pliny adds, into the country of the Morini, a mBritime people <rf 
Gaul, who paid a tnbute to the Romans for permission to er^oy its shade. 
Dionysius the eeographer compores the form or the Morea in the Levant, 
tbe andent Peraponnesus, to the leaf of thia tree; and Pliny makes the 
ume remsrk in aliuaion to ita numerous bays. To illuitrate this compBrison, 
Hartyn, in his Virgii (vol. ii. p. 149.), dves a figure of the plane tree leaf 
(see Jtg. 1956. a), and a map of the Morea (/g. 1598. b). The Romans 

nel a high value on the plane, and planted iheir public and academic watks 
wtth it. Vitruviua aava that they planted plane treea to shade and re- 
fresh the palsstritE (lib.v. c.ll.); and "Claudius Perrault haa assiated 
the text witb a figure, or ichnographical plot. These trees the HomsnE," 
continues Evelyn, " fint brought out of the Levant, and cultivated wilb ao 
much industry and cost, for their stately and proud heads only, that the great 
oratars and atstesmen, Cicera and Hortensiua, would exchange now and [hen 
m tum at ifae bar, that they might bave the pleasure to step to tlidr villas, and 
refre*h tbdr platans, which they would often irrigate with wine instead of 
water : Crevii et affato laHaT umhra raero." (Hunt. Evel., ii. p. 55.) " Much 
haa been said," obeervea Pliny, " of the piane trees in the Lyceum at Athens, 
of which the roots extended even larther than the branches. There is now 
hi Lycia a lamoua plane tree, on the public road, near a very cold fountain. 
This tree is in itself a foreit ; its branches are as Isrge and ttuck as trees, and 
tbey cover an immetiae eitent of ground with thw shade. The trunk of thia 
tree, which b Slfl. in circumference, is hollow, and has inside numeraus 
stoncs covered with mosa. This tree was such a favourite with Liciniua 
HuciaauB, three timea govemor of the province of Lyda, tliat he thought it 
worth while to hand down to posterity, that he had eaten in this holtow tree, 
orgTDtto, with eighteen peraona, who had, fbr couches or cushions to recline 
on, only the leaves of the trec Uarge ipta Ujrot pnebenle Jronde) ; that the 
thicknesa of the foliage aheltered them from a heavy shower of rain ; and ttiat 
he (thc govemor) enjoyed more pleasure during his repast in this tn», than 


he had erer done in his most magnificent marble saloon." (Plbu, lib. xiL c. I.) 
** The emperor Caligala found, near Velitr», an eztraordinary plane tree. It 
had 8ome of it8 branches formed like a roof, and others aa seats. In this 
aaloon the emperor gave a supper to fifteen persons, which he called the Feast 
of the Nest, because it had been given in a tree {Quam c€Bium appellavU iUe 
mdum)»* (Id,) Pliny also speaks of a tree in Arcadia, which, he says, waa 
planted by Agamemnon ; and he states that canoes, and other vessels for the 
aea, were formed of the excavated trunks of the plane tree. Cicero mentions 
the plane tree as well calculated to afford a thick shade, by the extent of its 
branches, and the thickness of its foliage. 

The chinar, or Oriental plane tree, has been cultivated in Persia from the 
earliest period ; and Evelyn states that '* a worthy knigbt, who staid at Ispahan 
when that famous city was infected with a ragins pestilence, told" him '* that, 
since they have planted a greater number of tbese noble trees about it, the 
plague has not come nigh their dwellings." (Huni. EveL, ii. p. 56») In the 
Dtctkmnaire det Eaux el ForiUy the same observation is attributed to the 
Chevalier Chardin, who was probably the " worthy knight" alluded to by Eve« 
iyn. This ^entleman, who was also calied Sir John Chardin, and who published 
a folio edition of his travels, written in French, in London, in 1686, observes of 
the gardens of the Persians, that they are generally divided in the middle by an 
avenue of chinar trees ; and that, as tlie Persians do not use their gardens for 
walking in, but as a place for sitting in and breathing tbe fresh air, tliev generally 
seat themselves unuer these trees. Sir Robert Ker Porter found the Persian 
gardens intersected by avenues of plane trees in difierent directions ; and 
Morier, Colonel Johnson, and Sir William Ousely, agree in attributing to 
thrai this characteristic, and in describing the Persians as preferring the chinar 
as a tree to worship under. Sir Wiliiam Ousely mentions that on these treea 
the devoteea sacnfice theur old clotlies by hanging them to the branches ; 
and that the trunks of favourite chinar trees are commonly found studded 
with rusty nails and tatters; the clothes sacrificed being lefl nailed to the 
tree till they drop to pieces of themselves. 

In Frasei^s Hittancal and LfetcripUve Account ofPersia, published in 1834, 
when speaking of the general efiect of the scenery in Persia, the author says : 
** No trees gladden the landscape, except the tall poplar, or the stately chmar 
(Pl&tanus orientalis), which rise above the hovels of the peasants; or the fruit 
trees of their orchardis ; or, perhiqps, a few of other sorts which may have been 
planted on the marein of a watercourse, to supply the little timber required : 
and these, dotting tne wide plain with their dark foliage, conv^ to the mind 
a melancholy, ra£er than cheering, impression." (p. 28.) 

The Oriental plane tree appears to have been introduced into England about 
the middleof the sixteenth century; asTurner says, in his Herball (the first 
part of which was published under the title of the Namet of Herbet^ aa early 
as 1541, though the entire work was not finished till 1568): ** I have seene 
two very yons trees in England, which were called there Plajrn trees; 
whose leaves m all poyntes were lyke unto the leaves of the Itaban Playn 
tre. And it is doubtles that these two trees were either brought out of 
Italy, or of som farr countre beyond Italvi whereunto the fiieres, monks, 
and chanons went a pilgrimage." Qenrd does not mention having seen 
the Oriental plane growing in England ; but he tells us that his '* servant, 
William Marshall, whom he sent into the Mediterranean Sea, as surgeon unto 
tbe Hercules of London, found divers trees hereof growing in Lepanto, hard 
by the sea side, at the entrance into the towne, a port of Morea, being part 
of Greece; and firom thence brought one of these rough buttons, being the 
fiiiit thereof." (HerbaU, p. 1489.) Jonson, in liis edition oi Gerard^ adds to 
this passase, that Mr. Tradescant had then (1633) trees of this plane growing 
in his garden ; but, according to Martyn's MiUer^ this is evidentlv a mistake, 
the trees in Tradescant^s garden being the Occidental plane, which was intro- 
duced by him about this period. In Parkinson's Theatruni Botaiucum^ pub- 
lished in 1640, both the Eastem and Western plane trees are figured ; and the 


latter vb said to have been introdaced by Tradescant. The introduction of 
the Eastern plane was, in Afiller^a time, generally attribnted to Lord Bacon, 
who, howeyer, was not bom till 1561, about 20 years after the first mention of 
the tree by Turner. The origin of tSiis supposition is probably the statement, 
by Evelyn, that Lord Bacon ** planted a noble parou of them at Verulam, 
which were very flourishing," and which, as Martyn remarks, mi^t have been 
the first of any note planted in Bn^suid. Evelyn says ** that he owed a 
hopefiil pbmt/' then crowing at his own villa, ** to the late Sir George Crook 
of Oxfordshire ;" and he speaks of the tnie, or Orientfd, plane" as being more 
common in England, in his dme, than the American piane ; the reverse of 
which, it may be observed, is now tbe case ; the Ocddental plane bdng easily 
propagated by cuttings, and growing much more rapidly than the (hientai 
pUme. In France, the Oriental plane was introduced from Endand, in the 
reign of Louis XV., about 1754 ; and it is valued there, as in Engbmd, only 
as an omamental tree. 

PoeHctd AUunont. Hbmer firequently mentions ^ the shady plane ;" Theo- 
critus tells us th^t the virsins of Sparta used to assemble round a plane tree, 
singing, ^ Reverence me^ K>r I am tiie tree of Heten I " and Moschus sa^rs, — 

** I lov« tosleepb«i«ath a letiy pbDe." 

Among the Latms, Virgil cails it the sterile, and the aerial plane, in allusion 
to its not bearine eat&le fruit, and to its height ; and Horace invites Hir- 
pinus to drink Fslernian wine under its shade. Ovid, also, calls it ^ the genial 
plane." Among the oldest English poets we find no allusion to this tree; 
but Browne mentions 

** The hemvy Jieaded nlane tree, bj whoie thade 
The gnpe growi tiuckeit, men are ftesher madc.'* 

Among the modem British poets, Southey says, — 

** And broed-lesTed plene treee hi loDg onlonnedM 
0*erarch*d delicfatAiI w^ks, 
Where round their trunfci the thoasaQd.tendrtt'd vlne 
Wound up» and hung the bougfaa wlth sreener wreatha, 
And dueten not their own.^* nalaha. 

Moore, in the VeUed Prophet of Khora$$anf calls it the chinar tree : — 

** Whlle iome, Ibr war'i move terriMe attadu^ 
Wleld the huge mace and pond*rouf battle.4xe ; 
And, at they wave aloft in Homingli beam 
The milk-whlte plumage of thdr hdmi, chey eeem 
Like a dilnar tree grove wheo Winter throws 
0*er dl ite tufted heade hia featherlog inowe.'* 

And again, in Paradite and the Peri : — 

** Though cunny the lake of cod Caahmere, 
Withite plane tree Ide reilected Uiere." 

Propertie$ and U$et, The Oriental plane, in a wild state, as iar as we know, 
supports few or no insects; and stiii fewer lichens or fungi live on its bark, 
because that is condnually scaling off. Very little use is made of the wood 
in the west of Europe; but in the Levant, and in Asia, it is said to be used 
in carpentry, joinery, and cabinet-makin^; and, according to Riocioli, who 
wrote m 1651, it was then employed in ship-builcUng by the Turks. It is said 
to make beautifiil fiutiiture, on account of the smoothness of its ^tun, and 
its susceptibility of taking a high polish. Olivier says that its wood is not in* 
ferior for cabinet-work to any wood of Europe ; and that the Persians employ 
no other for dieir fiumiture, their doors, and their windows. (TVov., i. p. 76.) 
The Greeks of Mount Athos, accordin^ to Belon, formed boats out of the 
trunks of large trees of this species, shnilar to those which are used in modem 
times on the Somme and on the 8eme, in France. Sometimes, also, boats 
were made of two trunks hollowed out, and joined to^ether so aa to fit, and 
be water-tight. The wood of the Oriental plane, accordme to the experiments 
of M. Hassenfratz, weighs, when dry, 49 Ib. 3oz. per cubic foot: it is of a 
yellowish white tiil the tree attains considerable ag|e; after which it becomes 
brown, mixed with jasper-like veins ; and wood of tms kind, being rubbed with 


oilt and then higfaly poliahedy reaanbles the wood of the wahiut. In Britain, 
as far 88 we know, tne wood of the Oriental plane has scarcdy been applied 
to any purpose either nseful or omamental ; though for both it may be 
claned, as Marahall Bogguts, with that of the A^et Pseikdo-PULtanus ; or, 
accordine to Knne French authors, with that of the beech or the hombeam. 
Bj the Persianay and by the Greeki and Romans, as we have idready seen, 
the tiee, in a growing state, was greatiy esteemed for ita shade, and was pkmted 
near houaes, in open groves, avenues, and rows, for tliat purpoBe. Plhiy 
aflirms that diere ia no tree whataoever that defends ua so well firom the heat 
of the 8un in Bummer, or that admitB it more kindly in winter. Both pro- 
perties resnlt firom the large aixe of ita leaves : in summer, theae present 
noriiontal imbricated maBses, wliich, while they are favourable to die passage 
of the breezey yet ezdude both die sun and the rain ; while, as the distance at 
which the brancbes and twks of trees are from one anodier, is always pro* 
portionate to the size of the leaves, hence the tree, in winter, is moie ttian 
usually opea to thesun^s ra^rs. Asan omamental tree, no one, which attains so 
kuve a sixe, has a finer appeanmce, standing sing^y, or in small gronps, upon 
a uiwn, wfaere there is room to allow its lower branches, which stretch them- 
selves horiaontally to a considerable distance, gracefolly to bend towards the 
ground, and tum up at their eztremities. The pecuhar characteristic of the 
tree, indeed, is the combmation wliicfa it presents of muesty and gracefuhies8 ; 
an ezpression which is produoed by the massive, and vet open and varied 
character of its head, tne bending of its bninches, and their featherinff to 
the ground. In this respect, it is greatly superior to the lime tree, which 
comes nearest to it in the generai character of the faead ; but which fomw 
a mnch more compact and lumpish mass of foliage in summer, and, in winter, 
is so crowded with branches and spray, as to prevent, in a great measure, tlw 
sun from penetrating through them. The head of the plane tree, during sun- 
shine, often abounds in what painters call flickering li^ts ; the conseqnenoe 
of the branches of the head separating themselves into what may be caHed hori* 
aonttd undukdn^ strata, or, as it is called in artistical phraseologyy tuftmg, 
eanly put in motion by the wind, and through openinffs in which the rays of tSe 
sun penetrate, and stnke on the foliage bdow. The tree is by no means so 
Buitable for an extensive park, or fbr imitations of forest scenery, as most 
others ; but, fit>m its mila and gentie expresdon, tts usefiilneBs for shade 
in summer, and fi>r adznitting the sun in winter, it is peculiarly adapted for 
pieasure-grounds, and, where there is room, for planting near liouses and build- 
mgs. For the latter purpose, it is particularly well adapted even in winter, 
from the cok>ur of the bark of the tnink, wliich has a gieyish white tint, not 
unlike the colour of some kinds of fireestone. The colour of the foliage, 
in dry soil, is also of a dull greyish green ; which, receiving the light in nume- 
rous horizontal toftings, readil^ harmonises with the colour of stone wails. It 
appears, also, not to m much mjured by smoke, since there are trees of it <^ 
considmble size in the very heart of London : one,fbr example, in GheapBide. 
Soiiy SUutdkm^ Propagaiion, ^e. A lu^ht deep free soil, moist, but not wet 
at bottom, is that on wnich Uie OrientaTplane tree thrives best; and the situ- 
ation should be sheltered, but, at the same time, not shaded or crowded by 
oUier tiees. It wiU scarcely grow in strong days, and on devated ezposed 
^aces ; nor will it thrive m places where the lime tree does notprosper. 
The plane tree may be propagated by seeds, layers, or cutdngs. The seeds 
should be gatfaered in October or November ; and, the balls being broken by the 
hand, or by threshing with a flail, the seeds may be separated from thdr husks, 
and deaned by the usual processesy and dther sown immediatdy, or mixed 
with sand, or fine aandv soil, and preserved in a place secure fifom firost till 
FdMruary or March. Tne seeds may also be kept in the balls, or catkins, 
till spring; dther by dlowing them to hang on tiie tree, or by sadiering them 
in autumn, and spreading them out in a dry loft. The general practice is to 
aow the seeds in autumn, or as soon as gathered, or recdved from the Con- 
tinent; choosing a moist rich sofl, and a shady situationy and covering them 


as lightly as those of the birch or alder are covered, or beatug them in with 
the back of the spade, and not covering them at all; and protecting the beda 
with litter of some sort, to exclude the frost. (See p. 1685.) The plants wtlL 
come up the foUowing spring^and, after two years' growth, will be fit for trans- 
planting into nurserv lines, there to undergo the usual routine of nursery 
culture. (SeeP.occidentaliSyPropa^a^an^Ctti^tfre.^ CuttingsoftheOrientfd 
plane, put in in autumn, in a sandy soil, and in a shady situation, will root» but 
by no means readiiy ; and, therefore, tlus method is never resoited to by nur- 
serymen. Layers soonest produce saleable plants; and this mode is almost 
umversally adopted, both in Britain and on the Continent. Layers may be 
made either in autumn or spring : they root freely, produdng shoots 3 ft. or 
4 ft. in length the first year ; and they are ready to be taken off the foUowing 
autumn. After being one year in the nursery lines, they may be removed to 
where they are finaliy to remain ; but,if they are to be planted as single trees, 
and seperately fenced, they should be kept in the nursery dU they are 15 ft. 
or 20 n. high ; care being taken to transplant them every year, and to prune 
their heads in proportion to ihe losses sustained by their roots in trans- 
planting. Trees so treated wiU seldom fiul when removed to their final situ- 
ation ; but, if there should be any doubt of this, it roav be removed, by cutting 
off the greater number of side branches fi^om the head, shortening the ieading 
shoot, and coating the wounds over with a composition, to exclude the air. 

SlatitHcu Beeorded Trees. In ■dditton to the renuirluble treet recorded bj the Oreek end 
Bonan authon (tee p. 90S7.)» the foDowlDg manr be notioed as bsTing flourisbed in more modem 
timei. Haiieiquiit mentionf a plane tree In uie icLdnd of Cot (now Stancbio), the circumference 
of tbe trunk of which waa S5| Britisb feet He brought a specimeii of the tree to LtnnBUf; 
«od U \» now in tbe Linnmn herbarlum. The celebrated plane tree at Buyukdtee» or the Oreat 
VaUey, is mentioned by Oitvier, and. aAer him,by PocqueviPe, HobhouM^ and varlous other writcn. 
(Mivier says that the trunk preMnts tbe appcarance of? or 8 treee, baving a oommon origin, whidi 
he •oppoM to iM the ttool of a deca ved tree, and which were ali ctmnected at their baw. Dr. 
Wami, whomeasured the tree in 18^1» found tbe trunk 111 (t. in circumference at tbe base, and its 
branches covering a space 190 ft. in diameler. The tnink, be says, **divides into Ubrancbes, some ot 
which issue ftom bdow tlie present surfaoe of the soil, and some do not divide till they rise 7 ft. or 
8 ft. above it One of tbe hugest is boUowed out by fire^ and alR>rds a cabin to shelter a husband. 
man. The tree, if it can be considered a single pUint. is cert&inly the largest in the world. Among 
oUmt travdle» who notlce it is a Frendiman wbo dcscribes it, witb some tnith, as ' un tcmple de 
verdure, surmont^ d*un dAme pr&t k toucher les nues.* Wheo the Turks encamp in tbis valley, the 
hoUow of this great tree afibrds a magnifioent tent to the seraskier who oommands them, witn all 
hls offioera. But what renders the trce an bbJect of more tban usual interest is, that 11 De CandoUe 
coqjectures that it must be more tban fiOOO yeara old. Tliough it has beoome such an object of ad^ 
miratton to recent travellen, Oillles takes no notioe of it, nor even Toumefort, whose botanical pur- 
Buits woohl naturaUy have led him to do aa'* (Reeidenee te ConeianUnople^ ftc) Near Noettasa, the 
StAnm of the andents, on the beach of the stream Seiinus, HoUiottse fbund ** the enormous plane 
tree which was notorious in the time of Chaodler. One of its largest branches, as thick as the trunk 
of most trees, has lately fUlen off} and many of the olher bougbs are suppoited by long beams of 
wood.*' (Jonns. qf JVapet» im Albama, p. 299.) The same tree is described by Buckingham as being 
ISft. in diameter, and 100 it in heigbt, and as being covered with rich and luxuriant foliage. Tbe 
plane tree at Lee Coitrt is menttoned by Evelyn as baving been seeo by him on Septcmber 16. 168SL 
A portrait of this tree was puUished liy Strott, in bls SMoa Britamnka, n, 112. Tne cbcumferenoe 
ot tbe trunk, wben measured by Mr. Strutt, was 14 ft. 8 in. at 6 ft. ftom the ground ; the hefght was 
66 ft. ; and it oootained 901 cublc feet of timber. In Uanning and Bray*» Surrev,r6L iiL p. ia&, 
•everai laige Oriental planesarementioned asgrowtns at the seat of ^ William Temple^ at Moor 
Parlc, near Farnham ; but, being afterwards destroyed by ttie severe frost of 1806 and 1809, it is moro 
than probable Uiey were OoddenUl planen Dr. WaUier menttons several huge plane trees as exisf. 
ing in Sootland in 1777 : using tbe term sycamore, at that time generaUy appUed to the phitanus in 
Sootland. One of the largest was in the Isle of Bute, at Mount Stewart j where, on tbe Ist of Sep. 
tember, 1786, thetrunk measured 6 ft. 10 in. in drcumferenoe at 4 ft. ftxnn tne ground. ' This tree was 
planted by the Earl of Bute in 17S8. In the year 1771, there was a row of Pl&tanus along the side of 
one of the streets in Rothsay, wliich grew tbere llke wiUows ; but, before the ycar 1774, they wcre aU 
removed, to give plaoe to new buildings. In Belgium, near Oben^ In the grounds of the viUa of 
M. Mculemeester, Dr. NeiU fbund, in 1817, an avenue of Oriental jdanes, the flnest he ever saw. 
The trees wer& in general, about 70 ft. higb, trained up to the heigfat of about 40 ft., and the trunks 
quite clean and liealthy. ; 

Sxieiing Treee. In the environs of Londim, at Moant Orove, Hampstead, 80 yeam old, it is 77 ft. 
high, the diamAer of the trunk 4 ft. 4 in., and of the head 90 ft. ; in tbe Cheisea Botanic Garden, it is 
upwards of 70ft. Iiigh ; at Lambeth, the one before menttoned, 90 ft. high : and one in the grounds of 
the Dukeof Devonshire's viUa, at Chiswick, notveiy higb, but witb a head 100 ft. in diameter. South 
of London : in DorseUhire. at Melbuiy Park, S5 yean planted, it is 44 ft. high, the diameter of the 
Crunk 3 ft. Sia, and that of the head 30 ft. : in Hamnihlre, at Alresford, 41 yean pbmted, it is 76 ft. 
bigh, the diameter of the trunk S ft. 6in., and that of the beul 58 ft.: in Somenetshlre^ at NettleooDibek 
40 yean pUinted, it is 64 ft. high. the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. : in Sussex, at West Dean, 15 yean 
phmted,lt is a6 ft. higfa : ui Wirtshire, at Wardour Castte, 40 yean pUtnted, it is 40 ft. high, the diame. 

high : in Pembrokesbire, at Stackpole Court, 40 yean planted, it is 60 ft. high, the dianieter of the trunk 
Sft. 6 in., and that of the hcad 30 ft. : m Shropshire, at WiUcy Park, 15 year» planted, It is 26 ft. hlgh : 
in Worcestenhire, at Croome, 58 yean planted, it ls70 ft. higb, thediameter of the tnink 2 ft., and of 

AP. cril. i>LATANA*CES. PLA'TAHII8. 2043 

badflOR.; lnr(iria)1ln,UGr<ni(l<iii, lljoniiUiitf^lt laUrLliIiIi,— laScoUud. Inlhcn> 

DE* ; U BM, 1l !• 6i ft. biili : ln ButM[re, it 'Oordon Cutti^' M ft. bliih, ttia dlunHn' oT Ihc 
ik3n.iliL, uid thUoTltiebadGlft. : ln Rou4hira.UBnhiin CuUc.SOft. blgb, the dtimtWt 
betmBktR., HidaftbehflidWft.— IB Irdind. Saulh of Dubiln : lu Rilliennr.u WaodHodt 

1 70 n. hlah, UwdlUDffcrof thctiiuik 
itToTDown, UCullcWanl,80 

nluiud,ltU»abtiii,Etac<Uimet«artbelninliSn.,>iHlthUorihcbcMlSllt.: tnLoulb,UOtM 
THDplc.Kwn iduiUd,Uli5in. hlgh.thedluoctctDrUMIninkin.. uid thUoTlhchcBd SSft. 
■- •^oet, In 5» J»rdin ds nuiin, ISO leui old, U li 7i ft. hlgh. the dhioittw — "■- 
aitSlB. — In 'Huiow, u Hubckc. 8 icui pbntcil, It li 7 ft. hlfh < in Ihc I 

jttiiWtn. aa icu> pluited, It li iOt. Iilgh — In AuHrtn, u VieDDi, lu Ihe Univcnilr Bo. 

ii,iSjcuip]uitHr, llliSGn. blrh.thediiDiMeiarihctruiik I3ln.i <n RoKntbil'! Nur- 
«■lh*Lertti*.UT»"»l^'ti>18ft.hlth.-ln9ircden,uLuDd, lntbeB«uiieGirden,j«lt.hlfb, 
tbc duwtn oflhe trunk ]«ln.,ind tbUor thc h»il S»tl--In lUlii, in Lombudr, it MnnU, 
S» jtm plutad, it liSOIt. hlgb, tbe<tluiuiTToribitniDkin.6in.,udorthc bewl IMft. 

CammeTcial Sta&tHct. Planta roised from layen of the Bpeiies, in the Loo- 
don nuneries, are li. each ; and of P. o. cuneiU, It. M. eoch : Bt BoU- 
wyller, from 1 &ai)c to 1 ftBiic and 50 ceals; and at New York, 50 centa. 

t • a. P. occiDENTA^M L. The Westem Plane. 

.9^P1..1 ns.; Hort aitr^ V&i Hoj Lued.. T. i artiD.VUft, u 
l.^ct., Ma C.i Du Ror Hubk.. i. p. tlt.i Modlc. in ()&. 8 

indthenlUe of tliii meclei In our luttvaTuine. in;b. 1» 
tbe frmUecUkin in aoweri i, IhCHnutn frull( c, ihebi 
udnlei c, ttaekioiiiudtniiltectianoriiKedi ud/, u) - 

^c CIUb;, i[c. Leaves 5-Bngled, 
ol>saletel; lobed, dentate, wedge- 
shaped at the l»Be ; downy be- 
neatb. {Wi.Id.) Atree, a naUve ' 
of North AmericB, wheie it grows 
to the hei^ht of TOft. or 80 ft.; 
with B widelj spreading head. It 
flowera in Maf; and ripent its 
■eedi in October. Introduced be- 
fore 1636. The Occidental plane 
iseaiilydiadDKniEhedfroni thetM- 
ental plane, oy its leaves being 
larger, snd less deeply lobed (see 
fig.l951.a.inp.E033.^; andbythe 

nA colour of thrir petioles ; the pedoles of P. orientalis being green. The 
fruit is, alsa, much larger, and rather emoother. 

'-*?■« - 

HileAerbn hi ■ bcd or Hcdllnii. 

tartaDui,ind,eanHquuUr,diacult to ipllt, llfccttaoMnrthc (/tniui cimpi^itiii t«- 

tntln, meiitlaDed in p. I3T6. ; ind, like Itau nriety. It li thaoghl tn bc lultitale (br the 

D»o or «bceli. We hiTC nu taecrd oT Itt baing In eultlTUIiin In Frmch nuneiiia. 

In tbe yt MW DnirM^ It It ttUcd tbU M. Duibentan. Illt. nhD rUtednMinr ptoiiM 

ortbcOccMentilpliliinuiBTteed. Ibuud the Tuictlet ilnxtt InBnltCL 

Dtieripliim, jr. The American, or Westem, plane, in magnitude and gcneral 

appearance, beQra so close a reBemblnnce to the Oriental plBne, that, by many 

persons,'tbey ore confounded together. The former, however, is a larger tree; 

of much more rapid growth than the Oriental pkne ; witb broader and less 

deepl; cut leaves, red petioles, and fruit comparatively smooth, and consider- 

ably larger. The bark is stud to scale off in larger pieces, and the wood to be 

more curiously veined. Inall other respects,the descriptive particulars of both 

trees are the same. Tbe rate of growth of P. occidenthlis, when placed near 

water, is so rapid, in tO jenrs it wilt attain the hei^t of 4011.; nnd a 

tree in the I^ace Oarden at Lambeth, near a pond, in SO years had at- 


tuned the hdght of BO ft. ; with a trunk S ft. in circumference at 3 d, froiD 
theKround; snd the diameter of the bead 48 ft. This waa in ISIT. (See 
NeilpB Hort. 7W, p. 9.) The palace gHrdenB at Lanibeth hsTe, lince ihat 
period, beea aurrouoded by numerous buildings, includinK Bererel manufiic- 
torieB, which have killed man; trees, snd iqjured all of tnem, more or leas, 
by their smoke, Nevertheless, in Maj, 1837, when we saw this tree, and faad 
tbc portrait,^. 1960., taken of it, it ivas estimated at upwards of 100 ft. ia 
height. A tree in tbe Chdsea BoCanic Oarden, planted by Miller, in a con- 
fined tituation, but having ita roots within reach of the Thames, is estimated 
at upwards of 1 15 ft. in beight, wiih a trunk aearly 5 fl. in diameter at a foot 
from the ground, When cut down, the Weaiem plane stoles like the otfaer 
■pecies, and produces much niore vigorous shaots; but, as these seldom 
npen completelj, they are verv IJable to be injured b; frost, Varennea de 
Fenille mentioni two treea ot the Americon plane, whicb, fttei being 38 
yeera planted, ineasured, tfae one 5 ft. 7 in., and the other 5tt. 6 m., st Sft. 


froni tbe grouiul, or about 1 ft. 10 in. in diameter; wfaich givefl nine linet and 
a hal^ or more than three quartera of an inch, of increase annuall j. 

Geography. The American pUne ia found oyer an immenfle tract of land 
in North America, comprising tne Atlantic and weatem states» and extending 
beyond the MissisaippL '' The nature of the button-wood," says Michauz, 
" confines it to mobt and cool grounda, where the soil is looae, deep, and ferdle ; 
the hixnriance of its vegetation depending on a combination of theae circum- 
atances. It is never found upon dry lands of an irreeular sur&ce, among 
white and red oaka and wahiuts ; it is also more rare in tne raountainoua tract 
of the All^anies than in the flat country. It ia remarked, in that part of 
Viiginia which lies upon the road from Baltimore to Petersburg, that, mouch 
the button-wood is abundant in the swamps, ita^rowth ia stunt^; and that ita 
trunk does not, in ceneral» exceed 8 in. or 10 in. m diameter. Farther south, in 
the lower Darta of tne Carolinas and of (^eorgia, it is not abundant even on the 
sides of tne rivers ; and is not seen in the branch swamps» already mentionedy 
which intersect the pine barrens, and which are principally covered with the 
smali magnolia (Magndlia gla6ca), the red bay (Zra6ru8 carolini^nsis), the 
lobloliy bay rGorddnia Lasiinthns), the red maple (il^oer nkbrum), &c. The 
reaaon that tiie button-wood is not found in these small marshes is, perhaps, 
that the layer of vegetable mould» which is black and always miry» is not su^ 
ficienthr thick and substantial to support its srowth ; and that the heat, in this 
Dart of the southem states, is excessive. The button»wood is in no part of 
liorth America more abundant and more vij;orous than alonc the great rivers 
of Pennsylvania and of Virginia ; though m the more fertue valleys of the 
west its vegetation is, perhi^is, still more luxuriant ; espedally on the banks 
of the Ohioy and of die rivers which empty into it. The bottoms which are 
watered by these rivers are oovered with dark forests, oomposed of trees of 
an extraoidinary sisEe. The soil is very deep, loose, of a bro¥m oolour, and 
unctuous to the touch : it appears to have beoi formed by the slime deposited 
in the course of ages, at the annual overilowing of the rivers. The leavesy 
which every autumn fi>rm a thick layer upon the surfiMe, and the old trees, 
that fidl bv tbe weight of years, and crumble into v^table mould, give to 
this soily alreadv so fertiley a degree of fecundity which is without example in 
Europe, and wnich is mamfested by prodigies of vegetation. The margin of 
the great rivers of the West is occupied by the willow» after which comes the 
wfaite maple (iToer erioc^um)» and next the button-wood; but this arran£»i 
ment is not nniformly observed ; and the maple alone, or, as it more to- 
quently happens, min^fed with the button-wood, sometimes grows upon the 
brink. Among the treea which compose these forests, the three species men^ 
tioned are least liable to injury firom the continued presence of water ; and, by 
their podtion, they are exposed to have their bases every year inundated by 
the swelling of the rivers. In these situations, the button*wood is constantly 
fcmnd to be the loftiest and largest tree of the United States." (Nbrih Amer* 
S^ iL p. 58.) 

HuUiy. In the Atlantic states, this tree is commonly known bv the name 
of button->wood ; and sometimes, in Virffiniay by that of water beech. On the 
banks of the Ohio, and in the states of Kentucky and Tennessee» it is most 
frequently called sycamorcy and by some persons plane, tree. Tbe French of 
Ganada and of Upper Louisiana give it the name of the cotton tree. The 
first of theae denominadons appears to be the most widd^ diffiisedy and, in 
fiict, to be that by which the tree is most generall v known m America. The 
name cotton tree alludes to the thick down which covers the under surface 
of the leaves when th^ first expand, and which becomes gradually detached 
fiom them in the course of the summer. In some partB of the United States, 
where the tree \b very abundant, the inhabitants, according to Michaux, regard 
it with dready as they think this down, detached and floating in the air, has a 
teodency to produce irritation of the lungs» and, finally, consumption. The 
American plane was one of the trees di^overed and figured by Catesby in 
his Natural History of Carokna (i. t. 56.) ; and it was infoduced about 1030, 


by Mr. John Tnidescaiit, in whose caFden two small plants were growing in 
1636, when Johnson published his edition of Oerard'8 HerbaU, Tnese planta 
were again spoken of by Parkinson in 1640. It was afterwards so much 
propagated, that, in Evelyn'8 time, it had become more common than P. orien- 
t^is. The tree nropagoting readily by cuttings, and growing with great 
rapidity, was, in Mtller'8 time, and indeed till 1809, considered hardier than 
the Onental plane ; but, in the May of that year (not June, as stated in the 
PUmUr^t Kiuendar)y a severe frost killed back the young shoots of many of 
the iargest plants of thb species in England ; particulariy those in Richmond 
Park, at Kew, at Syon House, at Stowe, at P£dn's Hiil, and at Claremont. There 
are still hurge trees, however, in the Chelsea Garden, in the grounds of Lambeth 
Palace, at Deepdene, and various other places. In Scotland, where trees 
of both P, orientalis and P, occidentalis were standing near each other, the 
fonner escaped; but the latter were generally injured, and mahy either died the 
same year, or, afler roaking an in^Sectual effort to push, in the summer of 
the year following, viz. 1810. '* It is very singular,' Sane observes, ** that 
of the P, occidentaiis the laraest trees only were killed. Trees of from 20 ft. 
to 25 fl. in height were littTe hurt ; and smailer ones not at all, at least 
in every instance that came under our observation. We did not observe, 
or hear," he adds, '^ of a single Oriental pbme being injured in any part 
of the country." {Plant. KeU., p. 99.) The severe winter of 1813-14 de- 
stroyed a number of the Occidental planes which eacaped the severe frost 
of 1809, so that the tree is at present comparativelv rare throughout Britain. 
An account of the damage done to the Ciccidental plane tree, in diflferent 
parts of England, in 1809, will be found in the GenUenunCt Magazine for 
1810 and 1813; from which it appears, that on the 25th of January, 1809, 
there was a ereat flood, occasioned by a sudden thaw ; and in the March and 
April foUowing there was very miid weather, wliich caused the plane trees to 
put out their leaves eai'Uer than usual. This was succeeded by a severe froet 
in the beginning of May, which so far injured the trees, that they appeared 
sickly throughout all the summer; and in the spring of 1810 they almost all 

ProperHet and Utes. The wood of the American plane, according to 
BAichaux, in seasoning becomes of a dull red ; but its grain is fine and close, 
and it is susceptible of a briehter polish than the wood of the beech, to wliich 
it bears considerable resemblance. Its concentric circles are divided into 
numerous secdons, by fine medullary rays extending fix)m the centre to the 
drcumference. When the trunk is sawn in a slanting direction, tbese rays 
faave a remarkable appearance. The cabinet-makers of Philadelphia, how» 
ever, rarelv use the wood, on account of its warping ; but it is sometimes 
emploved ror bedsteads, which retain thdr natural colour, and are coated with 
vamish. The wood soon decays when ezposed to the weather. Like the 
wood of the beech, it shrinks very much in drying, and is very apt to split. 
As fliei, it does not produce a very lively flame, nor does it yield mucn diarcoal. 
It contains a great oeal more sap wood than the beech ; so much so, that a pa- 
rallelopipedon of ereen platanus 6in. square weighed 18 Ib. 10 oz.; while a 
piece of beech of tne same size only weighed 15 Ib. 13oz. The platanus, in 
drying, lost 6 Ib. 15 oz., and the beech only 5 Ib. 9 oz. ; which gives 5 Ib. 
6 oz. of difference in the cubic foot. The platanus wdghs, when dry, 51 Ib. 
8 oz. per cubic foot; and in that state it is easy to work, cuttinf readily in 
every direction, and is therefore well adapted for cabtnet-work. In Britain, 
the principal use of the platanus is as an omamental tree ; for which purpose 
it has all those qualities to recommend it which we have attiibuted to the 
Oriental plane, except that it is rouch less hardy, and, to attain a large size, 
requires tne presence of water. As a picturesque tree, the Occidental plane 
18 thus characterised by Oilpin. He plaoes it after the oak, the ash, the ehn, 
the beech, and the hornbeam, which ne considers as deciduous trees of the 
first rank ; saying of both spedes of platanus, that, though ndther so beauti- 
ful nor so characteristic as the first-mentioned trees, they are yet worth the 

CHAP. cYii. platana'ce£. pla'tanus. 804? 

. potice of the pkCurefliqiie eye. ^ Thte Occidental plane has a very pictureeque 
stem. ^ It is smooth, and of a Ikht ash-colour, and haa the property of 
throwing off it8 bark in actles ; muB naturally cleansing itself, at least its 
larger ix>ughs, from moss and other parasitical encumbrances. This would 
be no recommendation of it in a picturesque i^ht, if the removal of these 
encumbrances did not substitute as great a beauty in their room. These 
scales are yery irregular, falling off sometimes in one part, and sometimes in 
another ; and, as 3ie under bark is, immediately after its excoriation, of a 
ligfater hue than the upper, it offers to the pencil those smart touches which 
have so much effect m painting. These flakes, however, would be more 
beautiful if they fell off in a circular form» instead of a perpendicular one : 
tfaey would correspond and unite better with the circular form of the bole. 
No tree forms a more pleasing shade than the Occidental plane. It is full- 
leaved ; and its leaif is largey smoothy of a fine texture, and seldom ii\jured by 
insects. Its lower branches» shooting horizontally, soon take a direction to 
the ground ; and the spray seems more sedulous than that of any tree we 
have, by twisting about in various forms, to fill up every little vacuity witfa 
shade. At tfae same time, it must be owned, the twisting of its branches is a 
disadvantage to this tree, as we have iust observed it is to the beech, when it 
is stripped of its leaves and reduced to a skeleton. It has not the natural 
appc»rance which the spray of the oak^ and that of many other trees, discover 
in winter ; nor, indeed, does its foliage, from the largeness of the leafy and the 
mode of its growtfa, make the most picturesque appearance in summer. One 
of the finest Occidental planes I am acquainted with stands in my own garden 
at Vicar^s Hill ; where its boughs, feathering to the ground^ form a canopy of 
above 50 ft. in diameter. The Oriental plane is a tree nearly of the same Kind» 
only Tts leaf is more palmated ; nor has it so great a disposition to overshadow 
the ground as the Oocidental plane ; at least, I never saw any in our climate 
form so noble a shade, though in the East it is esteemed among the most 
sfaady and most magnificent of trees." (Rem, on For^ Scen,, vol. i. p. 53.) 

SoU, SihuUion, Jh^opagOtion, Jjrc, What has been said on tfaese subjects as 
applicable to P. orientiuis is equally so to this species ; the chief difierence 
fa«ing, that P. occidentMis strikes very readily from cuttings, and is much more 
like tfae wiUow, in reauiring, wfaen it is intended to attain a large size, to be 
planted near water. It is sometimes raised from seeds imported from America. 
A great many plants were raised in this way by Mr. Cobbett, from 1826 to 
18S0. Tfae seed is imported in tfae globular catkins, or ballsy which Cobbett 
broke to pieces by rubbing them with the hand to separate the down or 
wooly as ne calls \t, fi^m the seeds. The latter, bemg sifted out of the 
wooly he soaked in lukewarm water for 4S hours ; he then ** took the seeds 
out of the water» and mixed them with finely sifted fresh eartfa, 10 gallons 
of eartfa to one gallon of seeds ; put the mixture upon a smooth place on 
the bare ground ; tumed and remixed die heap every day for four or five 
dBLjB, keepmg it covered with a mat whenever the tuming and mixing was not 
gouig on ; and as soon as a root b^n to appear here and there^ sowed the 
seeds upon a bed of sifted earth, mixed with the siiled mould, just as they 
eame out of die faeap." (Woodlandt, § 473.) Tfae seeds received no otfaer 
covering tfaan tfae mould witfa wfaich they were mixed : thev were watered 
every evemng witli a fine-rosed watering-pot ; and securely sfaaded fi*om tfae 
sun by mats/kqit firom touching the eround by faoops. These mats were re» 
moved every evening about an hour aner sunsetyand were put on a^ain in the 
moming by sunrise. In about a week, most of the seeds faad germmated, and 
in a sfaort time afterwards the seed leaves appeared. Being gradually inured 
to the sunshine, till tfaey were hardy enough to be exposed during the whole 
of tfae day, by tfae montfa of October their growth was finisfaed, and tfae 
wood ripe; and next summer they were fit to transplant into nursery lines. 
As the Occidental plane is very tender wben voung, Mr. Cobbett did not oom- 
mence fais operatbns witfa tbe seed till April; and, consequently, his plants 
were aoiall in October ; but, by sowing in frames in February, as is tfae prac- 

6 R 


tke with nurKTTineii wfao TBue thia ipedea trom «eed, the plantB, by kutiimn, 
with carefiil treatnient, wiU be S ft. dc 3 ft. in hdght. 

«rttefcK XMr^ed TVw. On ■ VSOt Idud in Iha Otaln, lE mlla ibon ttae ontta at tbe 
llMklMliB,UM^d*rllkbUBMMind*baltin.waodt»e, whtcb, ■tSft.frn tka(niuiid,ni 
4Bft. ^ & In dmnDtotMfc Tmlr i«n bcAm, Oannl WiiblnctaabidM«ndtbcB»tnb 
ndlbiiDdltMb*DMflTih>HB>ilK iD ISDI. tb« rnxiB Mk£iHX IbODd, go tba rWit bmk of 

^ ■-K(lb*Otala},*DatSBMlMfriBHiBttaL»vlHMtR«,lh*ta««sf •tatebvannlln 

^MTi lod •taleh. it 4 tt ftDoi tta* irmind, nmnind t7 ft. )n elRamhnBK 

HWblcb had DOI m ilDgle bnnch tlllthei bed (ttifncd tbc beiihtof SSft. 

.TchlrplvnTpBl Palmce of Lem- 

MKiaiR.1 lnOlauiistenhln,it DciddLnfion,llliSOft.hi|h,thediimctn'aftbe 
Mt<il'lbtheailigSR.:lnHfnAidilui*,ilButt>ijTCHOc,IBr*HipUal«il,il* ~ — 
■' -inttd, it liiJft. bl|h,ih«diu 

tbimbauH, M jnn ^uted, 11 


tai|b, thi dlamMcriirthclninklft, uid aT thehcadUft : In HolHnitaaiiutaiR, «t aunbR Fark. 
HliHlt. hi|b, IhedluiMtartbetrunlillt. 10 In., ind □( Ihe bcid fiGfLi In FemhnikeihlR, U 
aiHApolc Court, 10TeuipluIed.UfiA)n. hi«h, tt» diunclR oT Ibe trunk £ ft., luid of Ibcbead 

RirdHDUw. M7MnoW,llli£0fLhigh, nVli ■ Imnk 1 ft. 8in. in diUKHer. Noltll 
In Arfjlkhlr.', »t TdwutI CMlle, 13 jenii ptanled. Iti.aOfL high, with • trunk 7 
iD Buiuire, >t Cullcn HouH^ U ii & ft. blih, the dHmctcr af thc tiunk 3 ft. i In., 
bHd «7ft.: fai FarfUihln,it (VuRKbr "^ >**^ '™* '"'f »"''"*- '■)(X> "x 
toBDhaft., ud or Ib* b**d KILj uotlKr, BO non pUnted, b7ort. blA, lh« 
- nk«ft.,udattbeba«ltfft_lDlnUDd. iBtbeen^ntuDfDublln^tCrpreH' 

, ..— ID inuDO. jBwccnTironiDi imoun, u trpnH vrore, ii ii » il 

bMi, tbedtametRor thetnBk S ft. S Id.. ■Bd rf th« h«ul 3eft.i it Ttrcaure, 15 to«> pUntcd, 
Ub90ft.blfb. Nortb of DvMln : la th« ceuitT of Down, «l Cutle Wiid, 130 Taui Eild, n K 
atfthlgh, iBedi«nclerortfa«trunk4ft.3ln.,uiartbehcadUft: la OelweT^&octe^tbnft. 

■t TUilon, lgTsinp)uled,|h, tb«GlnUBfbmceoribetrui£l(L)Ia.i DaarHuleL 
K)tKiisM,itliTOft.hl(hi atColondic.DOK IIctt,TC]iwnaU, lltaSlft. MilL tbe dlimctci rf 
thetrunklft.4lD., andthuor Ih* uot eonced b; Ib« btucbw Wft.i bitbe BoaDkO«rdMiM 
ATnncb*i,B r««niituled,Uli40ft. bl(b, thedmmlknaeeDrtbetninkSft., lod tb* dlitiww» 
oT ttaeheed H)ft_lnIUDo>n,lD IbaBotMiicOMdtBitGWtlnn.ueKnnl tnM,^taoailO>wn 
plutad, Mid ftoa »lt 10 SOtL hlfta.— IB CiMtl, M WUhtlbMha^SD rein nluteMl l*BR. hlab, 
■Bd tb« dl*m*tM of ttae tmnk 4 ft. 6Ib.— In AuMile, M Vl«mMn tb« Unlrer^Tllotulc 0»%i, 
«)T«at<U,UliXft.bI>b,lb«dlaelcrortbetrunklft..aBdo( tb*bcKllOft.ib< BoHDthil^ 
»aTHCT.fl)rMmBlulcdrill*X>ft.blib,tbe«uictcrofflietruBkBia.,(Bdc' tb«heHlMft.iit 
BrOA OD tbe LeTOH, 1£ T«aii[janl«d, It !• 85 ft. hlth, a«dUBCtM of tbe trunkS IL. ud arth*h«ad 
Wft— Id BMellL M Hnnteta, In tbt EBliMl G^IdtD, «1 yeinplnled, it It O) ft. hlth, tb* dluHtccsr 
tb« trunfclft. BlB., ind aribehnd 3Dft~In PruMim,u BcTiln, it Shu Soucl, SO TnnoM, Uli 
«lft.blfta. ItaedUmcterorthe trunkaiLEIn., udofthehcKl34n.i lnlheFf>uen-InKl,40nMi 
|iluted,Ult4Bft.b<(li,tbedUnneteror ttae IniDk 1R., uidDf Ihc hfsdWIL — In Sweden, iatbe 
BotukOudcnal bind.iSft. hlgh, Ihe diuKter of the liunk Ift., uidar the houiSefL — In 
Itilj, In LaabudT, U Moih, E9 jwi jjuited, it li SO fL bifb, Ihedlunctaof ttatIrunkSft.8iB., 

CotKmeraal Slatiitia. PlantB, in the London nurseries, from 3 fl. to 4 fl. 
high, bre 9d. each, or 20f. per hundred ; and Beeds are U. per auart. At Boll- 
wfUer, pUnts are from 1 fnuic to 1 frenc and 50 cent* etKn; and at New 
York tbey sre 25 centi eacb. 



LiatiiDA'MBAB L. Flowers unbexuftl; thoee of the two Bexes upon one 
plant, diBpoaed in capitate CBtkini. — Male catkins in an upnriit raceme, 
each rouodisb, consututed of nuinfroiu Btamens, mixed with a Tew minutc 
acales, diqrased upon a connate receptacle. Filunents *ery short. — Female 


conwtulg of numeroua oraries, each Burrounded by ft few s 
baviDg two cella. Stflea 2, long. Fniit a kind of cone, composed of in- 
dDtsted connected «calea, in the caritiea of wbich lie obconical, S-lol>ed, 
S.cdled capBuIea. Seeda numerous, or Bolitar j by abortioD ; coaipressed, 
menibnuious, winged, attacbed iatertially to ttie middle of the dissqti- 
nmta iu b peltate msnner. Embrjo inverted in the mjdat of Hlbumen. 
— Spedes 3. InhabitiDg thc wanner parts of North America, and Hexko, 
tbe LeTBnt, and the tropics of India. Deciduoua trees, ^eldins balsam. 
LeBTCS BlteniBte, dmple, or lobed, with glHndular Herraturea at tne edges. 
Stipules dedduous. (^Siume, a» quoted in Lindl. Nat. Syil. BoL, and N, Du 
Ham. For a long tune, only two apeciea were known to European bot^ 
nistt ; one a native of Asia Hinor, the other of tbe temperate parts of 
North America; but Blume atates thet tbere ia a third, which inbabita the 
tropica of tfae aouth of Aaia, and more particulaHy Jbts, even reaching u 
br aa New Ouinea. (BluBie Fi. Jav.) 

Genus I. 


LIQUIDA'HBAR L. Tsb LtattiDAHBAR. Lm. Sj/il. Monce^da 


•tftimtkm Uo. Qn., 10/6. i Relcta., 117«. i Sehnb., I«S. | atfi. Hltiih., II. ; Qmite., 1. 1 

jw n nyiH L'f . Altlng^ Nonabft i Ltqvldamhu, Fr, i Ambjubainn, Oer. 

Arimtium. Fnm %hUiu, Utulil, (ikI imibar, >iiibET t tfai plmnt) «u<Ud( > llquld guBL 

Dacnption, S[c, Dedduoua tree^ natives of North America and the 
Lerant; cultivated in British pleasure-grounda for the beauty and fragrance 
of thdr fbliage. 

1 1. L. 8TyRACi'n.CA L. The Sweet Oum Uquidambar. 
I^mimetlB^ Un.SiL, 1*19.1 AIL 'Hort Kew., 3. ft 3E& i IUMi.,1 p. 17L i Hu. Ucd., aH.i 

tem. Fniet., E.; Kiln lUn, & p. lOS.i Du Ror Hirbk., I.p.36B.i f iHko., L «S. | 

Wcbl. AilL, 3. B. IH. ; H. DuHani.,^|>.1& 
Itmmtma. LWalMnteTlTtioc PJD*. .^fn., IM.t«i. CS., Ccit.Car., t.t-9S.,DnHmm.ATb.,l. 

Lin^SUnui.fcali Mlo HaH HIM., lUL i Ltaukdiiiiibw ridDcui, CopdnM iKVADirtquo, Lltul- 

a|(n>Aui!''Ha:kw.,Lmi Fluk. Alm.,™^?a.) Cu. Cu., t«S. i Da Him. Art>.,l. Lm | 
■idB. Art>.,&L4| aur;^' ■961- : (nd tfacpUM of tbli trcc iDoucJat Viriuiu. 

Spec. Ckar., ^c. Leavea palmatetj' lobed, with the ainuaea at the baae of the 
vdna villose. ( Wiild.) A dedduous tree, a native of Nortb America, wbere 
it growB from 30 f^ to 50 H. high, and dowera in MBrch or April. 
Detcription, ^c. The liquidambar generally rorms a brenching tree, having 

■waj mucb the appearance of a maple ; and varfing fmm 3o£ to 5011. in 

heigfat, with R trunk Irom 5ft. or 6 fl., 

to (Sft. or 16 fl. in drcumference. Ac- 

cording to Michatix, in America, when 

grown among olher trees, it has a per- 

lectjv itraigbt trunk, nearlf uniform in 

thicknesB, to the hdeht of 30 ft. or ■W ft. 

betbre it li^ina to (uvide into branches. 

Id Europe, it wldom exceeds 40 ft. in 

height. The bark of old trees is thick, 

and de^ly furrowed ; but od young 

treei it is comparativelf smooth, On 

dry gravelly soU, it does not attain a 

greater hdgfat tfaan 13 a. or SOft.j 

snd its secMidary branchea become co- 

Tcred wilh a dry flaky bnrk, tfae [Jatcii 

of wtuch are attaclied at tbe edge, in- 
6 B s 


BteMf of tbe faoe, as is the case with the bark of niost other trees. The 
hark of the young shoots U smooth, and of a yeUowish green oolour. 
The leaves are altemate, and on rather long petioles ; they vary in size from 
3 in. to 6 in. in diameter ; and they are pahnate ; that is, they are divided into 
five deepiy cut lobes, which are finely denticulated at the edge. When they 
first expand, a Bmall tuft of reddish down is perceptible at the back of the 
middle rib of each leaf. *' In warm weather, a viscous substance exudes from the 
kaves of those trees which have grown on dry ground ; and, when bruised, they 
emit a sensible aromatic odour." (Michaux.) The male and femaie catkins, 
which appear about March or Apnl, are on cufierent branches of the same tree. 
The maie are oval, and about 14 in. in length ; the female ones are not conspicu- 
ous. " The fruit is globular, ancTbristling witb points. When arrived at maturity , 
it is about 1 ^ in. in diameter, and is suspended by a flexible pedicel, 1 in. or 
8 in. lone : the globes, which are green at first, and afterwards yeiiow, are com- 
posed of agreat number of closelv connected capsules. At the beginning of 
autumn, these capsules open, and give liberty to the seeds, which are small, 
blackishy oblong, compressed, and surmounted by a wing. Each capsule con- 
tains one or two seeds, united with a number of minute bodies, incapable of 
germination." (/</.) Tbe leaves die off of an intensely deep purplish red, 
more or less mixed with orange, and with some leaves entirely of that colour. 
They hang on the trees dll the first fix)sts, when they drop off simultaneouslv. 
The rate of growth of this tree, in the climate of London, is from 8 ft. to 10 n. 
in 10 years from the seed ; and in 20 years it will attain the height of 
25 ft. or 30 h,f and flower and ripen fruit. In good soil, and sheltered situ- 
ations, the tree will attain the height of upwards of 60 fl., there being trees 
exceeding this size at Woburn Farm, Chertsey, and at Strathfiddsaye. These 
trees flower and produce fruit ; but it has not been observed whether the 
seeds arrive at maturity. The longevity of the tree is probably not great, 
from its growing in marshy situadons, and from the want of durability in its 

Geograpky. The Uquidambar spreads through nearly two thirds of the 
United States, and through a great part of Mexico. In North America, its 
most northem point is between Philadelphia and Boston, lat. 43° 30^ n.; and 
it extcnds westward as far as the Illinois River. '' In the middle, westem, and 
southern states," says Michaux, " the sweetgumis suflicientlyabundanttobe 
numbered among the most common trees ; alid it is met with wherever the 
soil is ferdle, cool, and exposed to temporary inundadons. In the south, it 
grows, also, in the great swamps that border the rivers ; and there, owing, 
doubtless, to the mildness of the winters, and the intense heat of the summers, 
it displays its amplest dimensions." The larsest trees grow in moist rich 
soils ; but, where the soil is dry and gravelly, die tree does not attain half its 
usual size. The largest tree observed by Michaux " was in a swamp five or 
six miles from Augusta, in Oeorgia. At 5 ft. from the ground, it was 15 ft. 
7 in. in circumference ; and its head was broad and spremling in propordon to 
the size of its tmnk. It is found, in the American forests, in company with 
the chestnut white oak (Quercus Prinus paKistris), the willow oak (Q. 
Ph^Hos ), the wahoo ( Ulmus al^ta), the black gum (N^ssa sylv&dca), the red 
maple (ylYer rilkbrum), thered ash (.^Vdxinus tomentosa), and the black 
ash ( jP. lambucifolia)." (Mkhaux.) In Mexico, the liquidambar is generally 
ibund in moist valleys, wnere it attains an enormous size. 

Hutory, The first record we find of the liquidambar appears to be in a 
work written by Francis Heraandez, a Spanish naturalist and physician, who 
was sent out by Philip II. of Spain to examine and describe the natural pro- 
ductions of Spanish America. This work, which professed to be a history 
of the plants, animals, and minerais of Mexico, was origmally published in 
that country, in Spanish, under the care, and with the name, of Father 
Ximenes ; but it was afterwards republished, in Latin, at Rome, with the name 
of th e real author attached, in 1 65 1 . Dr . Hemandez describes the iiquidambar, 
or Xochiochotzo-Quahieliel, as he calls It, as being a large tree, and producing 
a firagrant gum, which, fix>m its appearance, gave the idea of amber in a 


liquid sttUe j whence the Spaniards ga?e the tree the Dame of lu^uidainbar.(iVo0, 
Pianl^ &C.» p. 56.) Shortly afterwardfl» Banister, the missionary collector 
sent out by Bishop Compton (see p. 44), discovered the tree in North 
Americay and sent home, in 1681» a plant of it to the bishop, wbose gardener» 
the celebrated Oeoi^ge London, planted it in the palace gardens at Fulham. 
In Raj'8 Histona PkaUanm, published in 16^6, the liquidambar ia mentioned 
under the names of St^rax If quida» St^tta. A'cena fdlio, and Stfnx ^ui)or vir- 
ginikna; but Plukenet, Catesby, and Bauhin, who were all nearly contem* 

Eorary with Ray, call it by its opanish name of Liquidambar. The Spanish 
istorian, the Abb^ Clavigiero, in his Hutory of MeancOj gives the following 
account of this tree : — *' The XochiocotzoU, commonly odled Liquidambar, 
is the iiquid storax of the Mexicans. It is a great tree (not a shrub, as 
Pluche, the autbor of the Spedacle de la Natwre^ makes it) : its leaves are 
similar to those of the maple tree, indented white on one part, and dark in 
another, and disposed in threes. The 6>uit is thomy and round, but poly- 
gonous, with the surface and angles yeilow. The bark of the tree is in part 
gr^n, and in part tawny. By incision in the trunk, the^ extract that preaous 
resin, called by the Spaniards liquidambar, and the oil of the same name, 
which is still more odorous and estimable. They also obtain li(|uidambar 
from a decoction of the branches; but it is inferior to that which distils 
from the trunk." (jCutien^t Trani. Ciav., i. p. 33.) The abbe adds that Quilbrar 
hacha, which, he says, was the second name applied by the Mexicans to this 
tree, si^ifies " break axe;'* a name which seems singularly inappropriate, as, 
according to moat writers, the wood is tender and supple. In England, the 
tree has been generaliy included in collections from the time of its introduo* 
tion ; and there are, in consequence, some very fine spedmens where it has 
been planted in a sheltered situation, and in an alluvi»! soil near water. In 
Scotland, aud the north of Germany, it is somewhat tender ; and, north of 
Berlin, it never attains the size even of a low tree. 

Properties and Uses, The wood of the liquidambar is yery compact and 
fine-f;rained» with only a very thin layer of sap wood. The heart wood is 
reddish ; and, when sawn into boards, it is observed to be marked transversely» 
and at considerable distanceg, with blackish belts. As it is very light, and 
takes a brilliant polish, it is sometimes sawn into excessively thin laminee, and 
em|)loyed by the cabinet>makers, in New York, for veneering. It is, however, 
infeiior to the wood of the black wainut (Juglans nigra), and to that of the 
wild cherry (Cdrasus virginiana)» both of which are harder, and less easily dfr> 
&ced. As it readily takes a biack dye, it is oflen used, in America, instcsd of 
ebony; particularly for picture fhuneSy the balusters of staircases, and to 
omament bedsteads. When exposed to the extemal air, it soon decays. It 
is little esteemed as fuel, as it gives scarcely any flame; and, in America, it 
always sells at a lower price than any other kind of firewood. Bosc says» 
speaking of this tree : ** Its wood ia too liable to decay to be used for any 
purpose where it will be exposed to the open air ; too britUe to be employed 
by the carpenter; and too apt to warp to be of any service to the cabinet- 
maker.'* The principai product of the liquidambar is its resinous gum. This 
substance, from its fra^rance, was at first supposed to be a kind of balsam, 
resembling storax ; but it was soon found to be a resinous gum, differing from 
storax in many essential respects. (See Lei Vegetaux Retmeux, &c., iL p. 337.) 
On lar^ trees, pown in warm countries, the gum is found in considerable 
quantities, appeanng between the bark and the wood, and exuding from the 
cracks in the former. This substance, which is in the shops sometimes called 
the white balsam of Peru, or liquid storax, b, when it first issues fi^om the 
tree, perfectly fluid and clear; white, with a slight tinge of yellow, quite bal- 
Bamic, and having a most agreeable fragrance, resembling that of ambergris or 
styrax. This gum is procured in the greatest abundance in warm countries» 
and that of commerce is chiefly brought from Mexico. It is considered to be 
a styptic, and to possess healing and balsamic properties. It is stimulant and 
aromatic, and has been long used in France as a perfume, especially for gloves. 

6 R 3 


_. , I nearl]' tbe mine propertiefl aa the belmn of Tolu, and that of 

Peru (botb |»odaced by a tree in Braril), for whicb it is often subrtituted, m 
wdl 08 for atorax. The best liquidBinbBr guin ia obtoined bj inakinK incisiona 
m the trunk, and «ufiering Ihe resin to flow gradually ; but an infenor kiud ia 
procured by boiling tbe amall branches and ieavee, and collecting the balsamic 
mX which liaea trom them,and floatson iheBurbceof the waler. In England 
snd in North America, very littlc gum is produced (rom the trunk of the tree, 
though a little exudea from the leavea ; and Michaui infonns ua that, in re- 
peatM experimeuts made ia Carolina, he was never able to coUect more than 
half an ounce, from a tree 1 ft. in diameter, in a fortnight. In Britain, the 
principal use of this tree ia ai au ornament to lawna and pleaaure«rounda ; in 
which it has a most striking appearance, when the teaves ore ayiag off in 
autumD ; and it is also verj iKsutiful tbroughout the lummer, from the dm^ 
green and RloBsy sur^e of its elegantly shaped leaves. When bruised, tbe 
reavee are iragraat at bU seasons; but in sprin^, when they are first un- 
folding, aAer a warm shower, the surrounding air i« SUed with their refreshing 

Soii, Propaeatiim, ^e. The It^uidambar has b dedded preference for a 
moist toil, and will only attain a timber-like siie in b sheltered situation. Id 
British nurseries, it is generallyjiropagated by layers, which root with to\cr- 

able bcility, and may be taken oD at the end of the first autumn after they have 
been formed. It U also propaeated by seeds imported trom America. These 
are brought over in the csikma, and should not be taken out of them till 
the time of sowing ; because the seeds, lUie those of the pine and fir tribe, 
do not keep well when exposed to the air. The round prictly catkins which 
contain tbe seeds are hard, and not readily broken with the hand ; but, by 
exposure to the aun, or to fire heat, they crack and open, and the seeds maj 
tben be easity shaken out. Thev may be sown end treated like seeds of the 
pine and fir trit>e ; but, unlike tnem, the? Ue a year in the ground before 
coming up. Seedllnga generoJly attain tbe hdght of from £ in. to 8 in. the 
first year, with nuinerouB fibroua roota. They may dther l>e tranaplanted tliat 
year, or die next, and mny aflerwards imdergo the usual routine culture in 
nursery lines, till they are wanted for final tranBplanting. 

Acadml», DiieaMet, and Ttueett. The wood of the liquidambar tieing brittle, 
the branches are liable to be brokai off hy very high winda ; and the wounds 
lefl, if DOt smoothed and protected from the air, wUl greatly facilitate the 
rotdae of the tree, the timDer of which is naturally not durBble. In America, 
seTeral insects fleed on the teaves, among which we may mention the green 
sirallow-tailed empc or motb ( J1iaIte'nB luna Jbi. ^ SmiiA, t. 48., aud our 
_fig. lees.) aod die great plane moth (P. impa^ria Abb. if Smith, t. 55., B6ta- 
byK impmUis FuA.}. Insects of the former species are not common ; hut they 
are voy t>eautifut ; tlie caterpillar being briglit onmge with vetlow spota, and 
the moth bright yellow aud pink. These insects ere very difficult to rear, as 
Ihe moth generBUy dies in confinement, t)efare depositingneT egga. 
StnHK i ft . In theenvlroru ot LoDdon, USra, SSft. blgli, tfa« diuiMtr of tbe Imnk llt 7iB., 

in DEvanihlrc.sI LuicoR^ IS Tun ii]aine<l,'>ils'JU ft.niah,UiadUiiHUror£etnink6iD.,indtliU 
orilwbndUft.; ID Hunii>hln,itS(nthlii?Iiluv?, llltMR. lil|h,tlwdUiiiMaorthetniBkSft. 61n., 
Ba*iBglaiicli(all,nMmucha1ioTelhiilF>?li>rthFH'M: ln Km^ U CoUhud il*n, ES f (u« pkntid, 
liii SSft. hi(h,with * itunk lft.3iiv in riiomuu>r : ta Surnr, U Ftnhm C>m1&ob drr ctulkr 
»11, M w«n plinted, l[ li Wft, hlgh, iiltli a Lrunk Ift. IB dluHtar; at Wobuni nnii,ll li ap- 
nrda<ir6Uft.fal^t (lOckbam Atk, £) vfai>]jlaiitHl,ltiiUft. hlgi, tli« dknwta' ofUie tnmk 
10iii.,uidofUi<faeiidlSft.i WarclDiirCHtle.a)rflinpUlit^|li, tlw 

liai,3B)e«ipluited,il<i&ft.lil|li,Iliedmn>;icraf tlwlniiiklft,>Bd«r lh« ipu* ammd ^S* 
ImchGi Uft. : tn Cbeililre, at Euin Hall. 13 ycun pblitMl, K li »ft hlih. flin iHinnnr iif tln 
tninkSiiL.indthUDrtbeqiKeecnetedUyllicbraiicheilOft.: In Htnlbcdililie, U Woan^biiiT, 
BUyean oM, It li 66 n, bigh, tbe dicunifernice oT Ihe IninkUlbe (nmiid >ft. : in llanisiUli. 
■Ui4UT[etle(aiPuk,9DTeanpl>nled,ilit^n. Idih, tbedluielarortlwlninklft.,aiidlhMO(' 
Ihetwd90aiinSuflblk,UAraptanHa|Li«r«n?M)ited,it l< Ktl. Uah, tbe dluatn o( th* 
miDk S I&, and o( Iha heid Slt 1 1n WuKTaibin, >t ComlM Abber, U U 37 ft. bltt, lb« dUBieUT 
gf OHtniBk IR.liD., and thal Drtliebeid 9in. : in Woroeitenliire, u CtoomL U ntii Blanlad, 
lltlflStt. bUi, thedmeterorihetmnk5in.,BiidUlUortbebeHl Uft.: laTaiUilre.lBtballull 
Botantc OanleD, ISjeinpiiimed,lt iiCaft. hlgh, IhedUmMcroT the tninklSln.— InBcotluid. IB 
biwiDfl'iHHnnT,Edbihiugh, iTeanpiuiIcd, It li4rLhi(bilbaToun(4haaubeiiuerua tBjarad 
. tirlbcn-tiM. InBinflbln!, UOa[donCuile,lirew>pUiitcd,ltitlOft.hiih. IbeiUiiMteiar-'- 
tiiuik tlD. In FKnhlte, ■! DulbilillePufc, 4)eu>pUntcd,IIU4ft.^ " ' ' " 



L.iadUMt gftta* taad «ft— In IrdunL I 

•f Ihl tHBk UliL, hI tlMt cf tta* taad « ft— 1 
S 1« nlHKid. It b S ft. talfli, tlia dluwUr or t 
m BdMMlT. K jmrt 'fimt, It k> l£ft. b 
tfOrW1>n^M|wuisluiiad,lt'-"'' -'- 
b^Uft — lBF^iDH,liillwJudhii 
■r th> tnuik I ft. a IB. ; kta tlM Botul 

Bklft.: K AnueiMI, In tbf Botantc Oi 
iirtlwtniDk7lii, imdiKiba Imi Rft.- 

ikimiailUmcMr!— lnItilT,tnLoubudT,itHoittii,MyHn old, U ii 30n. iiigii,u>Eiiu 
■«ur nf tb* m^ 1 ft., ud of tlie had 15 ft. 

Commmial Statutici. PUmt», in the London nureeriw, are !». 6rf. eMht 
and Meds in the cone, or cstkio, we 2t. per pint. At Bollwjller, plants «re 
■ "3W Yorkthey»re25cents. 

s Biid £0 centa each ; 
1 8. L. imbb'rbb Wm. The bewdlan, o: 

HfHjlctltm. Wllld._S|i71.,».pL47S.i Alt.Hmt.Kcw.,: 

Orientat, Liquidambw. 
p. 365,1 ((.DuIUBi,SP*fc 



Stitmamn. I. irlentUlf HiU. iNM., Hat. irinauiu ntlauJlli iWt». IML,e.t. HB.iI^liitiMiU 

»^ [n &»-• C^ 
Emfnit/i^. f Poaxk. ieu„ «. t. 89. ; md oir >^. igRL 

Spec. Char., S^c. Leavea palcnate-lobed, with tfae Biniuei st the base of the 
?eiDS t smooth. {WUid.) Thia is a low stunted tree, or large bush, of ilow 

Kwth, with aumerom Hinall hranches -crawded trwetber into an irregular 
A. The young ahoota are pliant and reddiah ; ihe leavea are much like 
those of the preceding ^Kcies, but amaller, and 
laore likc thoEe of the commoD maple ; .because 
thej are bluntly notched, wbile tbe others are 
acutelyso. Seej^. IB64., in wluch a is a leaf of 
L. Styredflua, and h one of L. imb^rbe, both to 
the same Bcale. The Tcins of the leavesi in this 
species, are naked, while in the other they arc 
nairy st the base of the midrib. Tbc flowers are 
disposed like those in the prcceding species, and 
the (hiit is smaller, and more sparingiy fiimished 
with prickly points. The rate of growth,'in the 
clini&te of LondoD, is slow, being not more thM 
dft. or 6ft.ia ten years; and the lar^est tree 

that we know of in England, which is m the Mile End Nurserj, is only 
15ft. 6in., though it must have been planted 50 years, and probably more 
The tree ia a native of the Levant ; and waa introduced into France, sccord. 
ing to Du Hamel, bj H. Peyssonel, consul 
at Smyrna; and from France sent to Eng- 
land, to MiUer, who raised plonts of it in the 
Chelsea Uarden in 1759. It haa since been 
cultivated in choice coUections ; but, from 
its only bdDg raised by layers, and not form- 
ing Buch a handaome tree, not so generally 
as the Liquid&mbar Styracfflua. We are 
not aware that it has ever flowercd in Eng- 
land. It will grow in a soil rather dricr than 
theprecedingspecies will; though Du Hamel 
was informed uiat in its nadve country it growa in mcnst soil, by water, Hke 
the willow. It is therefore probable, tluit, if plajitcd in Bimilar soil in 
England, ond in a Bheltered wann Bituation, it wo(iId attain a much greater 
heiRht than it has hitherto done in this country. Price of plants, in Eng- 
land, aa in the preceding ^iecies. It is not in the BoUwyUer oitalogue, 
aad at New York the price of plants is 1 dollnr each. 

App. i. Species qf LiqaidAmbar not yet introdticed. 

liiAd«.>erAa<«f., S.p.1., Ftrt. Sfn., S.p.J7>., V<>V- ^- ^l; 3-P-SSS7^ 
nHU,I.La,«li Unium piiiutnuis 
K—.^ n— *. Ami., le.SI.; Aitlngl 
LnT« aVAto-oblDng, 
ncumlniU, ■RTiGed, glabrouB. [Bimmr.) 
A tr», wlth ■ KinNHllni ' - - " "- — 
ma tbiet, mi^j Um 

tm, ■iMce tfetn m * c. 

ftimm, leaiidni m V llk*f bi 


10 Sln. toni: ic — ., — 
tbVT. rMBa Ihn tliL 
Uh bwSnSL 
■tipulei. CaSHkii 

tMnO. Tldilmi „ 

aatft Ib» rt» ittiH tnnD«r in Um 

euAP. ax. inrRicAV^BA. arvRrcA* 2055 

▼WT rare. If noCtoteBj vantinf. NoranhA flnt dMctlbcd tbto tree io the AaL Soe. Battm. : bat he 
bednottae leeat nii|iicioD tbat it beloaged totlie geDus Llauidimber ZAm. The smeU gniiu 
wMcta are fbuiid aloog witb tbe leeds in same capnilei, whicb are nothing more than aboitive 
onilei, and whlcb bad been obterved by LlniuBus in L. Stjracf flua. be desmbed at small clufiy 
liodlei, mixed wlth the membranous tope of the seeda. It is called dj the natives of Java, RasiM- ; by the jirabs, Rasem.mfllhi; by the inhabiUints of New Ouinea. Russimal } and bj tbose of 
Coehln-China, RoMumalla. The wood is at flrtt reddlsh, and aflerwaras brownisb ; very oompaot, 
hard, of a beautlfUl grain, and having a gratefUl balsamic odour. It is much eBteeracd by tbe 
Javanese Ibr beams and planka The flowers ^ipear in May and Jane ; and the flruit is ripe in 
September, and tfae following months of tbe same year. {Kmme Fi. Jav., L 1, 8.) Sorengel imagined 
that this tree was the sameasour Aramciria exc^uai an error which was detected oy the detcrlption 
and flgure of Blume, as given above: 




MfKi^A L» Flowers miiflexua]; those of the two sexes npon different 
plants. — Male flowers in cylindrical sessile catkins. Each flower consists 
of 4, rarely more, stamens : these are inserted at the base of a bractea. 
Bracteas extendinjg beyond the stamens, looselv imbricated. — Female 
flowers closeiy dispoeed into ovate sessile catKins, and attended by 
closeij imbricated bracteas. One bractea attends 2 flowers. Each flower 
consists of a calyx of 2 — 4 yery minute scales; an ovary, to which the 
scales adhere; a short style; and 2 long thread-shai>ed stigpias. Ovary 
I-celled, and induding one uprifl^ht ovule. Carpel involucrated by the 
adherent, more or less fleshy, enmrj^ calyx» and so more or less resem- 
blin^ a berr^. Seed erect, exalbummous.— Spedes few; natives of the 
tomd and frigid zones of both hemispheres. ehrubs. . Leavea altemate, 
persistent, or annual ; simple in most, if not all ; generally more or less 
serrated, besprinkled with resinous dots, as are the scales of the bitds, and 
the surfiice of the fruit; which yield, when rubbed, an aromatic odour. 
Catkins axillary, expaading early m the foUowing year in the kinds with 
annual leaves. (T. Neei ab Etenb. Gen. Pl. Pl. Ger. ; Stmih Eng. Fl. ; 
and observation.) 

CoMPTo^NLi Gsertn. Flowers unisexual ; those of both sexes upon one 
plant,and in catkins. — Male catkins lateral, cylindrical, of several flowers. 
Bracteas imbricated. Flower of ** 3-twin " (Watson) stamens, seated tOr 
wards the baseof a bractea; sessile. Anthers ^lobed, opening at the 
side. — Female catkins lateral, ovate, of several flowers. Bracteas im- 
bricated. Flower of a calyx and pistil. Calyx free, flat, 6-parted ; seg- 
ments slender, unequal in length ; the longest as long again as the bractea. 
Ovary subglobose, depressed. Stvle short. Stiffmas 2. Fruit 1-celled, 
ovate, har{ shinine, attended by the calyx. Seed 1, ovaL — Spedes 1, a 
bushy dwarfish shrub, wild in sandy, stony, or slatv woods, in North 
America, from New Bngland to Virginia. Leaves altemate, lanceolate, 
pinnadfidly toothed, downy, sprinkled with golden, resinous, transparent 
particies ; annual. A fragrant odour resides in the resinous particles upon 
the i«ives, and, it is likely,in other parts of the plant. (JVatt. Dend. Brit. ; 
N. Du Ham.i and obaervation.) 

Genus L 


Jlf YRrCA L. Thb Candlbbbrry Myrtle. Un. S^st. DioeVia 


idgmi^UaUom. Un. Oen., 618. t Juss., 40a( Fl. Br., 107& ; Lam., t.809.( Oaftn., 189.; Enf; 
n.. 4. p. 238. i N. Du Ham , 2. p. m. 


a n io fw . QaUt IV. i Waeht StrauM, Oer. 

Deriiatkn. Tnm myrd, to flow ; tbe pUnts betag ftwnd on tbe bonkt ofrlTen. 

Detcripiiony ^c, Aromatic shrubs ; nativeB of Europe and North America. 
Thejr are of low growth, and gencrally require a moist, peaty soil. In 
British gardens, the spedes are propagated by layers, the stooLB bemg planted 
in moist peat soii. As the species throw up abundance of suckers, they may 
be also propagated by removing them, or by ^vision of the planL The 
American spedes is sometimes propagated by seeds, which should be sown 
in autumn, as soon after they are recdved from America as possible ; for, if 
kept out of the ground tiU spring, they wiil not come up till the spring foUow- 
ing. PlantSy in the London nursenes, are from 6^. to 2t, each; at Boli- 
wyller» 1 franc 50 cents $ and at New YoriE, 37} to 50 cents. 

fli 1. M. Gj^LB jL. The Sweel Gale, Sweei WUlow^ Candkberry Myrtle^ or 


ed. 1896. 

GiOe lUii Srn., M3., Bauta. Hitt., !• P^ 8. { JEteAgHQi Card. J9I«1, 81&, LtA. Jc, S. 
rtiu brabiotiea Qer. Emae., p. UI4 ; Ab6t myrtiniU bfilgica Bamk. Pm., 414 ; R. 

•Tlv^itris titen Dateck. Biti., 110. ; R. •jhrfistrii Park. Tkeai,, pi 145L ; IfyTica palfistris LaoL ; 
&• ' ~ .—.--- 

M6, Pimento royal, Fr. ; gemeine Wacb^ Straudi, Ger. 
XHfrraviagt. EDg. BoC, 1 56S. j FL Dan., t SSH. ; Hayne. t. fioa ; Lob. I&, SL p. 11& £ ; N. Da 

Ham., S. 1 57. ; and omjlg. 19S6L 
Tie Seaet. Botb aro in tbe arboretum of Meetra. Loddlge*. 

Spee, Char,^ S^c, Leaves lanceolate, serrated ; tapering 
and entire at the base. Scales of the (»tkins 
pointed. {Snuih,) A dedduous aromatic shrub, 
which rises with many stems, from 2 ft. to 4 ft. high ; 
divicUi^ into several slender branches, which are 
covered with a ferruginous-coloured bark, sprinkled 
with white dots. The leaves are altemate» on short 
footstslks, obovate-lanceolate, ta^ering and serrated 
towards the point. They are rigid, smooth on both 
sides, and of a light or yellowish green, paiest on the 
iinder side. Thev are covered with resinous dots, 
which emit a delightful fragrance when bruised. Ac- 
cording to Sir W. J. E&oker, the whole ^'plant 
difiuses an agreeable smeU : — 

* Oale flrom tbe bog shaU vaft Arabbu balm.* " 

AiC Hbr., ed. S., pk 432. 

The catkina are numerous and sessile; thev are formed in the course 
of the summer*s growth, and remain on during the winter, expanding 
the following spring, before the leaves. The flower buds are above 
the leaf bucM, at tbe ends of the branches ; whence, as soon as the 
firnctification is completed, the end of the branch dies, the leaf buds 
which are on the sides shoot out, and the stems become compound. 
The scales of the male catkins are of a red shininff brown; and the 
lower ones of the female catkins Iiave a cirdet of red hairs towards the 
tip. The berries are very small, and covered with resinous dots, like 
the leaves. Thoiigh the male and female flowers are generally produced 
on difierent plants, they are sometimes found on the same plant; a fact first 
observed by John Templeton, Esq., of Belfast. ^See Smith's Eng, Fhra^ 
iv. p. 239.) Tbe sweet ^e is a native of the north and centre of 
Europe, of the north of Asia, and of North America, in Pennsylvania and 
Canada. In Europe, it is found in Lapland, Norwav, and Sweden, France, 
Germany, and the Austrian dominions, as far south as the north of Italy. 
In Great Britain, it is found from Sutherland and the Grampian Mountains, 
to Cornwall, as high as 1400 ft. above the level of the sea ; bdng more 
hardy than the hazd. It is a native of Ireland ; and there, as every where 
else, it is found almost exclusivdy in bogs and marshes. The ^e was 
coticed by all the older botanists: Ray and Bauliin (in his Hittona 


Pta>ilanni)caUedltOdiei Cnrdinuimd L'(H>el,£lBi«Dus; aiidDalechamp 
■od PwlmBon, Shba ; the latter snpposing it to be tbe RbCta s^Iv&tiia, or 
wild siuntidi, <A Ptiaj ; while the DBDuh profeMor, Simoa Paulli, asserted it 
to be the mine as the Chineae tea tree- AccordinB to Gerard, this plaot, in 
hii time, Brew so abundantl v in the Isle of Ely, Uiat the inhatntanta made 
^gots of it (whicb the; called goule sbeaTes) to heat tbeir ovens. In more 
modeni times, the twiga are laid hy country people among clothes, to give 
them an agreeable smell, and to keep away the moths. The WeUh la* 
bnncbes on tbeir beda to keep offthe fleas. The plant is also used, boUi 
in Walea aod Sweden, to dye wool yellow, and to tan calf^kins. The 
leavea are bitter, and are Bometimes used inatead of bopa b brewiiw 
beer; bat, unless boiled a lonx time, they sre reported to give a bead- 
ech. A strong decoction of the ieaves and twigi ia used, b Swe- 
den, to deatroy bugs; and both the Highlandera and the Wekb give 
an inltiBion of the leaves to cbildren, to kill worms. la 8cot- 
hnd, the inhabitanta stuff beds with the leaves. The berriea 
are put in beer, in the same manner as those of C6cciilus C;.^ 
Indicua, to make it heady and intoxicating ; and, when di^, ^V 
they are naed, at 8t. L^ger, iu the neishbourhood of PariB, ■ ^ 
aa q>ice^ In a treab state, they yield an easential oil bv ^lk 
diitillation. Linnieua atatee thu the catkins, when boilec^ 
will throw up s scum like wax. Tbe gale is tbe badge of tbe 
Higfaland clan Campbell. A variety with lar^ leaves, &c, j^ 

b mentioned by Idirbel, and a figure of it given in tfae JUSm. Mia., 14, 
p. 474. L 28., oif which our/g. 1967. is a reduced copy. 

iiiii«.S»iit,anB6CLj N.DuHun., ELiiUat 
4 p. IM. j Boit CUff i.US. I Siaii. Vli(., UCk ; 

n intiutlRilhi JU. Rorl, Ow.A P- SM I S?^ tnUntloL Ac, PM. 

Aacknsj ATtiiiiMiim; but, ■• mhIi nrg iiSnuailT ImpiirM ftniB 
n Uk Dountty kn mMHf pkcB^ 

j^fw. Char^ S^. Leaves lanceolate, pointed, serrated, flat, somewhat ahining. 
(Ltm. Eneyc.') A large shrub, from 5ft. to lEfL high, and upwarda; a 
native of North America. Introduced in 1699, and flowering in Hay 
or June. 

« M. c. 8 lal^oha Ait. Hort Eew., ed. 1., iii. p. 396.; M. c. m^ 

3fic4*. W. Bor. Amer., ii. p. 288.; M. caroUn£nsu Wm. ^. PA, 

iv. p. 746., AU. Hort. Kew., edit. 2., v. 

p. 379., MiU. HicL, Vo. 3., Purih Fl. 

Aaer. Sepl.,i>. p. 620.; Jlf . pennsylTfinica 

Lam. Eniyc. ii. p. 692., K. Da Hatn., ii, ^ 

p, 190. L 56., and our &. 1968. 
aempervirens Hart. ; Mfnua brab&ntica A 
Cai. Car., i. t. 13. ; C&ier de Pennsyl- (/; 

vanie, Fr., Carolinischer WachstrHUch, 

Ger. Tke broad-ieaved American Candle- 

berryMifTlle. — Tbia variety haa the leavea 

broader than thnae of the species, and an 

arborescent stem. Accordin^ to tbe JVba* 

ivau D» Hamel, jt ia hardier than M. 

cerifera ; and, in the garden at Malniiiison, 

near PaTis, has attained the height of 811. It js mentioned by 

Catesby, as having its leavea broader, and more lerrated, than tbe 

cODimoii American candleberry myrtle ; and it appean that it was 


cultivated in England before 1730, as it ts induded in the Hortnt 
AngUcuty published in ttiat year. 

il IC c. 3 ptMukt Mlchx. Fl. Amer.» U. p. 9t8., Punb FL Amer., Sept.. U. p. 600., hat thc 
leavet UneBr-Jaooeolete. In the Nouvemt Du HamO, it Ui niggestcd thet tbie » ooly a 
▼ariation produced by •ome dillbrence oT dimete or loU. It !• very low, «nd its leaTce 
are not larger tban tboae of the iweet gale of EurofM. 

DeicripHon, ^c, The American candleberry myrtle ia a larse eyei^^reen 
shrub, growing to the height of 12 ft. and upwards, in favourable sttuations, 
and forming a thick bush. Its general appearance and habits closeiy reseroble 
those of the European species ; the leaves are, however, larger, and more 
serrated ; they are evergreen, and, in M, c. latifdlia, greatly resemble those 
of the sweet bay. The male catkins are axillary and sesGole; but have not 
the shining scales of the il/yiica Gale, The fruits are globose drupes, about 
the bi^ess of a grain of black pepper; covered with an unctuous substance 
as white as snow, which ^ves them the appearance of a kind of sugar plum. 
The candleberry myrtle is found in North America, from Virginia to Caro- 
lina; and the varieties, in New England and Pennsylvania : the species, and 
M. c. pumila, oflen in dry shady w<x>ds ; while the broad-leaved variety, like 
the il^ica Gdle of Europe, delishts in wet places about swamps or rivers. 
A kind of candleberry myrtle is found in Canada ; but it appears to belong 
to Ifyrica Gdlcy and not to M, cerifera. The principal, if not the only, use 
made of the candieberry myrtle, in America, is the coilecting from it of its 
resinous wax. This substance, according to Duplessy, was formeriy procured 
b^ gatfaering the berries carefidiy with the staik attached, and boihng them 
till they burst, when the oily matter thev contained rose to the surface; it was 
then skimmed off, and set aside to harden, till it became a substance of about 
the consistence of putty, and of a greenish colour, which was easily blanched, 
and was readily inflammable when made into candles. A better way is said 
to be, pouring boiiing water on the berries, by which means a purer wax is 
extracted, of a pale yellow colour. The candleberrv wax is so brittie, that a 
piece wili break if iet fall : it may also be reduoed to powder, like common 
resin. It becomes, however, sof^ like oommon wax, by pressure. When 
made into candles, it is necessary to mix it with bees' wax, or a little suet. 
The water in jvliich the berries were boiled or infiised is used to give a greater 
degree of firmness to tallow candles. (Vegetaux Resmeux, ii. p. 60.^ Culti- 
vated trees are said to yieid more wax thau those that are found wild. The 
candles formed of this wax burn iong, and vield a grateful smell (Smiih*t Corr, 
ofLinn.) ; and they are said to have the advantage of producing an agreeable 
aromadc frasrance when they are blown out, or otherwise extinguish^. Ac- 
cording to KEdm, a soap is made from the wax, and it is used by surgeons 
for plasters. In Carolma, a kind of sealine-wax is made of it ; and the root 
18 accounted a spedfic in the toothach. Tnis shrub has been cultivated in 
English shrubberies since 1699 ; and there are plants of it at the Duke of 
Devonshire's villa at Chiswick, and at various other places in the neighbour- 
hood of London, from 6 ft. to 8 fl. high. In France and Oermany, it lias been 
cuitivated witli a view to its producing wax ; and it is said to thirive in sandy 
peat, rather moist, and to produce an abundant crop of berries cvery year. In 
Prussia, it has been cultivated in a carden on the banks of the Spree, near 
Berlin, in lat 62? 53^; which is nearly l^ degree farther north than London, 
but where the mean annual temperature is 2^ 9^ higher than London ; and 
wax and candles have been made from the fruit. It has been suggesteil 
by Dr. Hamilton (Gard, Mag., vol. i. p. 403.), that it migfat be cultivated for 
the same purpose in high sandy wastes in Uampshire, and other parts in the 
south of England. 

App. L Half-hardy Species qfMyricoj adtivated in British 


M. Fiya AU. BorU Kew., ed. 1.. & p. 597., N. Du Ham.. iL p. 194., LodtL Cat., ed. 1836, and our 
fig. 1969. i tbe Azore* Candleberry MyTtle: ba« tbe leavcs elllpHo-lanceohite, somewbat ■errate. Male 
ditkinc oompound. Dnqw with a ^eeUea Qudeus. ( WiHA Sp. PL, iv. p. 747.) An evergreen ■brub. 


a nafiT* of Hiddn ind llw Ai«ai. lotialHad In 17T). W Hr. ~. /irJ 

Utam. Loddln^ fiL ^?<«r t 

M. arrUn \w. Emk, S. |l asa., N. Du Huq., (. p. IW. ( ^ . '?«^,^ 

Bmrm.FTVd.,SI., Plllk.l^.,t.1fS.t9. LnTei linw-Umvo- ^S&Vfl 

lile, polBlal, d»lT «kI KinMiilut dgublj ■aruaa. Uin. '3W 

£•4)1.) Ad uprlgm-iimina »TBirMn •faiub, atnui a n. hleh, f- «AtjRW 

wilbTciT lUiniui lenKi,arii bHutmil gnwn; Uie uld onis ^ iSUv 

nmlut Bm^g. Hit ui» lUudei is thc Hmtur« oT Ilic '. " ioKl 

!«•«, •blch m laj ietf uiil open. The bertla laerotle f j. ,* j i» "T"''°1lff 

Ihoieodtterilmi W lhe»m Unckwhen qult» Hpe.uid '-'ii^ ^SaZH^ 

pnHrrei point it th* nimnuL A ullTe or tl» Cape o< Oood ' 'bff^Cf '^^JUSl 

ibn InlmduMdbTHr. F. Mju»n,lnl733. ^ko ^8iS¥L 

lad., L »«. r. I., Hon. ailT. 4S&, Fluk. Alm,, t. laL, N. l>u I «^""^CT^ 

Mm.,i. nUS., Lun. Edctc, 2. p. £03., Lodd. UU., ed. 1S3G i > ,, (^ IT V 

J.aaiwaAi:tnm«e., GonMimL, !. tSl., AnV Af^ I>«f., ' l''l'!l " 
BS. t hu tb* la«« oni»-wAt» ■fiiMil, dBuat*. ■eniud, Wunt- 

lib ; tbe dMikai sfteii utulir. (um. Smqic.) A ■brub, 8 ft. or 3 ft. blgfa, *lUi numeroui ledil 

aowvnnc bi June (ad Julj. Intnduccd beftB* ITa^ u 11 wu cultliutd In Ihil thi by MUIcr. 

M. 4, Hnita MUL Dtct., Alt Hnt. Erw., «HL i., t. e. SSO., onl) diOkn rnua Ibe piccc^Ung 
hkTln* the kma luii)'. 

M. m^UMa Un. So., MSt., Relch.. t. p. St&., HoK CIIS, IB6., Pluk. FhrL, 1. 3la t. 7., H. 

IIUL, & dl 1». RoT Lugdb., »7 1 AlmcmBldM /alcH fiiUo, ftt, WbU. Hort, 1 L a ; V. ftSlti i 
CDidUii, ic, Atim Afi-., L 98. C 3. i Cdb cnptncU, ftc . Pefjn. Mu.. 774. ; CorlotriuenuIad^Dd 
JlictaBuMllt (bUoPlMt. JAn., G^, »■*. f%nl., 1319. f.7.i W. cspiniU L iliM. Cjt.,' 1MB; 

Dw Aciwf, tfae imt omMiieiital ■pcdctof tb* gcntB. Tbe lotrec arv Dumeiovf, iniall, bej 
•lupad, ud dentttcd. II 6owai In Mtf aBd JUM Tbe beiriii tre nlhei % n 

loia-IlHaUisMoriCcMhn. ADMiT*arthaCt»^oulUrittd t759,bTUU1eT. '4^%:, 

Thniiba«.lntai(T>w>rii,u)vi"TbebiuchttDrt£eim tbiublMyrlacocdS. -4^\ 

ft>bi),lbebeRlaorwhk^t»coTercdw1thatMiHbUuoe,f««nUiiwbee('wu, a #L ~ ^ 
werc put wbole tailo ■ pot of bolUng wttsr, in ordci to mctl ud iklnl Dfftha wai. ..■ 'i^ "* 
It mcnMec (rcT loqiarowu, ll hitdw Ibu tiHow, ud ■ODWwhtt ioftRIbBn ,', . 
wu. Tfac &nncn lue ll fm candla ; ud tfae Uatlcntat^ tet It llkea vaax sf ' 
br^ wilfa or wllfaoul mnL" (nnknfilVuc&.i. pie?.] Wehtve liiiie 
dubt Uul thli •peda «oukl tirlTe agttiut . csnaerrulTe wtU. 

App. ii. Half-hardy Spedes qfM.t/rica not 
yet introdwxd, 

M, ^km li l a Hlrb. Ttta. Hui., 14. p.47«. LSS. f. 1.; tod our Ae 1970. 
luTca qiaUmltte, blunt, qulle eDlir- ^.hw.... u.i. «Ai». .....n.. r.ui... 

■oUttiT, (honer tlun thc petlolet. 
LttTci 1 lo, to S) in. long, ud | In 


Genus II. 


COMPTO^N/J Bankg. Thb Comftonia. Im, Sytt, Honce^B Trifindria. 

MnfMiilrtill Ovtn.FnicL, I.p. 58. i K. Du HuL. 2.P.4S. 

SfKK^ma. Ujuldtmbu LM ^ 1 »;ilo Lii Uon. aiff., 4H., Grtm. Vlrt, S.p.lB&.; OlUt 
PcdVMn»., 7)3. i Coniplone, Fr. ( Complonir, Orr, 

ofBBnjcuiiauiexocicpluu, tbdoDeaf IbegTeAtatpatioatof boUDjudgnnlfnlDgalblttlDM; 
Defcr^tiim, ^c. A low evcrgreen Bhrub, a natiTe of Notth AiDcrica, in 
maiit peatpr aoHa, oearly allied to Afyrtca. Only one spedet bu hitherto 
been descnbed. 

■ 1. C. .isPLBNiFo'LiA Banki. The Asplemuin.]eared ComptoDia. 

Idnmc^om. AIL Hort. Kow.. S. p. 334. t Oartn. Fruot. 1 B. SS. i L'B<rlt. 3Uip., nor. ed., C. 
L J& 1 N. Du Hui., £. p. 4fi. i Dend. Bilt, L Ifie. ; Punfa n. AmB, Sqpt., E. p G3& i Ludd. 

ar^mima. Uquldkm^ avlBillMlum U>. Sp., 14IS., Du Biiw. Arb., 1. n see ; L. pongrlnuin 
Ltit.Sytt., Sal, A^cA, 4. jn. 171. ; UjTia IM. HarL CHir, iS6., Gnm.yirg., US., QilJ.yiBK^, 
m, km. Dla.jVa. 4 ; (Alr mxtitnt Pef. Mw,, 713, ) iffrtuj brtbiallcc afllnb PM. Fkyl., 
t. lOa 1 « T. 1 fbc (wek Fein Buih, Amcr. 

MymHm§i. Fluk. Pbn., L igo, £ 6, 7. ; N. Du Hun., L 11. i Dcnd. Biit, L IS6. ; ud oui /tf. 

^>ec. Char,, ^c. Leaves long, linear, alternate, crenately pinnatifid. 
(IKAU.^/>A,iv.p.320.) A dedduoiu shnib, 3ft.or4ft.hieh. Tbej-ouiv 




branches are downj. Leayes alternate, oblong, 
linear; cut on each sideinto rounded and numerous 
lobes, like those of the ceterach ; and sprinkled with 
ahining dots, like thoae ofthe sales. The maie cat- 
kina are oblongand aesstle; female catkins sessile, 
solitary, lateral, and bristly, with numerous fiiaments. 
Accordin^ to Pursh, the whole plant, when rubbed, 
has a resmous sceut. A natiye of North America, 
from New EngUmd to Virginia, in sandy, stony, or 
slaty woods. It was introduced in 1714, by the 
Duchess of Beaufort. The shrub is yer^ hardy, but 
it requires peat earth and a shady situation. It may 
be propagated by lavers, suckers, or seeds. The first 
and second methods are the most common, as nxxi 
seeds can rarely be procured. Plants, in the Lon- 
don nurseries, are from U, to 1«. 6d, each ; at Boli- 
wyller, Sfiimca; and at New York, 37} cents. 




This remarkable famiiy consists of branchy trees, the branches of which 
are in all cases, when fiiUy grown, ** long, drooping, green, and wiry, with 
yenr small scale-like sheaths, in the room of leayes. The flowers are unisexual, 
and disposed in yerticiilate spikes; they haye ndther calyx nor coroUa, are 
monanorous, and their oyaries are lenticular, with a soUtary erect oyule. The 
firuit oonsists of hardened bracts, enclosing the smaU caryopses, or nut-Uke 
seeds, which are winged." (lAndl. m Pefmy Cyc^ Natiyes ot Asia, Australia, 
and Poiynesia. This order was formerly consiaered to belong to Coniferae ; 
but is now placed by botanists next to Jliyrickceae. The timber of some of 
the species forms the beef-wood of the New South Wales colonists, and is 
of excellent quaUty. In British gardens, the plants are more hardy than most 
of the AustraUan trees ; and, in warm situations in Deyonshire, or sheltered 
by eyergreens in other parts of the south of England, would probably attain 
a timber-like size without any care or trouble whateyer. 

Casuarina eqviietifolia Ait. Hort. Kew., iu. p. 320., MTiUd. 8p. PL, iy. p. 190., 
Bot. Cab., t. 607.,and our^. 1972. ; C. littorea Rumph, Amb,,m, t, 57.; Swamp 
Oak, Auitral, ; Filao k Feuilles de Prele, Fr, Moncecious. Branchlets weak, 
round. Scales of the strobUes unarmed, yUIous; sheaths of the male 7-parted, 
cUiated. A lofty tree, with a large trunk, and numerous branches. These 
branches are long, slender, wand-Iike, cylindrical, weak, and droopmg, bearing 
a great resemblance to those of the common horsetaU. Six or seyen scales, 
or teeth, on each branch, serye instead of leayes. The catkins are upright 
and terminal ; the scales of the cones are downy ; and those of the male cat- 
kins are cUiated. In Australia, it flowers in October and Noyember. It is a 
natiye of the East Indies, New HoUand, and the South Sea Islands ; from 
which iast country it was introduced in 1766, by Admiral Byron. From 
the cone-Iike shape of its firuit, it was at first supposed to beiong to the Co- 
nifersB, and was called the Tlnian pine. It stands out in the dimate of 
London ; and there is a tree in the garden of Wm. Bromley, Esq., 1 1 ft. high, 
of which our fig, 1972. is a portrait, taken in 1834. In the TVansacikms ofthe 
Horiiculttaral Sociefy for 1818 is an accpunt, accompanied by a figure of the 
entire tree, of a^ species of Casuarina then growing in the gardens of Bel- 
yederey near Weimar, communicated by His Koyal Highness Charlea Augus- 


tiu Oraud-Duke of Sax» 
WednMT. The Bpedes of 
Cuoarina bere ■lladed to 
was ■ent to Wdmar origin- 
ally under the name of Ca- 
siiariDa equiaedfdlia lAitn. i 
aadm8,iD thejear 1610, 
tMt a Tei; nnall abrub, not 
nioK tban Sft. high, ond 
the tTDDk three fourths of 
ao inch in diameter, In that 
jear, it was planted in the 
open air, in good mU, cob- 

tyining a pOTtJlin Of CalCB- 

reous matter, the substra- 
ttun of the coiiDtTj being of 
that natnre. It wai n> 
pUced aa to recdTe the full 

castmi winds. Id 

a tonpoTv; building, which 
waa warmed bj flre, ao 
as to exclude the frost. 
The heigbt of the tree, in 1818, was 16(1. 6b., the drcumference of the 
head 42 ft., and that of the trunk nevlj 80 in. Near to thts tree was 
SDOther, which wbi planled in 1813. It was sent from PariB to Weimar 
in a flower-pot, snd was then a verj Hmall shrub. In 1818, tt bad tJready 
reached the height of 8 (t., and the truok was nesrly 2 in. in diameter. 
The larger tree flowered in IBIB, but without produdnK any seed, behtg 
evidently a dioecioua plant. With regard to the botanic^ charBcter of thia 
casuarina some doubta hsve ariten. It doet not seem to be the species 
uniallj called equisetifolla. The Belvedere plant appesred, in 1818, to be 
deariy diceciaus : it waa covered with male flowere, and uot a dngle female 
waa tobeieea. Whether thisarDsefrom thecircumstancethat,in montecious 
plants, one set of flowers souietimeB «o strongly predominBtea aa to render 
the othcr impercq>tible, and that a sort of eqiuutj between the two sets of 
flowera ooly takes place as the plant advances in age; or that tbe plant in 
'■ it C. (^quiseUfdha, but another species of the genua, which ia 


CBi>44irsForK.I>ro>l., NaSlS., Wind.Sp. FL, 4 111:. _.. . 

tivaiul. ScdaarUHKniliUeiuiuincd.itobroui. sdailhi or Ui« nulB «.clcft, (Uhdiu. .. 
Ulthlctij (luUTaorNnCilcilonbi. blroituoHl 1d ISU. 

C Mi^ Vtnl. Cd>., L ea., WilU. Sp. FL, 4, a 191. IHvcloiu. nnnhlMi cncL iDnnd. : 
a(tbcMnil]ilaBunMd,dllu*d. BhoUu oftlw uil* 7.clcn.>iwwhMi:Ulitcd. Flowenlba 
Atn>,lSft.hl^;aMllno(HcwHatlBid. Imndwwl In aw. 

C •McU Ah. Hort Kn>., 3. 9. 380, TOIld. Sbl Pl, 4 ^ 190, Bot. R«p.. I. M& IHodoiu. 
Bnadilni «nc^ Aunwtd. lail«oftlMMnUlc>inuniMd,nooaui. ShaUu oT the »1« mul- 

II Siiweri la Nortntor nd Deecmber. liim it * pUnl 1b >he tlcaUeultunl SocMjf^ GudtB, 
lAlch bniliBd •citail ■ eonecmdre wiU elBee 183) ; uid tben uc pUnte st HewL Loddlsea'1. 

C.lanMm AIL Hort. Kbw., S. |i.S90, WUld. Sp. PL, 4. pl IBl, T^h cork-buked Cuuutna. 
DlncMw. BincbltU wcBk. BalceiiflbeitroWlcc rilloiu, luberciJit(,niush. SbetlbtorUK mil* 
«dA A Iu|c tree, t buItb oT HoUud. Intnduoal In ITTl, bj Slr Joiciih Bul». Tben tn 
IdiBUit Ibn. IdUlfa-L 

CnUvre, ^c. As all the above spedes sre probably equally hardy, we 
would recomnMDd as many of tbem as posiible to be got, sndplanted in wBnn 
situationi, in drj, sandy, pine orGr woods, where Otey would be thoroughly 
sheltered. The pines snould be at least 6 ft. or 8 fl. higher than the casua- 
linasj but their branches should never be sllowed to come uearcr tbem than 
within Sfl. or 3 ft.j and the roots of the pine trees, on the side uext the 
I, should be cuC off annually with a spade. As the casuaiiro in- 


creases in size, the pines or firs surrounding it should faave their branches 
cut tn, or the trees should be cut down, so as to ailow the fomier room to 
expand on ever^ side, and to increase its power of resisting cold and wind, 
as it increases m size. Ultimately, a space of such dimensions might be left 
round it as to admit of a qiectator looking at the top of the tree, at an angle 
of vision of from 30° to 35°. We mention this angle of vision, because 
experience proves that no tree or other object can be seen to the ereatest aiU 
vantage when the angle of vision is either much greater, or much less, tlian 
from 30° to 35°. The casuarinas, when grown in pots^ thrive weil in equal 
parts of sand, loam, and peat : but, in the open ground, a sandy loam, with 
a drv subsoil, would proDably suit them best ; because, in such a soil^ thejr 
woufd probably not make more wood than they could ripen before winter. 
They are all propagated by seeds, but would probably succeed by cuttings of 
the points of the shoots, in sand, under a bell-glass. 



f PHBDRA Toum, Devoid of obvious leaves. Leaves scale-Iike, opposite, 
in pairs; the direction of the pairs decussating. Flowers unisexual ; thosc 
of the two sexes upon distinct plants. — Male. Fiowers in axillary groups. 
Flowers in the group opposite, in pairs ; the pairs decussate in direction ; 
each pair subtended by a perfoliate bractea. Calyx tubuiar, bifid in tbe 
upper part ; first includine, then surroundin^, a straight column situated at 
its base, extended beyondits tip, and there divided into 2 — 8 short pedicels, 
proper to as many anthers : each anther has two cells, and each ceil opens 
by a terminai hole. -— Female. Flowers borne about the terminal parts of 
a branchy or of branches ; in pairs : the pairs 1 — 8 together, at the tips of 
axillary peduncles ; or 3 together at the tip of a branch. Each flower 
consists of an ovule, plano-convex, upright, perfoliated at the tip, and ter- 
minated by a style-like hollow process, formed from the secundine of the 
nucleus. The ovules are ctisposed 2 together, with their flat faces approx- 
imate ; and Uie 2 are bracteated by perfoliate decussate bracteas. £ach 
ovule, if not abortive, becomes a seed. The seeds are partly invested with 
the uppermost and upper of the bracteas, enlarged, and rendered fleshy. 
Embryo in the centre of fleshy albumen. Radicle uppermost. — Spedes 
few, natives of the temperate parts of £uro|ie, Asia, and Afiica. Shrubs ; 
much branched. Stem and branches jointed, and separable at the joints. 
(T. Neet ab Esenb. Gen. PL Fl. Ger.; Lmdl. Nat. Syst. Boi. ; and obser- 

G£NU8 I. 


B^PHEDRA L. Thb Ephbdra. Iah. Syst. DioeVia Monad^lphia. 

Idauaieation, Un. Gen., lia& ; Rdch., 1M8. ; Schrdx, 15EL; Toara., 447.; N. Du Ham., a 

p. 17. 
DcrinatitM. From epkedra, the Greek name for tbe iTippClris, or HoriCtaU, whlcb it naeuMet. 

Description^ ^c. Low shrubs ; evergreen, from the colour of the bark of 
their branches, and in that resoect resembline the genera Casuarina and ^qui- 
setum. They are natives of the south of Europe, Barbary, and Siberia, on 
the sca shore, or in saline or sandy wastcs ; and they have been but little sub- 
jected to cuitivation. They might, however, be used in omamental scenery 
as evergreens, and even cultivat^ for their fruit ; which, in their native coun- 



trics, npens in spring, becoming succulent, like a litcle mulberry, with aalightly 
add, and yet sugary and agreeable, ta^te. In the wormer parts of the soutn 
of Eogland, this rniic might he cultivated so as to become valuable for the 
deasert ; from its ripening at a time when no other fruit in tbe open air in 
Britain ii Brer found ripe. The plantB, when allowed to srow to their Aill 
Nie, fonn evergreen busbes; not by the colour of thdr Teavea, which are 
Bcaively Derceptible, escept when very closely obaerved ; but by the deqi 
green bark of the shoots, which, in old plants, are very numerous, and form a 
dense head. According to Du Hamet, thcy bear the shears well, and form 
beautHiil rouad balla, which may either be made to wipear ai if lying on tfae 
ground, or may be trsined on a short stem. Hte lower sorts, Du Hemel 
continues, may be dipped to reseuible turf; and for that purpoae the plant 
may be Taluable, in some parts of Australia and Africa, to fonn lawns which 
sball create an allusion to temperate climates. The saving b^ using such 
plants as Cphedra, which would require little or no watering, instead of a 
great deel, as the European grasses would do ia sucb a climate, would be very 

« I. £. DISTA^CI 

1 L. The two-spiked Ephedra, Greal ihrubby Horie- 
taU, or Sea Grape. 
i Him., &p. 19.) Ait. Hort. Knr.,«d. t.,3.pllt. 

.L Bl.Ki Kich. Htai. CaDlr.,t. 
1 1. i nHl oarj^ ma ud I97A 

*«^W., *f. Peduncles opposiie. Catkins twin. (lAn.) A small ever- 
gr«^ ihrub, with numeroHs cylindrical branches, articolate.1, 
and fiimuhed at each «rticula- 

tioQ with two small linear leaves. ^Htk ■*,Vi ' 

A native of the south of France ftSi ^lu ^lf^ 

and Spain, in sandy soils on ihe ■ ' . . 

sea shore, where it growB to ihe 
heightof3ft.or4>a.; and flow- 
ei» in June aod July, ripening 
its berrics a short time after- 
wtrds. It WBS cultivated in Eng- 
land before 1570, by Matthias 
L'Obel; but, as far as we have 
observed, justice bas never been 
done to this, or aiiy other spe- 
cies of B^pbedra in British gar- 
dens. There are plonts in the 
Hammersmith Nursery, in the 
Twickenham Botanic Garden, 
Jn the Horticultural Society'B 
Garden, at Kew, and at Measn. 

«. i. E. monostaYhya L. The oi 

Phe one.«piked Ephedra, nr SnaH ikrubhy 

UrwllJU-aliim. Ub. Sp., I 



a..t|>.171.( E. mtniiaa,« 
«, IV»^ di SiMHe, Fr. 

,LSG.iMDd.BttL, t 

3Si.i R p^gMiUit F^. &tM. ; efbhirr: 
ncSria. TheRaniBiilaiiluiti ■tHcan. Li.. 
£>Wr»*W>. Omd. BH)., 1. a 171. f. L ; Amm. Ru 
■nd Diu;||ti unSL wd llQe., aT Ibr nule pUot 
jjp«'. dor,, ^, Pedunclet Dtan;,. Catkins solitary. {Lin,) 
Thu shnib k much soisller, aod hHrdier, than £. dtEtach^s 
It 18 s natire of Siberia, near Bait Eprings, and in BalmA 
wa«te« ; and, accordineto Pallas, is " comnion in 
the aouthem parts of Kusaia, &om the Don and 
the Volga to the Lora. It is bJeo found in 
" rsia and India. It occura Tei7 plentifull; 
ir the IrtiB, sometimes covcring lai^e spaces, 
and having beautifiilly coloilred bemes. The 
Kereisi uae the HBhes of the wood for snuff." 
1975 (Pi3l.Fl.Rou.) Theplant waiintroducedinto 
Britaio by Btesars. Kennedy and Lee, in 1T7S. 

■ 3. E. ALti'sBiiiA Deif. Tbe loftiest Kphedra. 
Ma<MI«Am. DmC FL Alt, S, p. 3TL t S53. j N. Du. Hiun.. & |i. 18. i Ricb. Htm. 


SS&BiLAc foan. /«.. 863.. VaUL 
HrTb., Jlaa. aorp. Htlw., D% Uam. 
■ fc, l 1. P. ao. i Polfimuin mi. 
imini HlndeDi BawA. Ptn., 1£. 

l. f.aj •ndourA. 1977. 

ofUienule,ftmtlieN. DuTiun.; «ndA«, IJTBl uid 1979,, thowlogbotlmm 

SiKC. Ckar., 4c Shnibbf. BnnchMi dlTaricUc. nunernu, ciiinbina. Fenule < 

■blki, •oUtUT. iDttf-l A ■Dod; ibTubt gnHrlng tatbeheltblDfLSft. « SO ft. i ■ c 

vlwitl «Bd ■■ lieTlag 

ba tBmed to nrj good 

^i«M( FluUiBlgbl 
niiUT ba proeured ftoin 
th* Fltia Oudcfi, uid 

■ 4.'E. FRA'aiLis Deif. Tbe &9gite Epheara. 

, _.- . _mf.n.Alt,aii.3T».; N.DuIUm.,iLniia 

^ tm r m n . E. crtlici TWr. Cgr„ S3., FailMcr.f EquiiMum ■wnUnuin crf llcum Alp.Ei.l*l. 
ntSan. ThcfEiiulelifiniiBlln Alp. EiaI.,Lli|. 

J^. Clar,,at. CitUiuMHl)e-,UienuliiaotiiaT«U. AnicuUtiou or the bnncho Kpuibl 
(Dff^) AihrubLbMn«ift.«Hl9ft.blgta,wT[hGiUadrtcilbnDelMi,iUc)illriulU(di ■ nilLi 
of Spiin, wid <tf U» •<■ oo«t ar Iha imich or Fnnn, but Dot tM iBtmducMl into BilulB. 


Ta^ius Toum. Flowers unbesual, axiUary ; thone of the two sexes upon 
dudnct planUt. — Mole flower. It consists of anthers npon short pedicels, 
at thc top of a colimm tbat hHs imbricate scales at tbe base : these had en- 
rdo^ed tne column and anthen before thef were protracted. Tbe anther 
eonsista of 4, 5, 6, or rarelj mare, l-celled lobes, attoched to a connectivum, 
whooe tip is a horizontal sbield, lobed at the ed^; its lobea correipoiidiDg 
in nnaiber and place wttli thoDe of the Einther, and coTering them : the celu 
open longitudinall;. — Female flower, An erect ovule, perforate at the dp ; 
and an unobvious anuular diik at ita bBse; and, exterior to thia, tbere 
are invesiing imbricate scales. — Fniit. 'Die disk, at the base of the ovule, 
becomei B Seshy open cup, that suTTOunds the lo wer pait of the seed, which 
b erposed in tlie remaining part : tbe icales are at the base of the cup, 
outside : the seed is like a nut. — Leaves evergreen, linear-acute, rigid, more 
or less S.«iwed in direction. (Neet ab Etetii. % and J. Z)'i obaervation.) 

Sausbd^rm Smith. Flowers uoiseiual; those of the two sezea upon dis< 
tinct plants. — Mole. Flowers in tapering, decurved, bractless catkina, which 
are bame several from one bud ; and situated outwardly to a tuft of leaves 
bome from the centre of the same bud. Flowers many iu a catlcin, each 
appearii^ as a stamen only, and coniiating of b short filameDt-like stalk ; 
utu two cases of pollcn attached ver; near to its tip, and a sceJe that ter- 
DiinBtes it. — Female. Flowos borae from a bud, from which leaves are 
produced also ; and on peduncles, either singly, or aeveral on the pedicela 
of a l»Bncbed peduncle. Flower aeated in a shallow cup, formed of the 
dilated dp of the peduncle or pedicel, and consialing of a rather globose 
calyx, contracted to a point, uid thcn eipanded into a narrow limb, and 
includiDg an ovarj. The calyi ia fleahy and peruetenC, and becomes a 
drupaceous covering to a nut, wbich is riither egg-shaped, and very sHghtly 
compressed, Bmbryo straight, cylindncal. Cot^ledous two, very long. — 
Bpeciei 1 ; a nadve of Japan ; a large tree, with a loft; auwght sCem. 
LcBves witfa long pedolea ; and diiki tranverBeiy rtiomboidal, divided part of 
tfaewaydown into 2 or more lobes; tndcoriBceouBandstriated; ingroups, 
or altemately. {Richard, SnM, WaUm, Jaapan, nnd ofaierTation.) 



rA'XUS L. Thb Yew. hm. Sgil. Di(c'cia Monadelphia. 

... SM j Ju«, «11 1 FL Br.. ices. ; Toum., t. 38». [ Ijun,, L 9». ! Gnta. 

].p.ei.; Kich. Uim. ConiC, p. 131. t£. 

— - •ww i Iwing ftmiurlj mucb uKd In miUng Ihm ; nr frcini fauCi^sr- 

llny Hji Uliit pcOwn ((olinan) wh w nusHt rram [hii tmi, wMch wu 

Liid (IgnliyiniTtnlun; (lliulLng lo tbi rnb^iiK ■n tfettteta; «id 

/km, ^c. Evergreen low trees, with numerous, inostly linear, and 
'ea ; nativeB of Europe and North America. 

t 1. T. bacc*'ta L The bemed, or common, Yew 
■. LlB. Sp. FL. 1«*. i WUld. 8)1, «. p. SSS. I FL Br lOSS. : Eng. Bot, L 7«. ; Hnat. 
'i Llihtr.. aSE. { Fl. Dan,jt.lMO.; Buli.tV., t-IK. i DkkL H. Slcc. Fuc, IS. 6. t Ehrh. 

SO.'i U»MI 

r.tSi.; iLlndl. SrnoiH.,p. «I. 

«niHMS. niui, Mft 1IK3.. HoU. «».. £ 
»1(7, 1. p Ml., Uaim. falfr., «. n 4««., Ci 
Eihmtauni, dr. i T«o, llaL i Tno Jfm 

I>c &>«, Thc )ew belnE alniiiB alwifi nluc 
patd lo bc ntariy equallr dlsrlbiited, botli ln 
conllnc toHiHn uid LMUtck, both K«a ■n 

p,3», JUtf S^, «S., Off. 


i M^uh. vigt., i 

gc tnc i and the hct wUI 

4. nuHiB.: 

Spee. Char., 4^. Leavea S-ranked, crowded, lineor, Hat. ReceptBcle of tbe 
barren flowers gloliular. (SmitA Eng. fL) A tree, indigenoua to most 
parts of Europe; flowedng in MarcH and April, and ripening its fruit in 

t T.b.2 fittigidle ; T. fasdgiita Undl. ; T. hib^mica Hook., Lodi. Cal., 

ed.l836; our Ag.l9el.ofthena ' ' 

in our last Volume. The u|>righi, 

FlorenceCourt, Vewj thelrisfa Yew. 

— Thi» 19 a veiT diatinct varietj, readily 

distingui^ed from the species by its 

upright mode of growtn, and deep 

ereen leaves, which aie not in renks 

Uke those of the commoD yew, but 

BCattered.aBBhowD in J^. 1981. All 

the plants of this variety in cultivalion 

are of the female sex ; and the frnit 

is oblong, and not roundish, as in the 

cominon variety. The fineat speci- 

tnene, Mr. Mackay iuforms us (.FV. 

ISbern., p. 960.), grow at Comber, in 

the county of Sown, and near the 

town of Antrim ; where they are sup- 

posed to have been planted before 

1780. Thisvariety was first observed 

at Florence Court, near which, on the 

mountains of Fermanagh, our corre- 

spoDdent Mr. Young informs us, the 

original tree still exists in a heBlthy and 

vieorous state. Fig. 1982., to a Bcale 

ofl in. to I S ft., \s B portrait of one of 

the trees al Comber, which grows in 

CHAP. cxii. taxa'ce«. Ta'xus, 2067 

the ahrubbery of Jaiiies Andrews, Eho., froin a drawing bv W. O. 
JohDsoD, Esq., of Fortfield, Dear BeliaHE, kindly procured for ub 
by Mr. Macka^. The drawing was accompaDied by the foUowing 
description, b; Mr. C. J. ADdrews, 
the son of the proprietor of the tree : 
^This 21 fl. high; the di- 
nnieter of the head is 16ft. 6iD., , 
and the circumference of the tnmk, | 
at I ft. from the srouDd, ia 4 ft. J 
" The tree resembles aa iiiTcrted cone 1 
fonned of niunra^ous richly foliated ] 
tapering brsDches, of a deep greeD, 
and studded, in autumn, with scarlet - 
coral-coloured berries. The heai 
tbe tree is formed bv numerous 
branches Bpringing up from e main 
stem of onlj 1 ft. 6in. high. Thesc 
branchesvary much in thicliness and 
hcight; about ten of the laigest 
havmg the diametcrof a footeach. Their form and growth' 
ever, very uniform, being richly encircled with innimierable smail 
plume-like ahoots, growing vertically atong the main brHnches, of 
about 6 in. in lcngth, and thickly clothed with narrow decussated 
leaves of about I in. in length; and all so feathering the several 
arms, aa to form the lensthened plumes exhibited by the drawing ; 
about fifty of which easily waved sombre plumes form the top of 
the tree. The exact age of this yew is unknown : it was planted 
by John AndrewB, Eaq., father of ita present owner ; and it has 
been certainly 50 years in its ^reeenc situation. Thia kind of yew is 
now very generallyand eitensivelyplanted herein omamenlal plant* 
alions; and I can trace much of its propagation, even ia Dublin, 
to the treea sent thither as presents by my grand&ther. — C. J. A., 
DubUn, yov. 1936." There are two trees of this variety at Nether 
Place, near Mauchline, Ayrsliire, reapecting wbich the following 
infomiation hns been Cransmtlted to us by Mr. John Davidson, 
gardener, at Nether Place. " In compliance wilh your request I 
have Bgain measured the Iriah yews in Mr. Campbeirs garden at 
Nether Place. I cannot asccrtoin the age of the trees, but I am 
infornted by Misa Campbell, that, about 40 or ^O year« ogo, they 
liuled at their tops, anif were then cut over, whieh, indecd, appears 
evident on eiamining the Crunks. There are now 66 upright 
branches froro the one trunk, and 56 upright branches froui the 
other, eacb measuring from 6 in. to 3 (i. in circumference. In ap- 
pearance the two trees are exactly alike : the larger is 2S ft. 6 in., 
and the smaller 20 ft. ein. in height; the circumference of thc 
la^erhead is 66 fl. 9in., andof thesmBllcr66 It. 3in. ; thccircum- 
ference of thc larger crunk is 9ft., and of the smidler 8ft.; and 
the trunk of cach tree rises about SIV. from thc soil before it begins 
to throw out branches. Both treea arc in perfect health, These 
yews muat be of slow growth ; since, lOyearsago, tpropageted some 
planta from the old trees, and tbe greatest progretia they have made 
in that space of time is 5 f^. 6 in. in height. A beautiful drawing of 
one of tbeae trees, was sent to us by Mr. Davidson, but it ceme too 
late to bc engiaved. One at Balcarraa, in Fifcshire, waa, in 1634, 
15 a. high. This vnriety ia readily propagated by cuttings put in 
in autumn in aand, and covered with a band.glas8. tt well deserves 
culture, more eapecially in small gardens. 
* n. T.b.ZpTBcumbenit T. prociimbenB fWi/. CW., cd. 1836; b a low 
and somewhat trailing shrub, not very common in collectiona. It is 



vopagated by layers; and there are planU of it at Messrs. Loddiges^s. 
[t appears to be nothing more than a stunted variety of the common 
yew, and to be identical with the T. canadensis of Willdenow, and 
the T, b. minor of the elder Michaux; but, as we have only seen 
small plants of it and of T. canad^sis, we have thought it worth 
while to keep the latter separate for tbe present. 

* T. ^* 4 erecUTf the upright yew, is a seedlinff from T b. fastig^ta, in 

which the leaves are 2-ranked as in uie common yew, but the 
branches take an upri^t direction as in the Irish yew. There is a 
plant in the Horticultural Societ/s Garden. 
mT.h.S fi&i varitBaiu Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, has the leaves varimkted 
with whitish yeUow. It is sddom found higher than a iarge shrub. 
It is propagated by layers or cuttinga, either of the ripened wood 
put in in autumn, or of the newly formed wood put in m July, and 
treated like the cuttin^ of Cape heaths. 

* T. h, ^friucto luteo. This vaiiety appears to have been first discovered 

by Mr. Whitlaw of Dublin, idx>ut 1817, or before, growing on the 

demesne of the Bishop of Kildare, near Gksnevin ; but it appears 

to have been neglected till 1833, when Miss Biackwood discovered 

a tree of it in Clontarf churchyard, near Dublin. Mr. Mackay, 

on looking for this tree in 1837, found no tree in the churchyard, 

but sever^ in the grounds of Clontarf Castle; and one, a lar^ one, 

with its branches overhanging the churchyard wall, from which he 

sent us specimens. The tree does not diifer, either in its shape 

or foliage, from the common yew ; but, when covered with its 

berries, it forms a very beautiful object, especially when contrasted 

with yew trees covered with berries of the usual coral coiour. 

Oiker Varieties may be selected from beds of seedlings; and it appears 

diat a kind with shorter and broader leaves than usual was formerly pro- 

pagated in the nurscries. The yew tree, in some situations, is found with 

spreading branches, not unlike those of a very old spruce fir, and having the 

spray drooping ; but whether this is a true variety, or only a variation, is un- 

certain. A portrait of a tree of this description, now growing in the ^den 

of J. F. M. JDovaston, Esq., at West Feiton, near Shrewsbury, will be 

found in a future page. If tbe appearance of Mr. Dovaston's tree, which 

is moncecious, be permanent, it weil deserves propagation, both on account 

of its pendulous snoots, and because it is monoedous. Ortega states that 

the yew, which grows wild in different parts of Arraffon, flowers in Mav, 

June, and July, and ripens its fruit in November ; from which it wouid 

appear to be a different variety from that of central and northem Europe ; 

because the difierence of time between the flowering of the conmion yew 

in Paris and Stockholm does not exceed a month. Gleditsch thinks there 

may be two species ; one indigenous to the south of Europe, and the other 

to the north ; founding his opinion upon the circumstance of some plants 

bdng much more tender than others. This is the case even in France, 

where, according to Du Hamel, many yews were destroyed by the severe 

fi^ost of 1709 ; and, according to Malesherbes, many died in his plantations 

in the winter of 1789. In every case where piants are raised from seed, 

there will be diflerent degrees of hardiness, as well as variations in other 

respects; and hence, in a severe season, ali the tenderer varieties of an 

indigenous spedes may be killed, wliile all the hardy ones stand uninjured. 

Detcriptiony Sfc, The yew tree rises from the ground with a short but 
straight trunk, which, at the heiffht of 3 ft. or 4 ft., sends out numerous spread- 
ing branches, forming a dense head, usualiy, when fuil grown, firom 30 ft. to 
40 ft. in height; and always characterised, tili the tree attains a great age, by 
the tuftings and sky outline being pointed or peaked ; though, after the tree 
has begun to decay, these become rounded or stag-headed. The trunk and 
branches are channeled longitudinally, and are generally rough, firom the pro- 
truding remains of shoots which have decayed and dropped oflf. The bark is 

CHAP. cxii. rAXA'cex. 7a'xu8. 2069 

tmooth, tluD, o( B browo colour, and Bcalea off, like that of b pIbUdui ; the 
leavcB are BcatCered, nearly sessile, dichotomouB f that u, in two lateral rowa) 
linear, entire, very alightly molute, and about 1 m. hing ; dark green, Bmooth 
aod Bbining above ; tMtler, with a (iromineDt niidrib, beneath ; tGnninating iu a 
noall hannleBB point. Flowera axitlary, aolitary, each from ascHlyimbricated 
bud ; the male ones light brown, white with abundant poUen ; and the feoiale 
onei green, resembling, with their scaly bracteas, a little acom, The stamenB 
Tary from 5 to 10, snd tfae diminna of the anthera from i to B. Fniit 
droopine, conaiBting of a sweet, internallj glutinous, scarlet berry, open at che 
top, encloaing a brown oval nut, imconnected with the fleBhy part. Sametimea 
thu nut U Umger than the fleshv cup in whicb it is embedded ; b which case 
jt haa the appearaoce of a smaU acorn ; but, in geaeral, the point of ihe nut 
it lower thui the rim of the cup. The nut contains a kernel, which is eat- 
•ble, Bnd has an Hgreeable flavour tike those of the stone pine. The yew Ib 
of «low growth ; but, io favourable situations, it witl attain the hdgfat of 6 ft. 
or Sft, or more,in 10 yean ftom the need. In 20 yem-B, it will attain tfae 
hei^t of 15 ft., and it will continue growing for 100 yeftrs; after which it 
becomea comparatively «tationary, but will live for many ccntuKcB. Wfaeu 

witfa B dear trunk 30 fL or 40 ft. high. It stoles when 

cut down under 20 or 30 yeara of age, but rarely when 

it •■ older. The largest tree which we have heard of 

in Eugland iB in the churchyard at Harlington, uear 

HouDslow, whereit is56lt. high, witbatrunlc Oft.,and 

ahead 50ft. in diameter; and tlie oldest are at Foun- 

tains AUiey, wfaere they are suppaged to have beeu 

large trees at the time rhe abbey was founded, iu 1 132. 

^.1983. is aportrait of oneof these trees, to B Bcale 

of 1 in. to 50 ft. ; snd a portrait of anotfaer, to a larger laea 

Bcale, will be pven in a future page. 

Oeographt/. The yew is indigenoua to most parts of Europe, trota north 
lat. 6^ to the HediterrBnean Sea; and also to the east and west of Asla; 
and on tbe supposition thaC T, canad^nds is only a vaiiety of T. bacc^, 
whicfa we bfeheve co be the case, ibe common yew is also a native of North 
America, in Harytand, Canada, and other places. lu a wild state, it ia 
confined to shady places, such as the north side of steep hills, or 
among tall deciduous trees; and is alwBys found on a clayey, loamy, or 
calcareous soil, whicfa is nalurally moist. It sometimes ^ows in tbe clefta 
of dryrocks, but never on sandy plains; and hence it is wanting in che 
Rusrian erapire, except on -ihe mountains of the Crimea, and in Caucasus. 
It is found in every part of Britain, and also in Ireland: on limestone cliSi, 
and in nunintainous woods, in the south of England; and on Bchistous, 
basaltic, and otfaer rocks, in the north of England : and, in Scotland, it is par- 
ticularly abundant on the uorth side of the mountains neur Loch Lomond. 
Id Ereland, it grows in the crcvices of rocks, at an elevation of ISOOft.; but 
at that height U aasumes the snpearance of a low shrub. According to Tem- 
pteton, it is rarely, if ever, found tbere in a state which can be considered 
truly wild. The yew is rather a solitary than a aocial trce ; l>eing gtmcrally 
found Hthcr alone,orwitfa trees of a diSerent species. tn England, and also, 
as Pallas informs us, on Caucasus, ic grows under tfae shade of the beech, 
wfaicb few other evergreens will do. 

Hutay, ^e. Tho yew, and its use for making bows, are mentioned by the 
earliest Ureek and Rotnsn auChors; and ita poisonous properdes are pointed 
out by Dioscorides, Nicander, Oalen, Pliny, and others. Theophrastus says 
(lib. iii.) that the leavea will poisou horses. Ciesar mencions that Calivulces, 
kiiw of the ElNirones, ptnsoned hunstdf with the juice of the yew. (Db Bell. 
GiM., lib. iv.) Suetonius asserts that the Emperor ClauJius published an 
edict, BULing tfaat tbe juice of this tree had a marvdlous power in cucing the 


bite of vipers. Plutarcb says that it is venomous when it is in flower, because 
the tree is then full of sap ; and that its shade is fatal to all who sleep under 
it. Pliny adds to the above, that the berries of the male yew are a roortal 
poison, particularly in Spain ; and that persons have died, who have drunk 
wine out of casks made of the wood. (Lib. xvi. cap. 10.^ Also, that, accord- 
ing to SextiuSy in Arcadia it was death to lie beneath tne shade of the yew. 
In more modem times, Mathiolus and J. Bauhin were the first to prove, by 
positive facts, the poisonous nature of the leaves of the yew ; but Father 
Schoot, a Jesuit, asserted that, if the branches of the tree were dipped in 
stagnant water, their poison became neutraiised. Gerard and L'Obel soon 
afterwards discovered that the fruit of the yew might be eaten with perfect 
safety, and that there was no danger in sleepine beneath the shade of the tree. 

The yew was formerly much valued in Britam, on account of the use made 
of its wood for bows, this weapon being that principallv used by the ancient 
Britons in all their wars. It was (atal to sevend Bndsh kings ; viz., Harold, 
at the battle of Hastings ; William Rufus, in the New Forest ; and Richard 
Cceur de Lion, at Limoges, in France. It was to the skill of the English with 
the long bow that the conquest of Ireland by Henry II., in 1 172, is attri* 
buted; and afterwards the victories of Cressy, Poictiers, and Agincourt. In 
1397, Richard II., holdinff a parliamentin a temporary buiiding, on account 
of the wretcbed state of Westminster Hail, surrounded his hut with 4,000 
Cbeshire arcbers, armed with tough yew bows, to insure the freedom of 
debate. {Permanf» Londan, ed. 3., p. 39.) Statutes were passed by many 
of our early British sovereigns forbidding the exportation of yew wood, and 
obliging ali Venetian and other carrying ships to import 10 bow-staves with 
every butt of Malmsey or other wine; and, by the 5th of Edward IV., every 
Englishman dwelling in Ireland was expressly ordered to have an English 
bow of his own height, made of yew, wych hazel, ash, or awbume; that is, 
according to some, Taubour, or the labumum, which was as much used on 
the Continent for making bows as the yew was in Britain (see p. 590.) ; or, 
according to others, the alder. ** As for brasell, elme, wych, and ashe," says 
Roger Ascbam, ** experience dotb prove them to be mean for bowes ; and so 
to conclude, ewe of all other things is that whereof perfite shootinge would 
have a bowe made." The last statute that appears in the books, respecting 
the use of yew for bows, is the 13th of Elizabeth, c. 14., which directs that 
bow-staves shail be imported into England from the Hanse Towns, and other 
places. In Switzerland, where the yew tree is scarce, it was formerly forbid- 
den, under beavy penalties, to cut down the tree for any other purpose than to 
make bows of tbe wood. The Swiss mouutaineers cali it William's tree, in 
memory of William Tell. 

The custom of planting yew trees in churchyards has never been satisfac- 
torily explained. Some have supposed that the yew trees were placed near 
the cburches for tbe purpose of affbrding branches on Palm Sunday ; others, 
that tbey migbt be safe there from cattle, on account of their value K>r making 
bows; others, thatth^ were emblematical of silence anddeath; and others, 
that they were useful K>r the purpose of affbrding shade or sbelter to those 
wlio came too soon for the service. The subject has occupied the attention 
of various writers ; of wbom the last wbo bas takeu a comprehensive view of 
it is J. E. Bowman, Esq., F.L.S., from whose article, in tbe Magazine of 
Natural History^ vol. i., new series, we give the foliowing abridged abstract : — 
*' Many reasons have been assigned for the frequent occurrence of the yew in 
our cburchyards : but it seems most natural and simple to believe that, being 
indisputably indigenous, and being, from its perennial verdure, its longevity, 
and tbe durability of its wood, at once an emblem and a specimen of immor- 
tality, its branches would be employed by our pagan ancestors, on tbeir first 
arrivai here, as the best substitute for the cypress, to deck the graves of the 
dead, and for other sacred purposes. As it is the policy of innovatorsin 
religion to avoid unnecessary interference with matters not essential, these, 
with many othcr customs of beathen origin, would be retained and engrafted 


on Christianity on its fiiftt introduction. It would indeed be surpriBingy if 
one to innocent and so congenial to tlieir best feelings were not allowed, as 
a tribute to departed worth or friendship» under that new and purer svstem, 
which confirmed to them the cheering prospect of a reunion after death with 
*those who had shared their pleasures and affections here. History and tra- 
didon concur in telling us that this was the case, and that the yew was 
aUo dosely connected, in the superstitions of our simple forefathers, with 
ghosts and fairies. 

** In the works of a very ancient Welsh bard, we are told of two churches 
renowned for their prodigious yew trees : -* 

* Bangor Ewor, a Baogeibf r HtaUan 
Yand er ctodvan er clyd Ywy%i* 

which Dr. Owen Pu^h thus translates: — 'The Minster of Esgor, and that 
of Henllan, of celebnty for sheltering yews.' Henllan signifies an oid grove; 
thus proving that its church stood where druid worship had been performed. 
Can we, then, longer doubt the real oriein of planting yew trees in our church- 
yards? If it be said that this usual, though not natural, situation of the yew 
tree proves the venerable specimens which we find in churchyards not to be 
older than the introduction of Christianity/it may be replied, that our earliest 
Christian churches were generally erected on the site of a heathen temple, 
and tbat at least one motive for pladng churches in such situations would be 
their proximity to trees already sacred, venerable for size» and indispensable 
in their reli^ous rites. That these rites were performed, and altars erected, 
in grovesy irom the remotest antiquity, we know from the Pentateuch. The 
devotions and sacrifices of Baal among the Moabites, and the idolatrous rites 
of the Canaanites and other tribes of Gentiles, were performed in groves and 
hkh places. The druids chose for their places of worship the tops of wooded 
hws, where, as they allowed no covered teraples, they cleared out an open 
space, and there erected their cirdes of stone. Man;^ of the remote Welsh 
churches are on little eminences amon^ wooded hills. Mr. Rootsey of 
Bristol has suflgested that our words kirk and church might probably nave 
originated in the word cerrig^ a stone or drcle of stones ; the first churches 
having been placed within Siese circular stone endosures. Hence also, 
perhaps, caery a camp, which word is used in some parts of Wales for the 
wali round a churchyard. Dr. Stukeley believes that round churches are 
tbe most andent in England. A circle was a sacred symbol among the 
Eastem nations of antiquity ; and it would be interesting to know whether 
the raxsed platform within a drcle of stones, which is sometimes found round 
our old yews, as in Darley and Llanfoist churchyards, be not a remnant of 
this superstition. Many of the first Christian churches were built and inter- 
twined with green boughs on the sites of dniidical groves. When Angustine 
was sent by Gr^ory the Great to preach Christianity in Britain, he was par- 
ticularly enjoined not to destroy ihe heaihen templeiy but only to remove the 
images, to wash the walls with holy water, to erect altars, &c., and so convert 
thern into Christian churches, These were the designaia ioca GenHiium, in which 
our converted ancestors performed their first Christian worship. Lian^ so 
general a name for towns and villages in Wales, is a corruption of the British 
Uwyn, a grove ; and, strictly, means an endosure, rather than a church, the 
phices so designated being, probably, the earliest-inbabited spots, and also 
those where rdigious rites would be celebrated. ( See p. 1 7 1 7.) Egiwys means 
a Christian church (ecclesia); and^ probably, tliose were so called which 
were first erected af^er the introduction of Christianity, and not on the site of 
a heathen temple.*' (Mag. Nat, Hist,y 2d series, vol. i. p. 87.) 

The Rev. W. T. Bree, in the Magasane of Naturai HisUnyy vol. vi. p. 48., 
also suggests the probability of churches having been built in yew groves, or 
near large old yew trees, as greater than that of the yew trees having been 
planted in the churchyards afler the churches were built. A consecrated 
yew (accordine to a table quoted in Martyn's MUler^ and taken fi^om the 
andent laws ofWales,) was worth a pound, while b wood yew tree waa worth 


only fifleen pence ; a drcuinstance which renders it probable that some par* 
ticular ideas of sanctity were attached to the church^wl yews, and ihat they 
only were employed in religious ceremonies. 

The history of the yew, as a garden tree, is involved in obscurit^. There 
is no evidence that it was used, either for hedges, or for beinf chpped into* 
artificial shapes, by the Romans ; and, therefore, it is probable that it was first 
so employed in the west of Europe, and, in idl probability, in Franoe. In 
England, clipped yews, whether as hedges or garden omaments, were not 
oommon in the early part of Evelyn^s tune; for that author claims, ''without 
vanitie," the merit of baving been the first who brought the yew ''into fashion, 
as well for defence [meaning in hedges], as for a sucoedaneum to cypress, 
whether in hedges or pyramids, conic spires, bowls, or what other shapes ; 
adoming the parks or larger avenues with their lofty tops, 30 ft. high, and 
braving all the eflfects of the most riffid winter, which cypress cannot weather. 
I do again," he continues, ''name the yew, for hedges, preferable, for beauty 
and a stifi^defence, to any plantl have ever seen.*' (HurU. Evd., i. p. 261.) 
The practice of dipping the yew and other trees into the shapes of animals 
and eeometricai forms seems to have been most prevalent from the time of 
Charies I. to the latter end of William III., when it gradually gave way. Brad- 
ley, writing in 1717 (^New IntprovemerUs, p. 72.), says of the yew, — ** I have 
seen great varieties of figures, very well represented, of men, beasts, birds, 
ships, and the like ; but the roost common snapes which have been given to 
the yew by gardeners are either cones or pyramids." He prefers the yew 
for clipping into forms of animals, on acconnt of the smailness of its leaves ; 
adding that ** the hollpr, and other broad-leaved evergreens, are not fit for 
being cut into aay nicer figures " than pyramids, balls, or a straight stem 
with a top like the cap of a mushroom. Switzer, writing about uie same 
time as Bradley, ventures to doubt the beauty of these fieures ; but tbe final 
blow was given to them in the time of Queen Anne, by Bridgman, in Richmond 
Park ; and by Pope, in a paper in the Guardian^ vol. ii. No. 174<. The yew still 
continues to be clipped in the form of hedges ; and in some places, for example 
in some of the college gardens at Oxford, these hedges exhibit niches, arcades, 
and pilasters. There are a few very old gardens in England, such as at 
Wroxton, near Banbury, Stanstead, near Chichester, and Ijeven's Grove, in 
Westmoreland, where the yew may still be seen cut into singular sha{)es, as 
omaments to regularly clipped hedges, and to ancient flower-gardens. The 
effect of these is so striking and singuiar, tbat we are surprised the taste has 
not, to a certain extent, been revived. This, we have no doubt, it wiil be, in 
the gardens to Gothic and Elizabethan villas, as soon as men exercise tbeir 
reason in matters of this kind, and do not allow themselves to be led indis- 
criminately by fashion. 

It may be mentioned, as a historical fact connected with the yew, that 
De Candolle has adopted this tree as asort of standard by which to determine 
the age of trees generally, from the nuraber of layers of wood in their tmnks. 
The reasons why he preferred the yew appear to be, tbat of tbis tree there 
are a greater number of authentic records of the age of individual specimens 
than in the case of most other trees ; because the tree is very genendly dis- 
tributed throughout Europe ; and, finally and chiefly, because the wood is of 
slower erowth and greater durability than that of any other European tree. 
De Candolle, ia his Ph^siologie Vegetale^ tom. ii. p. 974. and 1001., and also 
in an article published m tbe BibUoiheque UniverieUe de Geneve, says that 
measurements of the layers of tluree yews, one of 71, another of 150, and a 
third of 280 years old, agreed in proving that this tree grows a little more 
than one line annually in diameter m the first 150 years, and a little less from 
150 to 250 years. He adds, *' If we admit an average of a line annually for 
very old yews, it is probably within the tmth ; and, in reckoning the number 
of their years as equai to that of the lines of their diameter, we shall make 
them to be younger than they actually are." Tbe justness of Professor De 
Candolle'8 conclusion has been questioned by Professor Henslow, and other 


botanists, aod more ^pecially by Mr. Bowroan, in an article in the Magazme 
ofNatwral Wstory, voL i., new series. Mr. Bowman considers a line a year, 
in the case of the yew, not nearly enough ; having tested it with two yew trees, 
the age of which he knew, and found uiat, in the one case, the tree was made 
800 years» and in the other 650 years, less than their real age. The experi- 
ments of this gentleman tend to show that De Candolie's average of a line 
a year makea oki yews too young, and young yews too old : for the latter 
he would aliow two» and in case of rich soil even three, lines a year till the 
phints had trunks 2 ft. in diameter, when, with De Gandolle, he would allow 
one iine a year. So much, however, depends on the nature of the soU in 
wfaich the tree grows, that, for our own part, we can place but very little 
reliance on imy data of this kind. 

Biography tf celebrated Yew Trees, We shall select a few of the more 
remarkable of theae, arranging them according to their celebrity, and com- 
mencing with those of England. We think we shall be justified in doing 
thisy from the great interest which attaches to the yew tree ; not only in 
Britain, bnt throughout Europe. 

ne Yew Tree» al FounUans Abbey, in Yorkshire, are well known. This 
abbev was founded in 1132, by Thurston, Archbisbop of York, for certain 
monks, who separated themsdves from the Benedictine Abbey of St. Mary's, 
in York,in order to adopt the more severe discipline of St. Bernard, who had 
just then founded the Cistertian order at Clairvaux, in Champagne. The 
history of Fountams Abbey is minutely related by Burton, from the narra- 
tive of Hugh, a monk of Kirkstall, which is said to be now preserved in the 
library of the Royal Society : — '* At Christmas, the archbbhop, being at 
Kpon, assigned to the monks some laod in the patrimony ot St. Peter, 
about three miles west of that place, for the ereding of a monastenr. This 
spot of ground had never been mhabited, unless by wild beasts ; bemg over- 
grown with wood and brambles, lying between two steep hills and rocks, 
covered with wood on all sides, more proper for a retreat for wild beasts 
than the human species. This was called Skeldale ; that is, the vale of the 
Skell, firom a rivulet of that name running through it from the west to the 
eastward part. The prior of St. Mary's, at York, was chosen abbot by the 
monks, being the first of this monastery of Fountains, with whom they 
witbdrew into this uncouth desert, without any house to shelter them in 
that winter season, or provisions to subsist ,on, but entirely depending on 
Divine Providence. There stood a large elm tree in the midst of the vale, 
on the lower branches of which they put some thatch and straw ; and under 
that they lay, ate, and prayed ; the bishop, for a time, supplying them with 
bread, and the rivulet witn drink. Part of the day some spent in making 
wattles, to erect a little oratory ; whilst others cleared some ground to make 
a little garden. But it is supposed that they soon chan^ed the shelter of 
their elm for that of seven yew trees, growing on the dechvity of the hill on 
the south side of the abbey, all standing at this present time (1658), except 
the iaigest, which was blown down about the middle of the last century. 
They are of extraordinary size : the trunk of one of them is 26 ft. 6 in. in 
circumference at 3 ft. from the ground ; and they stand so near each other 
as to form a cover almost equal to a thatched roof. Under these trees, we 
are told by tradition, the monks resided till they had built the monastery.''' 
(Burton*g M6ruut,fio\, 141.; Strutfs Sylmy p. 118. ; and SopwUhU Foun- 
iamt Abbey, p* i*) 'The name of Fountains Abbey is derived by some from 
Fountaines, m Burgundy, the birthplace of St. Bemard; and by others from 
the word tkell, whicn, signifying a fountain, was written in Latin, by the monks> 
fiwtams^ and thence corrupted into the present name. (Sop,, I. c.) A por- 
trait of one of these celeorated trees is given by Strutt, from which our 
fig, 1984. is a copy. The tree is upwards of 50 ft. high ; and, if it existed, 
and was a large tree, previously to 1132, it must, in 1837, be upwards of 
800 years old. 

The Buckland Yew, This tree (of which fig, 1985. is a portrait) is situ* 

n Buckland churchyard, about a mLle from Dover; and, according (o 
an account given of it by the Rev. W. T. Bree, is of great antiquily anii 
gingular formation. About the middle of the last century, the tree "vfaa 
ghattered b; lightning, which, at the saDie time, dcmolished auo the steeple of 
the cburch, cloae to which it stands. To thia catastrophe, no doubt, ia to 
be attributed, in a grcat meosure, much uf the rude and grotesque appearance 
which it now presents. At a yard froni the KTound, the but, whicb is 
bollow, and, on oue side, extremely tortuous and irreguW, protruding its 
' knotted langB,' like knees, at the height of some feet (rom the sur&ce, 
meajurea 2itt. in circumference. It is split from the bottoin into two por- 
tions; one of which, at the height of about G il,, again dividea naturally into 
two parts ; so that the tree cunsists of a short equal but, brsnching out into 
three miun arms; the whole not exceeding in hcight, to the extreme top of 
the branches, more than about 25 ft. or 30 fi. Of what maj be rt^ded aa 
the OTigioal trunk and arms biit little now reniaina alive : two considerabie 
portions, however, are still conspicuous in thc state of dead wood ; vii. one 
oD the inaer part of the northern limb, hollow, ond forming a sort of tunnel 
orchimneyi the othcr on the wcstcm limb, more solid, and exhibiting the 
grain ofthe wood slngularly gnarled and contortcd. These, wliich are pro- 
Babfy portions of the oiiginal trunk and arins, are partly cncxfcd, ns it were, 


oti tbe outside by living -wood of more recent growlh (as la frequently 
aeen to be the caae in other old and decajed treea) the detid |)artion« 
Eeeming to evince a disposition to Glough out, like frBgments of canous 
bone separiting from tbe ne«h ; but they are kept fixed in their position by the 
bving wood lapping over as it does, and clasping them finnlj. The encas- 
ing of the old dead vood by that of more modem fonnotion ts well displsyed, 
also, in one part of the southem limb of the tree, where an f^rture occura, 
whicb exposes to view the dead wood complctely enveloped and embedded 
within the living, The trunk is decayed, and hollow at the bottom j but 
from nithin the shell there ariae two or more vigoroui detacbed portions, of 
tmall diameter, which soon unite witb the main wood, and hin up to a con- 
siderahle height, lappmg into one another, and twisting and interlacing in a 
very striking msDner, so aa to suggest the idea that the trunk has been 
ripped opea, aod is now exposing to view its very entrails. Imagination, 
indeed, might readily trace a fanciful resemblance between this vegetable ruin, 
as viewed in a pHrticulBr position, and some anatoniical pre»Hration of «n 
" ' •■ -^ the y- .... 

il trunk, of which t 

5 displayed, and preserved i 

TSe TgtittTley Yewt. There are two yew tree« in the churchyard st Queen- 
wood, near Tytherly, in Wiltshire, which are above 500 years old ; the targest 
>s S6 fl. higb 1 (Ueineter of the trunk 3 fl. 6 in., and of the head 5U h. There 
i«, in tbe ssme wood, an avenue 414 yardslong, consistingof I62yew trces, 
whidi are nipposed to be ^xHit SOO years olJ. Thcy average 30 tl. higb, 
mth trunks about 8 fl. in diamcter at 2 fl. irom the ground ; and beada about 
:tO ft in diameter. Anoth^ avenue planted aboiit 160 years ago, and 400 
jarda long, consista of 120 trees, averaging about 24 (l. high, wiih tninks 
■bout S ft. in diameter. The widtb ofboth avenues is ratber more than 30 tt. 
There are about 100 more yew trees on the Tytherly cstate, but they ore of 
siUBller dimensions than thoae already noticed. 


77ie TH^nay Yew. ^ lo the churehyard of Tisbury, in Dorsetshire, there 
is now standing, and in fine foliage, although the trunk is quite holiow, an 
immense yew tree, which measures 37 fb. in drcumference, and the limbs are 
proportionably larffe. The tree b entered by means of a rustic gate; and 
seventeen persons lately breakfasted in its interior. It is said to have been 
planted, many generations a£o, by the Arundel famOy." (Lauder^s GUpm,) 

The Iffley Yew stands in Iffley churchyard» near Oxford, nearljr opposite 
the south-east comer of the church» and between that and an ancient cross. 
This tree is supposed to be coeval with the church, which, it is believedy was 
built previousl^ to the Korman conquest. The dimensions of the tree, kindly 
taken for us m September, 1836, by Mr. Baxter, were as foUows : — Girt of 
die trunk, at 2 ft. from the ground, 20 ft., and at 4 ft« from the ground, where 
the branches bcsgin, 17ft. The trunk b now little more than a shell, and 
there is an openmg on the east side of the tree which is 4 ft. hish, and about 
4 ft. in width ; the cavity within is 7 ft. long, 4ft. wide, and 4n. high in the 
highest part. The heiffht of the tree is 22 ft.; and there are about 20 principal 
branches, all of whicn, except two, are in a very vigorous and flourishmg 
state. The diameter of the head is 25 ft. each way. A very good, but very 
small, figure of this tree may be seen in the south-west view of Iffley church, 
given in tbe Menwriak of Oxfifrd^ No. 31. It is also seen in a woodcut of 
uie north-east view, close to the comer of the chancel, in the same worL 

A large Yew Hedge m the Oxfbrd Botanic Garden, which was rooted up in 
1834, faiad its branches crossing each other in various directions, and so com- 
pletely inosculated, that after the hedge was cut down, they were formed, 
without nailing, into the backs of rustic garden chairs, and similar artides ; 
several of which are now preserved in the botanit garden. 

77ie Ankerwyke Yew, near Staines, of which a figure is g^ven by Stmtt, is 
supposed to be upwards of 1000 years old. Henry VIII. was said to have 
maae it his piace of meeting with Anna Boleyn, while she was living at 
Staines ; and Magna Charta was signed within sigjit of it, on the island in 
the Thames between Runnymede and Ankerwyke. The girt of this tree, at 
3 ft. fi^om the ground, is 27 ft. 8 in. ; and at 8 ft. it is 32 ft. 5 in. ; it tben 
throws out five prindpal branches, and at 12 ft. numerous others, wfaich form 
a magnificent head, 49 ft. 6 in. high, and 69 ft. in diameter. The following 
lines on this tree are quoted by Stmtt : — 

'* What lOHiei have paat*d, dnoe fint thls anclent jew, 
In all tbe «trength of youthAil beauty grew ! 

• • • « • 

Here too, the tyrant Henry felt love*« flame, 
And, lighlng, breatbed hii Anna Boleyn*i name. 
Beneath the ihriter of this yew tree*t thade 
Itie royal lover woo*d the iu.atarr*d maid : 

And yet that neek, round which he fimdly hung, 
Tb bear the thriUiog aooentt of her tongue ; 
Tbat loTelT breaat, on whlch hia bead recUned, 
Form*d to iiaye humaniied hia «nrage mind ; 
Were doom*d to bleed beneath the tyrant*! ited, 
Whoee eelfisb heart oould doat, but oould not feel.** 

TTie ArUngton^ or Hdrlington, Yew stands in the churchyard of the villaee 
of that name, between Brentford and Hounslow. It is chiefly remarkable 
for its large size, and for having once been cbpped into the regular form shown 
inji^. 1986. This engravin^ is copied from a print of the tree, as it appeared 
in November, 1729 ; and this print is accompanied by a oopy of verses by 
'* Poet John Saxy," from which it appears tnat it must at tnat time have 
been between 50 ft. and 60 ft. in heignt. It was surrounded at the bottom 
of its tmnk by a wooden seat, above which, at 10 ft. fix>m the ground, was a 
large circular canopy, formed by the tree itself, which was, according to 
** Poet Saxy '* (who was clerk of the parish), — 

** So thick, 10 flne, lo ftill, $o wlde, 
A troop of guardf mlght under it rlde'* 

Ten feet above this canopy was another, of much smaller dimensions ; and 


7AXa'cEiB. TA XUS. 

above tbat a pTramid, sbout iO h. high, aurmounted b; a globe 10 ft. high i 
and tbe globe was crowned by 

oek, *ha tipnl to crow II, 
li mlw, aiid ill behiw IL" 

Tbe trec ceased to be clipped, 

we are infbnDed b; the preaent 

clerk of tbe parish, obout 1780 

or 1790; and it b now luf- 

fered to asauroe its natural 

■hape, ai ■hown io the portrMt 

of the tree in our laat Voluine. 
T^ DarUy Veu: Thia an- 

cieot Iree itanils in the cburch- 

vard of Darley in the Dale, 

Deitiyshire. It is a female, 

with a aolid trunk, forking, at 

7ft. aboTe the ground, inio 

two neBrly upri^t boughs, 

whidireacn a hagfatofabaut 

SSft. ; but ita hend bas not tbe 

breadth or luxuriance of the 

Oresford Yew, mentioned be- 

low. Its circumference at the 

baaeiBSTft.; atSft.^in.above 

tfae KTOund, 87 fl. 7 in. ; at 4 fl., 

31 ft. 8in.; and at 6fl., 30ft. 

7iii. At 4ft. high there are 

eicretcaices which swell the J 

trunk beyond ita nBtiiral si 

but the mean of tbe tbree other 

s gives a circumfcrence of 28 tl. 4 in., and a diumeter of 9 ft. 5 in., 
ng fractional parts. The mean diametcr of the tree ia, therefbre, 

1356 lines, wbicb,accordingtoDe Candolle'B method of calculating the age of 

treea, would alao be thenumber of ita yeara. 

Tftf Mamliilad Yeui (^fg. 1987.) standa in the churchyard of Mamhtlad, a 

few miles north of Pontypool : it is a female ; and, 8 ft. 6 in. from the ground, 

where the trunk haa a iair medium thickneas, it measures 29 ft. 4 in. in dr- 

fcfeDce. At about 4 ft. high, it divides inlo nx niMn boughs, one of whicb 

i« quite decayed. The trunk is hollow ; snd, on the north side, it haa an 

afteaiog down to the gmund, which iagraduallj contracting on both udn bj 

aanufil Jepodts of new «ood Witbin th» opening, and in the cenlre of 
the oripnd tree, ia seen another, and apparentty detoched, jew, scvcral feet 




in diaroeter, covered wlth bark, bdiI in b gtate of Tigorous growtb : it is, in 
fact, of icseir a great tree, and oTertops the old one. Oo examinatioii, how- 
ever, it is foixad to be united behbd, Hnd also at some diatance rrom the 
^ound, by two great contorted annB, one on each nide, to the inner waJl of 
its decaying parent; being ecurioua example of nBtural inarching, and having 
alt^^tfaer a very striking and stngular appearance. 

3»? Llanlhewy Vach Vew. This tree, a male, which Ktands in the church- 
yard of Llanthewy Vach, near Caerleon, measure» 30 ft. 4in. in circum- 
ference at 3 (t. from the graund ; and, like the last, has a stunted and holiow 
trunk, with a lateral opening, and will hold five or uk persong. It has also 
■D the centre a still more remarkable inner trunk, covered with bark, guiif 
defached and distinct from the old tnink below, but united with it above by b 
great brBnch running into, or more probably proceeding from, it. 

TAc Grajbrd i ew of wh chjfg 98e s a po ni stands he sou h 
east comer of Q esford chu cbjard near Wrexham Denbghah e Thc 

cir umference of e tru 
of divarication of the n 
2i ft. { from ths tnink t 

k, a f n f on he gr und (be ng at he po n 
jn, branches), is 29 il.; and at the very base, it is 
the ezQvmity of the branches, on the sonth side 


<kci^ their ^«tteat eztoiiiiM), h it 36 ft. ; ond the hekfat of the trae 
k 52 ft. " ThiB aoble jew," Mr. Bowman obserTei, " Tibs KTen niain 
faraacfaM ; >nd mott of theee diTide agaiQ, verj ncar tfae truDk, into two or 
three -BHiailer ones. Tbe tree, ^rhich u a male, is «ttU fiiU of foliage, and of 
grent beeutr, bb well as TeDerable Ibr its lixe ; and it abowR no Bymptoroi of 
■Mtural decaj. (J. B.S. Juiy, 1636.) 

Tke ¥itr»d Ffiur, or Strada Florida Yewi, are mentiooed bj LlelatMl, m 
p^owiag in s cemetery of that nanie in South Wales. There were originallj' 
38, but there are only three remaining, under one of which, traditioD nByi, 
die WeU poet, BiTid Ap Gwfllim, wm buried. 

Id ScDtland, there are some remarkeble jew treet. 

3kf Lotidm Tetti, at Loudoo Caide in AjrBhire, is 4S IL high, with a tniDk 
4ft. 6in. in diameterBt ISft. frotn tbe grouad, anda head 195 fl. ia circuin» 
ference. Undcr this tree, it is Baid, Bruce bestowed tb« ancient caatle BDd 
cntate OB tfae Loudon family; BDd, some centuries afterwards, John Earl of 
LoudoD signed tbe act of unioo between Engknd and Scotland. Whea the 
preteat canle was built, a curve was made ia the wall to avoid injuring tbe yew 

The CntsloK Yen stood dose by CruitoD Castle ; aud under its Bhsde tradi> 
tioii aaya that Queen Blary gave ber consent to mairy Darnley, to p^petuate 
the laeoiorT of wbicb, ahe had the figure of a yew tree Btamped on her coidb. 
3. Haxwdl, Esq., M.P., whose residence at PoUoc commands a view at 
Craxtaa Castle, infbrms us that thia yew ha« been dcBd niBnyyeBrs; but 
diK bebaa preaerTed a portion of its trunk. He hBs also ayoung tree,iw8ed 
fraa k by layering, which he intends to plant od the site « the old one, as 
KMD a* it attain* sufBcieot size. 

TSc DrybMrgi Vevi ■tBods close to the Abbey of Dryburgh, in Roxburgh- 
diife, BDd ia supposed to faave been planted at the lime the abbey wa* 
fimnded, in 1)36. Sir William Jardine informs us that it is now (1B37) in 
|>crfect healtli, and growing a few inches yearly ; and that the tree, from its 
■tanding auite alooe, has ks branches spreBdiDg od erery side, so as to form 
«ragolwnead 50ft. in diameter. The circumferaiee of the trunk, at 1 ft. 
tom the ground, is onlj 18 fl. 

Tie ForHmgai Yete (Jlg. 1969.) standa in the churcfamrd of Fortingal, or 
the Fort of the Strangers, so called ftom its being in tne Tidnity of « smaU 

RonaD caoip, lying in tfae wild romantic dittrict at tfae entnmce to Olen 
Lyoa, in Pwthiuiire. Its i^ is unknown, but it has long been b mere sbell, 
lonniog an arch, through whicb tbe funeral procestions of tbefaighlander* 
wa« ■ccuBtomed to pats. It was first described in che Pkilotophicai Trant- 
«r<i«iii (fiA, Uk.), ia 1769, by tbe Hooourable Ddnet BarringtoD, whg linmd 
6 T 


tt 58 ft. m drciimfetence ; and» some vears afterwards, b^ Mr. Peananty whea 
the circumference had mcreased to 56 ft. 6 in. Dr. Neill visited the tree in July» 
1833; and a notice of it by him will be found in the EduUmrgh PkUo* 
topkical Joumai for that year, from which we make the following extract ; 
premising that, when Daines Barrington measured the tree, he found one aide 
of the trunk a mere sbeli of bark» all the interior having decayed.- " Con* 
aiderable spoliationt,*' Dr. Neill observes, ^ have evidently been committed 
on the tree aince 1769; iaiige arms have been removed, and masses of the 
trunk itself carried off by the country people, with the view of forming quecks^ 
or drinkinfi^ups» and other retics, which visitors were in the habit of pur* 
chasing. What stili exists of the trunk now (1833) presents the appearanoe 
of a semicircuiar wall, ezclusive of che remains of some decayed portions of 
ity which scarcely rise above the ground. Great quantides of new spray have 
issued from tbe firmer parts of the bark, and a few young branches sprin^ up* 
wards to the height, perhaps, of 30 ft. The side of the trunk now existing 
gives a diameter of more than 15 ft., so that it is easy to conceive that the 
circumference of the bole, when entire, should have exceeded 50 ft. Happiiy, 
fuither depredations have been prevented by means of an iron rail, which now 
surrounds the sacred spot ; and this venerable yew, wfaich, in all probability, 
was a flourishing tree at the commencement of the Chrisdan era, may yet 
survive for centuries to come." 

Tbe Loch Lamond Yew. According to Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, a vew in 
the Islaad of Inch Lonach, or what is commonly called the Yew Tree Isiand, 
in Loch Lomond, measured on the 3d of August, 1770, was lOft. 7in« in 
circumference. Tliis tree was about 40 ft. hiffh ; but another tree, whieh was 
the larj^t in the island, though not so tall, measured 13ft. in girt. It is 
uncertam whether these trees were sacrificed among the 300 yew trees which 
were cut on this spot. There has been, for many years, a hdrd of deer in the 
Yew Tree Island, which has prevented young trees ftom nsing from the seed; 
but many of those which liave bc^n to decay have sent up shoots fix>m 
their roots, close to the old trunk. After a time, a numl>er of these shoots 
coalesce, and form at last a complete new trunk, at the side of which the old 
one continues to decay. In this way the tree comes to be regenerated fix>m 
theroot. t 

Tke Bemera Tew, According to the same authority, in the Island of 
Bemera, adjacent to the Sound of Mull, the late Sir Duncan Campbell cut 
down a yew of vast size. Its precise dimensions were not preservect, but the 
timber of it deeply loaded a highland 6-oared boat, aad was suffident to form 
a large elegant staircase in me house of Lochnell, which was afterwarda 
destroyed raen the house was bumed down. (Lau<L Gilp,) 

Tbe OrvmUm Yew, One of the most beautifiil yew trees in Sootland u 
that growing in the garden at Ormiston Hall, a seat of the Earl of Hopetoun, 
in Haddingtonshire. It throws out its vast iimbs horizontally in all directions, 
supportine a brge and luxuriant liead, which now (1834) covers an area of 
grouad of 58 ft. in diameter, with a most impenetrable shade. Above the 
roots it measures 12 ft. 9in. in girt; at 3 ft. up, it measures 13ft. 6in.; at 
4 ft« up, it measures 14 ft. 9 in. ; and at 5 ft. up, it measures 17 ft. 8 in« U is 
in fiill health and vigour. (/&«/., i. p. 279.) 

In Ireland, the yew tree, as ahready observed, can scarcely be considered as 
to be found any where now in a wild state; though, as we have seen, p. 106., 
tranks of very laree yew trees have occasionally been du^ out of bogs. 

Tke Muerust Aobey Yew stands in the centre of a cloistered court, now in 
ruins, and is supposed to be coeval with the abbey. As the abbey was in ex- 
istence, and cetebrated as a sanctuary, in the year 1 180, the tree must be up- 
wards of 700 years old. Arthur Young saw it about 1780,«nd states it to be, 
without exception, the most prodigious yew tree he ever beheld. Its trunk, he 
says, is 2 ft. in diaraeter at 14 ft. hij^h, whence a vast head of branches ejpreads 
on every side, so as to form a perfect canopy to the whole space. (Tour m 
Ireiaad, 1780, i. p. 443.) Peraval Hunter mforms us (wridng in 1836) that 


the tree stands quite mct; that the tnrnk is destitute of branchea for some 
way up; and that the head still continues to grow. 

^ Tetot remarkable Jor tame Singularity t» their Form, Mode of Growth, or 
Skuatkm, The yew being one of the trees most frcMmently subjected to the 
sheara in former times, is occasionally to be met with clipped into artificial 
fonns ; but those singidarities of form which we intend to nodce here will 
be chiefiy snch as have arisen from fortuitous circumstances. The most re- 
markable clipped yew tree that we recollect, in the neighbourhood of Lon- 
don, 18 one in the churchyard at Hounslow ; the sides of which are formed 
into square plinths and cylindersy and the topinto acock. There is asimilar 
tree in the churchyard at Beaconsfield. The clipped tree at Harlington (no- 
ticed in p. 2077.), which must haye been one of tne grandest things of its kmd 
of the dme, is, as ahready observed, no longer subjected to the shears. 

2%« Cntm Castle Yew Tree ^ grows on a small mound of earth, 4 ft. 
abore the level of the surroundin^ sur&ce. Its branches were formerly 
sopported by 32 brick pillars, 6ft. high ; but these were removed about three 
vearB ago, and it b now supported by 16 oak posts with their bark on, which 
look more in character witn the tree. Its height is 18 ft. 6 in. ; the trunk is 
9 ft. 3 in. in girt at 1 ft. 6 in. from the ground; and the space covered by the 
branches is 70 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Its branches are so intmvoven and 
pUitted together through each other» that it is almost impossible to traoe any 
one.of them fi^m the trunk to its extremity. This, indeed, is the cause of 
the very remarkable appearance of the tree : but at what time, or by whose 
hands, this hd>our was performed, is unknown. The tree is supposed to be 
tfaree or four centuries old, and has rather the appearance of being on the 
dedine. It was highly valued by the late Earl or Eme, who frequently em- 
ployed men to clean the moss from its branches. It is a female plant, and 
beara annually abundance of fiidt. This singular tree is surroundea by a yew 
hedge, which is kept neatly ciipped. — W. Henderton^ Crum Cattle, March. 

Tke Porthury Tewt, In the churchyard of Portbury, near Bnstol, are two 
very lofty yews, much longer in the bole than usuaL One of these, in Au- 
goat» 1836, had a small branch firom the base of a bough, which had shot 
downwards into the decayed top of the trunk ; and which, on being puiled 
upy proved to be a perfect root, upwards of 3 ft. in length. This singular 
circumstance will explain the oriffin of the inner trunks of yew trees, as ex- 
emplified in that of Mamhilad, aiready described, p. 2077. When the top of 
the trunk becomes cracked by the action of storms upon the boughs^ the rain 
finds access, and, in time, causes decay ; and the dead leaves and dung of 
bats and birds, &c., falling in, corobine with the rotten wood to form a soft 
rich monld, into which a bud shooting out fi^om a neighbouring part (if not 
actoaUy covered by the mould) is naturally drawn by Uie moisture and sur- 
roonding shade, and transformed into a root. As the fissure widened and 
deepened, by the slow but sure process of decay, this root wonld descend 
and thicken, tfll it ultimately fixed itself in the soil below. After a lapse of, 
perfaaps, sevoral centuries, decay, gradually advancing, would at last reach the 
circumference of the trunk, ana produce a rift on one side : through this the 
rotten mould would fall out» gradually expodng the root it had conducted 
downwards ; and the combin^ influence of liffht and air, acting upon its 
juicea, would cause it to deposit annual layers of true wood, and to be oovered 
with a true bark. Meanwhile it would have shot up a stem near its point of 
nnion, and have formed for itaeif an independent head and branches. All this 
is in strict conformity with the known laws of vegetable physiolo^ ; and some 
tuhikr process has produced the peculiarities already described m the Mamhi- 
hd and Llanthewy Vach yews. In the Portbury tree, the same process is 
sbown in its earlier stage ; and these examples make it probable that, under 
fiivourable circumstances, the yew has the power of thus perpetuating itself. 
If to, it may be said to have a new claim to be considered the emblem of im- 
mortalitv. There is no doubt that, barring accidents, the inner trunks of th^ 

6t 2 


two old yew trees at Blarahilad and Uanthewy Vach wiU suiTiTe as indepen- 
dent trees wben, centuries bence, the surrounding walls of their original boles 
ihall bave completdy disappeared ; and, ahould no record of their true bistory 
cxitit, an obaerrer then will be quite unconscioua that they are but portibns 
of some former trees, the germ of which existed, perhaps, 3000 years ago ; 
for the Utteral scar^ which would for a while mark tne pomt of union, would, 
in time. be dosed up and buried beneath new deposits. (Abridged (rom Mag* 
Nai, Hitt,^ ToL L new seriea, p. 90.) 

T^ Ribbe^brd Yew stands in the parish of that name, near Bewdley, in 
Woroestershire. This yew grows out of a holiow poUard oak, the circum- 
ference of the tnink ofwhich, at the ground, is 17(1., and its heigfat 20(1. 
In this hoilow cylinder the yew has not only establisbed itself, but grown to 
such a siie as completely to fiU up the cavity; and it wiil doubtless, in a few 
years, increase to such a size as to burst asunder the oaken shell which now 
encloaes it, and ultimately to stand alone, as if it had sprung up from tbe 
ground. At i^resent, both the oak and the yew have numerous spreading 
branches, wtuch make a fine appearance ; the dark green foUage of the yew 
** towering above the boughs ot its aged companion." There can be no doubt 
that the seed of the yew was deposited in the deca)[ing crown of the poliard, 
and that its roots graduaUy penetrated downwards tiU at last they reacned the 
aoU. {I%e Anafytt^ vol. L jp. 81.) 

The GlendaUmgh Yew^ in the county of Wicklow, was an immense tree, 
and ahaded from the sun and the storm, not only the ruins of a small church 
under it, but the greater part of the churchyard. Hayes was informed, on 
undoubted authority, that on one hot summer*8 day, when this tree was in its 
fuU beauty, the agent for the bishop to whom the church belonged had all its 
principal limbs and branchea cut off close by the trunk and sold. About 40 
years afterwards, when Hayes saw it, the trunk was decaying at the heart, 
and a hoUy was growing up through one of the fissures. (Treat, on Plant,, 
p. 144.) 

Tke WestfeUon Yew (JSg. 1900.) stands in the grounds of J. F. M. Do- 
vaston, Esq., at Westfelton, near Shrewsbury; and the fbUowing account 
has been sent to us by that gentleman : — ** About 60 years ago, my father, 
John Dovaston, a man without education, but of unwearied industry and 
ingenuity, had with his own hands sunk a well, and constructed and placed 
a pump m it; and, the soU being lisht and sandy, it continually feU in: he 
secured it with wooden boards ; Uit, foreseeing their speedy decay, he planted 
near to the well a yew tree, which he bought of a cobbler K>r sixpence ; 
rightly judging that the fibrous and matting tendency of the yew roota 
would hold up the soiL They did so ; and, independently of its utiUty, the 
yew grew into a tree of the most extraordinary and striking beauty ; spr^uUng 
horizontaUy aU round to tbe diameter of (now, 1836) 56 ft., with a single 
aspiring leader to a great beight; eacb branch m every direction dangling in 
tressv verdure downwards, the lower ones to the very g^und, pendulous and 
playnil as the most gracefiil birch or we^ing wiUow ; and visibly obedient to 
the feeblest breath of summer air. Its loU^^ is admirably adapted for r&- 
t^ti^ the dew drops ; and, in consequence, it makes a splendid appearance 
at Bunrise. Though a male tree, it has one entire branch self-productive, 
and exuberantly profiise in female berries, fuU, red, rich, and lusaous ; from 
which I bave raiaed several plants, in the hope that they may inherit some of 
the beauty of their parent. The circumference of the tree now, at 5 ft. from 
the ground, is 5 ft. 1 in. ; and it is in a growinf state, quite healthy and 
vigorous. The drawing which accompanies tbis (see J!g. 1990.) was made 
by one of the ingenious chUdren of my firiend Bowman. — J, F, M, D, 
WeatfoUon, Jufy, 1836." 

Poetical and Ugendartj AUutions, The yew has afforded numerous images 
to the poets, from the time of Homer, who speaks of the ancient inhabitants 
of Crete as being "dreadful with tlie bended yew," to the poets of the 
present day. Vii^ notices the elasticity of the yew in the Encid : — 

taxa^cia. rA'xt;s. 

In the Georgici, the yew U frequently nientioDed ; and iJioae who keep bees 
■re cautioaetl not to place their hives neir yew treea. 

Among tbe old Engliih poets, the yew ia freijuentiy mentjoned; aud, m 
•n exHinple, we may copy the following linet fioin Herrick, a» quoted by ont 
of the most elesant poetesses of the prcsent dsy, Miss Twamley. Herrick 
thiu addresses the cypreaa and the yew ; — 


HivikAatSTCiu.srftlenU hriH." (Sh llgiMwyMfm, Ae.) 
Sbskipeare mentious the yew aa being used for bowr : — 

Or dou^B biul >ew laianil Uiy •Ute'' 
Ue also alludes tA ita being employed in fiinerals : — " My shroud of 
white, ituck all witb yew." Many other poets Hllude to its conneiion wtth 
idcM of death. Biair saya, addreasing hiraself Co IhegraTe: — 

m ll|h[-hHM (hMU, ■nd TliLoaar; 1^4«, 
Mtta iha wu uld mscn (k IkiH RpDrtil, 

EinipKUed thick, petfom tbrir e 


Gray'8 Unes are well known : — 

*' BeMatb tfaoae niggcd dmi, thst yew tree*t thide, 
Where heevei the turf in meny e mould*rlng heep, 

Each in hla murrow cdl fecurely Uid, 
The nide focefiithen oftbe hjunlet ileepk** Etegg im a Omiiry Ckmrck§ar4. 

Swift makes Baucis and Philemon be turned to yews : — 

** Detcrfpttoa would but tire mj Mwe : 
In short they both were tumed to jrewt. 
Old Ooodman Dobson of the Oreen 
Remembert he the treet haa seen. 
On Sundayt, after evening prajer, 
He gathen all the pariflh tbere ; 
Pointt out tbe place of either yew 
Here Baucia, tbere Phileroon grew. 
TUl once tbe pencAi of our town, 
To mend hi> barn, cut Baucia down ; 
At which *t i> hard to be bellered 
How mucb the other tree wa» grieved, ■ 
*Oraw fcnibbedfdied a top, wa« ttunteo ; 
So tbe next peraon atubbM and bumt it** 

Numerous other passaffes raight be ^uoted, but we shall confine our- 
selyes to two, one of which is from Sir Walter Scott, and the other from 
Wordsworth : — 

** Bttthere *twlxt rock and rlTergrew 
A diamal grove of aable yew, 
Wlth whoM sad tinte were minglcd «een 
The blighted flr't Mpulcbral green : 
Seem'd that the treea their tbadowt caat 
The eartb ihat nouriih*d them to bbut, 
For nerer knew tbat twarthy grore 
The yerdant hue that fhiriet loTe ; 
Nor wilding green, nor woodland flowcr, 
Aroae wlthin its baleftil bower : 
Tbe ditfk and table earth reoelTet 
Itt only carpet ftom the leavet, 
Tbat, mnn the withering brancbet catt. 
Beitrew*d the ground witb every Uait.*^ Rokt^^ oantOL II. 

** Hiere it a yew tree, pride of LOTton vale, 
Which to thia day ttanda aingle in tbe mldat 
Of Ite own darkneat, at it ttood of yore, 
Not loUi to Airaiab weepont in the handa 
Of Umftaville or Percy,,ere they marcb'd ^ 
To Scot]and*a heatha, or thoae that croaa*d the «ea, 
And drew tb^ aounding bowt at Aginoourt ; 
Perbapa at earlier Creaty, or Poietiera. 
Of vaat clrcumference and gloom profbund, 
Thlaaolitarytree! A living thlng, 
Pruduoed too alowly ever to decay ; 
Of form and ane^ too nmgnifloent 
To be dettroy*d. But worthier atili of note 
Are thoie f^atemal four of Borrowdaleb 
Joln*d in one aolemn and capacloua grove i, 
Huge tnmka ! and each paiticular trunk • growth 
Of intCTtwiated fibrea terpentipe, 
UpooUing, and Immediately oonvbhred t 
Nor uninn>rm*d by phantaay, aad lookt 
That tbreaten the profane ; a piUar'd ahade, 
Upon whoae graaalett floor of red brown hue, 
By tbeddinga firom tbe pinlng umbrage ttnged 
Perennially ; — beneatb wboae table roof 
Of boMgha, a« If for iiBttal purpote, deck*d 
Wlth unr^ofcing berriea, ghoatty «bapei 

lCay meet at noonttde, 

there to oelArate, 
At In a natunri temple, icatter^d o'er 
With altart undi«tuit>*d of mo««y atone^ 
United wonhipL** 

Tbere does not appear to be any mythological le^d connected with the 
yew. In Lempriere s Classical X>ictwnary, it is said tbat Smilax was meta- 
morphosed into a yew ; but Orid simply says that she, and her lover Crocus, 
were changed into two flowers : — 

** Et Crocon in parroa venum cum Smllace florea 
Prtttereo ; dukHqae anhnoa novitate teneboi*' MeL, lib. iv. hb. Vk 

Probably the mistake arose from Dioscorides, and sooie of the other 
ancient botanists, having called the yew Smilax. Cambden relates a legend 


of a priest in YorksMrey who, haviiig murdered a virgin who reiuBed to ibten 
to. luB addreesee, cut off her head, and hid it in a yew tree. The tree from 
thenceforth b^une holy, and people made ptlgrimages to visit it, plucking 
and bearing away branches of it, beiieving that the smali veins and filaments, 
reflembling hairs, which they found between the bark and wood of the Iree, 
were the hairs of the virgin. Hence, the name of tfae village» which was then 
called Houton, waa changed to Hali&Xy which signifies holy hair; and the 
wealth brought by the pilg^ms enabled the inhabitants to build on its site 
the now fiunou3 town ot that name. 

Propertki and Uset. In a wiid state, the ^ew affbrda food to birds b^ its 
berries ; and an excellent shelter to them durmg severe weather, and at night» 
by its dense evergreen fbliage, but no insects uve on it. By man, the tree 
nas been applied to various uses, both in a living state, and when felled and 
employed as timber. The wood is hard, coropact, of a fine and close grain» 
flezible, dasticy splitttng readily, and incorruptible. It is of a fine orange 
red, or deep brown ; and the sap wood, whicn does not extend to a great 
depth, is wnite, and also very hard. 'Where the two woods ioin, there are 
geneiaUy difibrent shadee of red, brown, and white : both woods are susca>ti* 
bie of a very high polish. Varennes de Fenilles states that the wood, betore 
it has been seasoned, when cut into thin veneers, and immersed some months 
in pond water, will take a purple violet colour; probably owing to the pre- 
sence of aikali in the water. According to this author, the wood of the yew 
weighsy when greea, 80 Ib. 9 oz. per cubic foot ; and, when dry, 61 Ib. 7 oz. 
It requires a longer time to become perfectly dry than any other wood what- 
ever; and it slmnks so litde in drying, as not to lose above -j^ part of 
its bulk. The fineness of its grain is owing to the thinness of ita annual 
layersy 280 of these being sometimes found in a piece not more than 20 in. 
in diameter. It is universally allowed to be the finest European wood for 
cabinet-^nakin^ purposes. Tables made of yew, when the grain is fine, ac- 
oording to Gilpm, are more beautiful than tables of mahogany; and the 
oolour of its root is said to vie with the ancient citron. It is generally em« 
ployed in the form of veneers, and for inlaid work ; it is also used by the 
tumery aad made into vases, snufi^boxes, rausical instruments, and a great^ 
variety of similair artides. Both the root and trunk fiimisb» at their rami» 
ficationsy dieces of wood beautiiiilly veined and marbledy which are highly 
prized. The sap wood, though of as pure a wliite as the wood of the hoU;jr» 
la easily dyed ot a jet black, when it has the appearance of ebony. Where it 
ia found in sufiEdent quantities to be employed for works under ground, such 
as water-pipeSy pumps, piles, &c., the yew will last longer than any other 
wood. " Where your paling is most exposed dther to wind or springSy" 
says Gflpin, '* strengthen it with a post of old yew. That hard^ veteran fears 
ndther storms above, nor damps below. It is a common saymg among the 
inhabitants of New Forest, that a post of yew will outlast a post of iron.'^ 
Evdyn mentions the yew treea at Box HiU as both numerous and ki^e^ 
SfttfshaU, writing in 1796, says that a few of these trees whidi remained 
had then " latdy been taken down, and the timber of such as were sound waa 
aold to the cabinet-makers» at very high prices, for inlaving: one tree in par- 
ticular was valued at lOOA, and hdf of it waa actually sold for 50/. The 
least vduable were cut up into gate-posts, which are expected to last for 
ages : even stakes made firom the topsof yew have been known to stand for 
a number of years." (PUmt, and Rur. Ortu^ iL p. 396.) In France, the 
yew is found to make the strongest of aU wooden axletrees. The branches 
fiimiah stakes and hoops of great durability; and tbe voung shoots may be 
emplo^ed as ties, or woven into basketa» whidi» thou^ heavicar than thoae of 
tiie wiUow, wiU be of many times Uieip stren^ and duration. Boutcher 
mentions one of the uses to which the wood is appUcable» which ought to 
render it even more in demand by the cabinet^naiker than it now is; viz.« 
that ** the wooden parts of a bed made of yew wUI most certainly not be 
approached by bugs. Thia ia a tmth»" he adds, *'confirmed to me by the 

6 T 4 


cxperienoe of trees i hkd cut down, and uaed mfself in tkal way.'* He adde 
tmt this very material quality is not mentioned by any writo^ ao fiur ae be 
koows. I 

MamdKture ^ Boiwu The prineipal uae for whicb the yew-wma cnltivated, 
before tbe iotroduction of gunpowder, was for making bows, which were fbr 
many centuries the principal weapons of the English. Bows are mentioned 
in Holy Writ; and according to the poem of Aixhery Eemedy poblisbed in 
1676, — 

** T WM with « thaft tb«t Lameeh nHndtrad Oiib.'' 

Tbe bows mentioned in Scripture, howevery appear to bave been composed of 
metal ; and many of those of the ancients were made of two goat'8 homa 
joined tOKether with a piece of wood for the handle. Tbe first account we 
meet witn of yew bows is in Homer ; Virgil aiso speaks of *' bows of the 
tough yew." In EngHsh history, bows are not roentioned tiU tbe time of 
the Saxons ; when yew bows, the height of a man, were brought over by 
Vortigem, and soon became general; till, according to one of tbe versifiera 
of the 15th century, theenemies of the English in every country,— 

-** By dMfU firam bowt «f bendinf yew. 

In itieaiiM of CfiBMn goic paid N«t«iie*» due.* 

SaoTTBEBi. and Dubfbt*b Arckent Bnin^^ 

The battle of Agincoort, and those of Cressy and PoictierBy were chieflj 
gained by the skill of the Engtish with tke bow ; and it was the principol 
weapon in the wars of York and Lancaster. Thcre is also aa edict of 
Edward IV., relating to the use of tbe lone bow bv the Irish. Prince Arthor 
in the reign of Henry VU., and after him Henry VIIL, held sports of archery 
at AGle End ; when there was created, in jest, a didLe of Shoreditch, and two 
narquesses of Clerkenwell and Islin^on, and an eari of Pancras. The duke 
of Snoreditch was the best archer m the king^s guard ; aml the ochera the 
nezt best. These dignitaries played thdur parts Eke the king and queew oa 
Twelfth Night ; and a fiill detaii of the ceremonies will be found in Wood'a 
BmDmcaC^ Glory^ p. 4L Hesry VIII. afterwards passed seversl staitntes in 
fitvour of archery, of which he was a warm patron ; and in his reign ** Biaster 
t!b^e'' published the transbtion of a work from the Greek on the subject. 
In 1544, Roger Ascham pubtished his Toxopkilett a work rc»>lele vrith the 
quaint leamine and involved sentences of tbe time. After thus employing 
two thirds of nis book, at last he begms to give directions, as he says, "in 
good sadnesse," for cfaooeing a bow, and practising the art. He first states 
the instruments reqoired ; viz., the bracer, shooting gloves, thong, bow, and 
shaft. The bracer was to save tbe arm of the bowman ^ from the strype c^ 
strynfle,and his doublet from wearyng ;" and also that "the stryngeglydvnge 
sharpTey and auickleye off the bracer, may make the sharper shooce. For it 
the strynge shoald lyte upon the bare sleve, tbe strengtbe of the shoote 
should stoppe and dye tbere." {The Sckoie cf Skootyng^ 9d booke^ p. 3., 
edit. 1544.) The shoodnff g^ve was to save the ^ manne's fyngers from 
hurtynge" when he drew the string, and it had a purse attached to pot some 
fine hnen and some wax in. The string Ascham advises to be made of 
bollock's entrails, or therms, as they were called, twined together like Fopes, 
to give ^ a greater twang." He then enumerates the difierent kinds of wood 
of which bows niay be nnde (see p. 2070.), but gires tbe preference decidedly 
to the yew. The next division is headed ^ Ewe fit for a bowe to be made on,'* 
in which he informa us that " every bowe is made of the boughe, the plante, 
or the boole, of tlie tree. The boughe is knotty and full of pruines ; die 
piante is quicke enough of caste," but is apt tobreUL ; and " tbe bo^^e" is the 
best. He adds, ** If you come into a shoppe and fynde a bowe that is small, 
longe, heavye, stronge, lyinge streighte not wyndynge, not marred with 
knotte, gaule, wyndshake, wem, freat, or pinch, bye that bowe of roy warrant. 
. . . The beste colour of a bowe is wben the backe and the bellye in work- 
ynge be much what after ooe maner ; for such oftentymes prove like viigjn 


waxe or goide, lumBg n fine kmge gmp» even from ooe end of tfae bowe to 
the otfaer ; the short erayne, althoi^ such proye well sometimes, are for the 
most parte brittle.*' (p. 6.) ** Of t^ makiiige of the bowe^' he contmuesy ** I 
wjil not greatly medoley leste I shoutde seeme to enter m another roanne'a 
occupation, whych I can no skill of.*' Though Ascham does not enter into 
particularB respecdng the making of the bow, it is clear, from other authors,. 
tbat in his time it consisted of a single piece of wood, commonly yewy firom 
4 ft. to 6 ft. long, without any felt wrapped round the middle of it to stay the 
band, as is done at present. There were, bowever, two pieces of hom, one 
at each end, to retain the string, which resembled those now in use. Tbe 
string was Bmde of the sinews or cntrails of animals ; and the shaft or arrow 
of 8 hgbt and yei strong wood, headed with iron, and triouBed with feathers. 
(See OUyiMt Anecdotes cf Archerv^ p. 80.) Tbe best wood for the arrowa 
is ash, and the next best nrch or hornbeam. Willow is too light, and is apt 
to make a qfoavering unoertain fiiefati as are arrows of deal, vod aWof tne 
difierent kinds of po[te, except ue aspeo and the abde, Tfaere are twenty- 
four airows in a sfaeaf or qmyer. Tfae maniifactorers of bows were called 
bowyera, and the arrow-makers fietcbers. Tfaeae trades, with the stringera 
and arrow-head makers, petitioned Queen Elisabetb in 1570, to enforce in 
tbeir fiivour a statute of Henry VIII., enjoining every man to bare a bow in 
bis bouse. Slie did so, and butts were erected in dilferent places, sucb aa 
Kewington Butts, &c., at which erery able-bodied man was enjoined to prac* 
tise the art. Forei^ yew, howerer, began to grow scarce ; and it was thougbt 
so siiperior to Bngfash yew, tfaat a faiow of it sold for 6«. Scf., ^faen the bow of 
Enghsh yew cost only 2f. The Venetians, wbo were the chief importers, 
faaTing ezhausted the stock in Italy and Turkey, procured yew staves from 
Spain ; txll at last the Spaniah govemment disliking the trade, ordered all 
tfaeir yew trees to be cut down. When yew could no longer be obtained of 
snficient size to make an entire bow, it stmck a bowyer of Manchester of 
the name of Kelsal, about the end of tfae 16tfa century, tfaat he migfat make 
tfae back of tfae bow of another kind of wood, retaining the beUy of yew. 
Ash, elmy and several other woods, were used for this purpose ; and at last 
backed bows became so common as almost to supersede the use of self bows,, 
as those were called, which were made of a single piece. Sometimes they 
were made of three, and sometimes even of four pieces of wood ; but the best 
are of two. C^adually also yew came to be disused; and ornamentai 
fbreign woods, particularly fustick, lancewood, and partridge-wood were em- 
ployed. For tfae best account of arcfaery, and every tfaing reladng to bows» 
up to tfae oommencement of tfae present centory, we may refer to Roberts'» 
ingSsh Baufman^ or TVacis <m Archery, publisbed in 1801 ; and for able his- 
torical researcfaes on the subjoct, to Moseley^s Etsojf on Archeryy and Qrose^s 
Treaiiie on Andent Arm and Armour, Mr. Waring, the first bow-manufac- 
turer in England, and perhaps in Europe, informs us that the common yew with 
sufficiently dear aod knobless trunks is no longer to be fi>und, eitber in Ene^ 
land, or in any other part of Europe; and thougfa EngKsfa yew is occasional^ 
used by manufiusturers, yet that bows are now almost entirely made of dif- 
£ereot Idnds of wood from Soutfa America. He sfaowed us, mdeed, one or 
two bows, in which the belly was made of En^lisfa yew, and tfae back of 
faickory, but these he considered of a yery infenor description. Perfaaps if 
yew trees were pfamted in masses, and drawn up to the faeigfat of 10 ft., 
with dear trunks, and cut down when they were of 6 in. or 8 in., in diameter, 
tfaev migfat still be used for tfais manufacture. 

Tfae fiuit of tfae yew is applied to no use in Britain, tfaougfa tfae kemel of 
tfae nut may be eaten ; and it is said to affbrd, by ezpression, an oil wfaicfa ia 
good for fattening poultry. Tfae dried leaves faave been given to cbildren for 
kiUingworms; butit iaa dan^rous medicine, and faas oftenproved fiita). 
An infusion of tfae leaves is said to be used, in some parts of Hampshire, 
fixr spong^ the bodies of the dead, undcr the idea of its retarding putre- 
fiiction. Mr. Knight, finding that wasps prefer the fruit of the yew to tfaat 


of the vine, suggests the idea of pUuntiDg female yew treet near vineriea. 
(Hori. Trant.) 

Tbe yew roakes ezceUeDt hedges for sbelter ; undergrowthfor tbe protectioii 
of game ; and, when planted thick on auitable soil^so as to be diawn np with 
dean and strfught trunks, most valuable timber. When the hedge is wanted 
to be of one sbade of green» the plants should all be raised from cuttings of 
the same tree ; and, when they are intended to show fruit, in order to rival 
a hoUy hedge, onlv female plants ahould be chosen; and the hedge, like holly 
hedges ka)t for their fruit, sbould be cut in with a knife, and never dipped 
with the shears. Single scattered trees, when intended to be omamental by 
their berries, should, of course, always be femdes ; and, in order to determine 
their sex, they should not be removed to where they are finally to remain tiU 
they have flowered. This may, doubtless, be aocdmted by nngtng a branch 
on each plant afber it haa attained.5 or 6 years' erowth. 

The use of the yew treein andent topiary gardening, durinp the seventeenth 
century, was as extensive, in En^land and France, as that of the box seems to 
have been in Italy in the dajrs of Plinv. The practice was rendered fashion- 
able bv Evelyn, previously to which the dip^Hng of trees as garden omaments 
W8B chiefly confined to pUnts of box, juniper, &c.» kept by the commerckl 
gardeners of the day in pots and boxes, and trained for a number of years, tiU 
the figuTe required was complete. Sometimesy as we find by Gibson, Bradleyy 
and othen, ciipped pknts of this sort sold as high as five guineas eadi ^ and» in 
aU probalnlity, this high prioe first led Evdyn to the idea of dipping the more 
hardy yew in situations where it was finaUy to remain. The narrowness of 
the leaves of the yew renders it far less di^B^r^ by clipping than even tlie 
box ; and, as it is much hardier than the junq^er, should dipped trees come 
again into fashion, there can be no doubt that the yewwould be preferred to 
all otbers. As an avenue tree, the yew may be considered suitable fbr 
approaches to cemeteries, mausoleums, or tombs; and, as a single tree, for 
scattering in churchyards and burial-grounds. 

In modem gardening, the yew is chiefly valued as undergrowth, and for 
aingle trees and small ^oups in particular situations. *' As to its pictnresque 
perfections," says Giipm, writing in 1780, '* I profess myself (contrary, I sup- 
pose, to general opinion) a great admirer of its form and foliage. The yew 
18, of di other trees, the most tonsile. Hence all the ind^ities it surors. 
We every where see it cut and metamorphosed into such a variety of defor- 
mities, that we are hardly brought to concdve it has a natund shapey or] the 
power which other trees have of hanging carelessly and negligently. Yet it 
bas this power in a very eminent degree ; and, in a state of nature, except in 
exposed situations^ is, perhaps, one of the most beaudful evergreens we have. 
Indeed» I know not wnether, all things considered, it is not superior to the 
cedar of Lebanon itself : I mean, to such meagre representations of that 
noble piant as we have in England. The same soil which cramps the cedar 
is congenial to the yew. It is but sddom, however, that we see the yew in 
perfecdon. In the New Forest it formerly abounded, but is now much 
scarcer. But stiU, in manv parts of the New Forest, some noble specimens of 
this tree are lefl. One I have oflen visited, which is a tree of pecuiiar bcauty. 
It immediately divides into severd massive limbs, each of which, hanging m 
grand loose foliage, spreads over a large oompass of ground ; and yet the wbole 
tree forms a close compact body ; that is, its boughs are not so separated 
as to break into distinct parts. But, though we should be able to establish 
the beauty of the yew with respect to form and foliage, there remains one 
point stiU which we should find it hard to combat. Its colour, unfortunately, 
gives ofi*ence. Its diney fiinered hue, people say, makes it only fit for a 
churchyard. An attachment to colour, as such, seems to me an indication 
of false taste. Hence arise the numerous absurdities of gaudy decoration. 
In the same manner, a disiike to any particular colour shows a squeamish- 
ness, which should as little be encounifled. Indeed, when you have only one 
colour to deai witb, as in painting the wainsoot of your room, the eye» 


properly enoughy gtveB a preferenoe to some soft plearant tint, in oppontion 
to a^laiing bold one; but, when colours act in concert (as is the case in all 
•cenery), red, blue, yellow, li^ht green, or dingy green, are all alike: the 
▼irtue of each consists Bolely m its agreement with its neidibours." (For, 
Seen., L p. 101.) 

2%e poitonouM Naiure oftke Yew Tree has been known (as we have seen in 
p. 2069.^ sinoe the time mTheophrastuSy though some are of opinion that the 
yew of tne andents was a species of cypress. A mass of eYidence, however, 
proves that the yew of the modems is generaliy poisonous in its branches and 
leayes, though the berries may be eaten with perfect safety. The leaves were 
fbrmerly thought a cure for worms in chiloren ; but I>r. Perdval of Man- 
chester, in his Medical and PkUotophical Muayi, relates a melancholy circum- 
stance of three children being poisoned by their mother^s giving them yew 
leaves for this purpose. The duldren first took a spoonful of the dried leaves^ 
equaHy divided among them, and mixed with brown sugar, and afterwards 
ate a mess of porridge with sour buttermilk. From this dose they experienced 
no bad eflect : but, two davs afterwards, the mother, finding the worms stiU 
troubled them^ administered a dose of the fresh leaves, eiving them afterwards 
a mess of nettle pottage; that is, ffrud with voung netUes boiled in it; and in 
a few hours the children were 1111 dead. They appeared to have suffered no 
pain, and, after death» looked as thouffh they were m a phicid sleq). A young 
lady and her servant, in Sussex, wholiad drunk a decoction of yew leaves by 
mistake for rue, died in the same manner ; and several other instances are 
related of their proving fiital to hunian beings. There are instances of horses 
and oows havinff been poisoned by eadng the branches of the yew ; and sheep 
have been killed by browsing upon the buk of ^e tree ; but goats, deer, and 
turkeys are said to eat the leaves without bdng injured by them. In the 
New Planier^i KaleTidar, it is stated, that, though the yew has been cried down 
as a standard in pasture ground, on account of the poisonous nature of the 
leaves» yet there are ma^y yew trees in pastures, not fenced round, and also 
hedges, which are uniformly browsed by sheq> and cattle without doing 
them any ii^jury whatever. Hanbury reli^ a story of seven or ei^t cattle 
^having died in consequence of having eaten the half-dried clippinp of a yew 
tree or hedge, which the gardener had tlirown over the wall ; by which it would 
appear that the leaves and twigs, when dried or half-dried, and when taken 
into the stomacb in condderable quantities, have a very difierent efiect from 
what they have when taken in small quantities when green." Bfarshali has 
seen extendve yew phmtations, into which cattle were admitted without any 
evil oonsequence to themselvesy though the trees were browsed to the very 
bough. Sneep» he says, are particularly fond of the leaves, and, when the 
ground is covmd with snow, will stand upon their hind leg8,and devour them 
as high as they can reach. 

In the Dkiionnairv det Eatut et ForeU^ the subject of the poisonous nature 
of the yew is discussed at great lenffth. The ^oxmg shoots, it b allowed, are 
poisonous both to men and animus, acting hke oUier acrid poisons, by pro- 
dudng inflammation and spasms ; the antidotes to which are oiJy substances. 
In 1753, several horses having enteied into a garden near Bois le Duc, in Dutch 
Braban^ ate some of the branches of this tree, and died fbur hours aflerwardSy 
withottt any other symptoms than spasms, which continued for several 
minutes. A simflar instance is related by Varennes de Fenilles respectin|( a 
company of cavalry horses, during the war in Germany, which had been tied 
to some vews, and had eaten of them. Valmont de Bouare mendons that 
an ass, which had been fastened to a hed^ of yews near the Jardin des 
Plantes, afUr eating a few of the branches, instantly expired, being greatly 
inflated. MM. Daubenton and Desfontaines have seen poultry and sheep, 
that had eaten of the leaves of the yew tree, die in a short tune. These 
pemidous effects of the yew have been confirmed by the repeated experienoe 
of Professor Wiborg, in the Veterinary School, and at the Botanic Oarden, 
of Copenhagen. From the experiments of the professor, it appears that yew 


leaves, esten alone, are fiital to animals, particularly to honea, upon which he 
made bis experimenta ; but tbat, when mixed with twice or thrice as much 
oatSy they ma^ be used without any danger. This neutraUsation of the poi- 
sooons qualitiea of the yew by auother vegetable ma^ explain, to a certain 
extent, the diversity of opinion upon thdr elects ; it being poesible that some 
animals, which have eaten of the yew without inconvenience, had shortly befbre 
eaten heartily of some other vegetable. At all events, as M. Dutour ohservesy 
it is possibie that the nature of the soil, the ciimate, and the age of the 
tree, may contribute to diminish its bad effects; and it is certain, that with 
this [joison, as with certain others (opium for exaoiple), custom renders it 
innoxions. It is said that, in the mountains of uiEmover and Hesse, the 
peasants feed their eatde in part with the branches of the yew» during the 
winter. They know its poisonous qualities ; and, although they reckon it good 
food, they are aware that great precaution is neoessary in using it, witbout 
which they run tbe risk of losing ttieir cattle : consequently, they give them 
at first a .vety iittte, mixed with other forage ; afterwards thev mduaily 
augment the quantity, unttl at last they can almost give them the leaves of 
alone, without aoy cUuiger. 

SoU, Propagatkm, 4^. The yew will grow on any soil that is somewhat 
moist ; but it thrives best in loams and clays, on rock, and in a shady situa* 
tion. It is propagated for the most part by seeds; but the varieties, and also 
the specics, when the object is to form a hedge of phints of the same dimen- 
sions and colour of leaf, as already mentioned (p. 9088.), should be propa- 
gated by cuttings or layers from one plant only. The berries are ripe in 
October, and should be then gathered, carried to the rot-heap, and treated in 
the same manner as haws. (See p. 840.) If, however, they are sown imme* 
diately, enveloped in their pulp, a few of diem may oome up the foUowing 
year, and the remainder the second year; but, if the pulp is aOowed to dry 
round the nut, and they are kept in that state till spring, none of them wiil 
come up till the third year. Cuttings may be formed of either one or two yeare' 
growth, and planted in a shady bonier, either in the beginning of April or the 
end of August. The cuttings will be most certain of success if slipped off 
with a heel, and if die soil consists chiefly of sand. The leaves should be 
carefully stripped off the lower part of the cutting, which may be from 7 in. 
to 10 in. in length, and buried to the depth of 5 in. in the soii. Cuttings 
treated in this manner require two years before they are suffidently rooted 
to be removed. In all probability, however, if the points of the shoots were 
taken and planted in sand under a hand-glass, about midsummer, or before^ 
they would produce roots the same season, and might be transplanted the 
foUowing spring. Whether plants are raised from seeds or cuttinn, they 
ou^ht to undergo the usual routine of culture in the nursery, till tiiey are 
3 ft. or 4 ft. high ; because, as they are of siow growth, time ia gained by this 
practice; and the yew transplants so readiiy at any age, that there is no more 
danger of plants failing when transplanted at the hetght of 6 ft. or 8 ft., than 
there is when they are only 6 in. or 8 in. high. In planting the yew for hedges, 
the advantage of having large-sized plants is obvious ; fi>r which reason Boutcher 
recommends them to be kept in tne nursery tiU they are 7 or 8 years of age, 
at which time they wUl be 7 ft. or 8 ft. hi^h. The season ibr trensplanting 
the yew, whether of a large or small size, is, as in the case of all other ever- 
greens, when the sap is in a comparatively dormant state, between autumn and 
spring, and wben the weather is open, mUd, and, if possible, showery. If trans- 
planted in frosty weather, or wnile a dry wind prevails, they ought to be 
covered with mats or strew, or wicker hurdles, kept 6 in. or 8 in. from the 
plant by stakes and poles. The proper season for clipping yew hedges is 
towards the end of June, when the shoots of the year have been completed ; 
and, to ^'etain a hedge in the greatest beauty or verdure for the greatest length 
of time, it ought to be gone over in the latter end of July, or the beginning of 
August ; and the points of all those shoots which had become stubby, from 
repeated clippings, cut back 3in. or 4 in. If this be not attended to annuaUy, 

CHAP. CXtl. TAXA CEM. Ti,'\VS. 2091 

the enttre snrftce or tfae hedge wJU hare to be cnt in to the game depth ever; 
AorSyears.otbenrise thesmace willbecomeso tbkkandtaatled with twiga 
» lo cxdude the akr from the interior, and to kill a niunber of the branchea, 
ao m here and tbere to Ibnn W*. . These gap«, \>y admitting the air, are the 
means ofkeefriii^ tbe hedge ahve; and it is curioui io thb way to see nature 
relieviDg herseUT 

The ;ew ii admtrabty adapted for underwood ; becauK, like the bollj utd 
tbe box, it tbrivec undet tbe shade and drip ofotber trees. When planted 
iniRBsseflbjitaeU', the trees aredrawn up with straight trnnks, Kke pines and 
fira ; aud, in good loaray Boil, on a cooi bottom, plaiitatianB of yews, treated 
in ihis manner, niust eridently be higbly Taluable. Therc are soine fine yew 
igrovea, with tall clean trunks, at Combemicre, in Cbeshire; ond here and 
theie in plantations, in most parta tifthecountry, proofs may be obtuned that 
tbe yew, like the cedar of Lebaoon, the red cedar, thc arbor vit^, tbe junipe/, 
and varione other trees, uauatly seen aa immcnse buahea, miKht ee«ly be 
grown ao aa to throw all their atrength into a clean straight trunk. 

AeMenti, Diieatet, ^c The wood of the yew is tough, and therefore not 
liable to be injured by storms ; and botb the wood and tfae leaves bdng poi- 
Bonous, neitber are attacked by insects ; or if diey are, it is in a very shght 
degree. Tbe pointt of the shoots, in »ome situations snd seasons, produce 
little tufts of leaves, «bich mav be conffldered as aborrive shoots. Very few 
Uchens or (iingi are ever fbund on the baA ; because that, as we iiave alresdy 
obeerved, MaieS offevery year. SpbsYia Tb,x\ Soa., t. M4. f. 6., it common 
on tfae branchleta and leaves. 

abntnla. J1kw*<17V»>. TbclMiirilxH vldit iHSmUrmndalt butweihillKnaH 

C»whunt,iaSunq, irithatniiik lOILlD ilkMiMiT. Tbe udw iuthgr^ mentlooi "a>ii|w. 
«■DHtcd rev tn^ cnvbie 1ii Bntnne churclirMrd. In Keur- vjtb t trunk 8 O. li Id. In cIetubw 
JhiiMi, iilikli had Ewa bloini don, ■nd iisii up luto aaMj pluki, uid cenalileratile pIko of 
nmwd iwd clw tiaiitr. guDta imiilbar luiaitR,^' be Myt, " li u bt w» io SiiUoii cbuicbyird, 
HU WiBclMitar." IHmM. SkL, toL U. p. m.) Boi Hlll, in Samt, vu, in tbt llm*d{ Enljii, m 
aMntcdbtitim>vtorWkax«r«M. AtrMUHcdur.lD BtKiii.H>iDH i^ la 
btnDMW»l<)ft.lndiiui><i«iibii(tMctr«aalaaHc«IM. WbiK ■Maliw ■ r"* tn> ia tba 
(^iMbmlarBdbgniikVbUiiblTSS^iwuMnntiToftnu^ TlMbadri>uiquu,ibiin,ud 
tbU,>DditatCill3ft.,iiiMitbsalviehiad, ]lw«ciu]cnwiiDd,iDtbci(cta»it cbcdcknidc 
tf^a. l£irtortbcjewtrccclDtbccIiuKhTaidio(UiUBtfsbbourtnd,bcciir^*no>>lci|atairb, 
idli kaan Oat tbcn MH «M In UMC ( but, riaea bc aUon IhU Ibe mda t» aia af aion ra. 
buEffoinb tlwi tbaftatfai.tq>Ml«tl^itacMn»nct ptcDD fnn (Hd.bcdc In wMcb tbc plaDii 
■<oodaliUc«uldlclaacai,UvtidiueeiiauldbelDl!nairo(ucl*L AirceUUtUc SbirdDit,MH 
auRchm, iD StiAidibir*, bMO, ta ITSO, a riDpilailT picuncqu* amaiaaa, *nd Ibrmcd matM 
(MtBWiibvarncTaUandlaKanwtRea. (SecGnU. tCcg., roL ix.p.llS7., aipp..>beTeaagnTa 
«f an p ti . l ar >HBetrce H pr^>ordiB(b>Dr^attci,tfaBe-cre*DeuiuDTrt* 

. _..T_ .__ ___. ,.... — -htMrrincftoBiSft. to Wa. ta-drouiaftrciiDei 

m. ADUicbUlcbelnniI>uBbuu>i>iiHiI.o(^ 

TilKbatMnSgft.aBda)ILIiihdfbti MHouBtOrsr^ HaBpclaBd, ■ ttafc ISiatn pluiUd,la 
Uft.taieb|UVaifcHoii*bTvielic>rfNW,ll)ajearcold,UlcMlthlsb^-SeBlbart<BdaD. iDDct 
«*aibiia,lDthccbuiEbnidafeiake.Babriel,i1tualad Ml Ib* rivw □ait.laa Ob* eld j*ir «0«. 

Ufh, Ui* BniA arwbicli ic I 

»■ na In VnDdleUaa oburohiud, b*k n*BUi<il, Surrej, Mi<l lo ban tacD pluMd ^ ttc 11« 
\VnUaaiaMCo»]Den)r,tIft.hM.uil l£ft.ln|riit. la bu>Ka.alCawdnr, HieSOIt hbdi. w) 
alnu^or4ft.iDdiUBUer; u lCidbcoaka, it ii tO R. hlKh.HinillameUrof tb* IRmk Sft.Sln.,ai._ 
cribeheadMri 1s L<«cirat,marewiA], it n JSIt h^,llHdlaiDctirarth*tmk 

- ortb«baal«n.— SoithorLoodoii. In Babllllia, U Aldcwortb, bmt Wcl. 

' ird, ic one fl n. U in, In drcumfercni:!' jil S 0. fton Ibcjrround : II bu ■ Sn* 
d.fliDUgh.earariaredwilhOiotnini;, iliicdmt At Runpcteid Hardiili, 

wiIf 37 K In dnumferFncc In Checblre, U lUder Hdl, 70 leari 
tfraf thc trnnli Ift., jnd i>f Ilie head 96ft. In Denbisflihlic, at 
illiniietci<irthclninlii;n.,iiiiiiihUoflbehcad 4lft. 1d Duiban, 
II lifon. IilBh. ttiedriDicicrnf thctrunk IIL, cBd thU of th* h*ail 


aOft. .lsEM(,MSbe(itnnhlbnl>fttraa50ltbl(li.»Ub ■ tnmb SA.Siii. !■ di w nf.Md 
tbcdUiiMts gflhahHdUft-i ■IBnjbnirkc, 51 TcanpUDUd.illiSft.bltb.lbedUuelcriiriba 
trank I (1. « tB.. ud oT Ibf bad 17 ft. : U Hilud. 10 jma sUBUd, It li li ft. bigb, Ow clrcimk 
ftnnccaribalruDt t ft. IOIn.,4Dd IhfdUmeUt oT tbctac*d I3R. Id Huiubltc, 1d VVuUinstaa 
ChurcbTud, nui PotUooulb, UliSfift. In c1rcumfn«nK In Kem, In L«di churchTird, lia yrw 
(m, tht ITHUU ciiciunn>nnce cf nhlcb vu 31 It. ii In. ; U f a liUti, SSn. Sln. : dlunMrr of 
tb> boUoK, m OctobM.lB33.whni 10100 fipiiM h»l t«n ialdiD( In II, 8 (V filn. i hciiht u U» 

Dff o( iu .■hn.Vbr.WtiM' 'in Norlhambcri.nd, ni H.rlb.irn, 'wj >c«!n 'oij',' .1 1. :Kli. hl|ih 
UMduntBtn a( the trunk jft.liu., uid Ihu ii< Uie b«d suii. in UiliirdUiin, ui (hc Oironl 
BoUnlc Gardtn, SXjatt old. it ii 36fl. Iiigb, Ihe diuuut or thc QUDk ift., ud uf Ibi hnd 
«ft.1 1 famile uce: iDotbcr, 1 mnle tnr, 30U vori old. U SSft. hUb. Ihc dUmcur of Ibe 
iTUnk Ift. If in., aod of Ibe bend ^tt- Thc jtv bcdfa whlch f^nneny cxiatcd Id thit urden 
hi>e bcen elwJ ; mcDHODed, p,vn& 1d t^bTokeihlre, nl Suckpule COun, £0 inn pluilcd, 
U U BIR. blch, tfaa (UuiHtai of the tnink eln., ud thu or the hend left. In lUdnanblre. 
UlluUti|taCuUe,3£ft.blfb.thedluial(tBrthetiiink3ft.9lD., uidthUof thehad«£a In 
MmgiMnL iit Hudwkkc Oiun, (I ycan pUnlHl, U !• 13 ft. hlfta ; u Willr! Puk, 31 icum pluitnl. 
ttiinft.hl*b,tbedliBetar51heliiuikIft.,uid(d'lheLeadUft.i u KlDl«,#(t.hlgh, tbe dU- 
Bialecor lb«lnukSft.,udlbUDrthehead7in. Id StaAidiMre, u HlinleT tUU, arc lererU Im- 
Mmtnwtzeea, pattlciilaTh onc whldi iinlebnlad AiTiti wideW qircadinf bead. JdSuITcU, u 
nkbaisiiibHaU,^OTean|iUnted,U laSOft. hljdi,th>dUnHUTa<^the tiunk lft.«iD., mxl tbu of 
IbabHdUft. lnW<niiaaaiibiR,uHadutH«ut.itUtOft.bigb, uid hu ■ ItuDkTft. In clt. 
amteani U Cmonib 40 Tcui oM, li b aoft. hl«h, (be dlunciei or ihc tiunk t ft. 6 lu., ind ibu Df 
lkab^»ft.;iBBuilelaoefaundi<*rdhaTcrTdDatiee,wi(haIiuBk7ft. In dUmewt Uift. 
ftmbanund. Id ¥otkdilfc,u OrlmMon, U Ttan pUnted. Ilitltft. taigh, Ibc dUmetcr of ths 

_.,.... ,. , ... ■tspotboirou^ H>ll,n»i Dor --- ■- ■— - -■ ■- 

[tae (nniKl, l9ft.6)ii., dUmel 

Annc* oftbe trunk, al i 
riA, SoA. sin. biih, wl 
igsij— 1d ScotitaL In tl 
hlita, dUmetKaftba tni 

it EdlaUuvb, u SoirDtd B 

Anwta af Ibc inmk a ft., ud oT Iha head 30 ft. ; U Hoccdun, w ft. hlgb, Uic dlUDMct or Ihc tiunk 
Sft. «in., ud oritae head S7 ft. — South of EdUbunb. In B^ickttaln, u Ibe Hlnri, 3} tcnn 
|iUnled,!tiiIT(t bl|ta,tb«dluietKaribcbead3Bl& In Elicudbrlihtihlie, u SL Maif-i lilc, II 
b30ILUab,tbedluittctofttaalnink!ft.3iiL,and Ibu of thc heul ftift. In Haddii«lonihlt*, 
U Trobilbui, 11 UHft.hl|th,lbaAuielerortbctnmkEft.9uL,aDd(< thehtad nft. In Boi. 
bandilblR, u Drihni^ AtAcr, tbeonealnHbiHlJaedip. smB. ; uid u Minln, 110TeuiaU,lt li 
iafibltb,aadiHBal«o<tbelniBktlt,aodsf tbehndHrt. — Nonbor ailnbunb. InAiwjlI. . 
•U», ullinud, l> a beauUftil trae, AeiM 190 «n OU, »ft. « in. hl|h, dUmeler Df Ibc head Sft. 
lBBulMilra,at HunllHliifa|a,lt1a33B.hl|fa, tb* dUmocr orUie tiunk lft.8ln. In ClKk. 
BUUDibli&lntbaMlnoribcDelUrlnMliuUan, IOrauipUBted,lllilDft.hlxta. InCrom^tiT, 
uCoul,lWnnal^U«n.hlih,lliadluiMctof Uu mnk tft. Sin.,uid Out of ihe heul 
Sft. InFat&tdilre,UMaBbaddB,I(>h.ltaidUin(FleiaritaetnuikIft.CiD„ 
Mdtribabatf nEi B KlnBUid Cuda, 3S nan old, il ii Soft. bltb. Uie dicunileie» orita* 

IIMilt iT iiiii liii iriiiiiilii nriliiihialflll In Patthihitc, on tbe atuc of JabuiIonF. E^., 

■aar tbe Oid Cutle of Klneudlne, TW Tcan old, It U tS ft. hl«h, wilh I inink 13 n. e in. in eiicum- 
(nu, and wlth thn* iwit llmbajaDe oT wtalcli li 19 ft. lani.uid Tft. in gltti ■ •ecoDd, «R, 
lani, ■ndsn. ln|liti ud ■ IhinL S ft. iiini, uidSR.ein. Inilil: alTiTniDuth, IHl yean old, it U 
*Oft.hl(h, IhtdUmetetorihelnmkSn., ■adorihcbcBdaoit.i ■IHulcc, neai punkeld, ■ dbIc 

■iDwlb. In RoB-thln, alBnihan Ciille, EO R. hlgb, Ihc diucetcT orite liunk I4Tn.. ud ar Iba 
Ee^SOt lDiitliUni>hlic,uCiUendei |-iik,XSft. hlih, Uie circoml^renoe ar Itae Itunk 11 ft., 
udltaedluBCIn-arUiaBEUlsaft.; UWmtnnu. 10 ireui pUnMd, II ii BR hlgh.— In Irclud. 
MuDublln,UTercDuie,15jeui|d*aied.ltl(I£ft.hl|h: Tir. Cutl^ku, w ;eui pUnled, ii U ft, 
MMtL — Souib or Dublln. In Coi«,U Uoin Pufc,33lt. hi«h,lhc dlaDMerur theliBnkEft. «in., 
ndtbuaritaeheed47ft. In Ktoi|'iCeunI7,UCtauleTlllcForert,4£Tcani>linu>d,ltltion.fal|h, 
tb*dluetCTat(betniB]i!ft.,udortbebcwluft.--Hi>itfaor DiAUn. In Dowb. ■t Cadt Wwid, 
IMfaBn<ld,lti>3SfI.hlffa,tbtdianiettiarihttiunkSft,ghi., ind orttae hcttl nfti UHaln. 
«ft.bWi,lb*dluiicterarthelmnk»n,tnd(bu af Iht btui auft, In Feimuiuh, ■( FlaicDt* 
CdlDt, W fean old, U U 33 IL hlgh, IbedUmeur nrthetiunkSrL, indarihe fatad30ft.: tu. Ikili- 
■ttUhiBUlTcortfaenelsbbouilnamaunulni, whcTe Ihc Driglnil pUnl iiiC" - ' ' ■ -- 
_«. .,#.«.1. «n» 1.1..*. Th. .4L«..^«...j-,i.._..i. «A -■^oflhehccdfiin 

a Sli^la, U H^kicc 

wqi, u Coolb 30 ft. hisfa.lbicdUmelciDrihetn 

CeaU^nft. talifa, Uwdliunater oT Ihe tiunfc Sft. uid ttait af Ibe ipue CDTcredfar ihe biinc 
aiR.— InFnne^ blUt* Jwdln dei Fluiteh IKI jean old, ii u 45 It hlgb. UieiUuaelcT ar 
Innkflti IB th* mB* gudtni, 30 Tian old, itiiSOft. fal|fa. Neu NaiHci, 60 yian old. II ii 31 

Uffa. At ATiaDebe^ IB Uw Boluie Oudto, 40 Ttan iduilcd, II li W n. hl«h "-- ' 

nuBk 1 ft,, and Ibuior Uw bead 10 ft. — In Vuwtit, In tfat BoUnlc C 
SOTtan pluud,)lUSOn. bi(h.— InCui4UWIinrfanifa«, 30 Tcan ald, 11 

■tViemu,ln tbe UnlTinltT BoUnic Gudtn, 30 )rean cid.ll 1> SOrt higb, 

ft. faiiti.— ■□ Auitij 

Ifac dluBetn ot tt 

in. ~9S rean jilinled. II ii iSli. hlc h ; in RoaeDlbil 

lliu.<t: 011 the Ix>)Iba, fli yiuui pluiled, II li ISf 

Cummrrcvd Slatiitia. Transplacted Beedluiga, in the London l 
1 ft. high, are 16/. pei hundreai ih. high, 40(. per hiiiidred ; Hnd plants 
of T. b. rasdgiita, li. 6d. each. At BoUwyller, plants of the common 
;ew sre 1 franc each, nnd those of the variessted-leaved variety, and of the 
common yew, 5 (rancs eacb. At New Yow, Bmall plants of the common 
yew are froui 25 to 50 cents each; lorge plants, 1 dollai' eachj and plantt 
of the Iriah yew are I dollai eacb. 

■ S. 7*. (b.) CtNADB^NsiB WUid. The Canada, or North Aneneaii, Ycw. 

/*«HImW»h Wm8|iLPL.4|>^8H.i Punh n. Amci. Sq>L.3.p.H7.) SB^mllMlCTd. 

% in i|» i' . r. b. mtauf lAcl. Bdt. ^ir., t.p.M& 

Sper. Char., ^c. Leaves linear, S-ranked, crovded, revolute. Hsle flow- 
en sloboK, Blwafs toliUry. (Smilh.) Hicbaux detcribea thia species u of 
humbler growth thau the European jew, of spresding haln^ auil widl 
■nialler flowers aud fruit ; aiid Punh sb;b that, uoder the Bbade of other 
treea, it doea not rise above 2 ft, or 3 ft. high. Willdenow says that it is 
smaller ond narrower in all its partfl, and that it does not alter by eulture; 
yet that a specific differcnce is bard to be detected. The leavei, bowever, 
are DBrrower, sDiBller, and revolute at tbe maTgin j and the male fluwem artt 
■Iways «ohtary iu the boaoms of the leaves. It is a native of North Am^ 
ricB, in Canada, Bod on tbe banks of the Antictem, in Maryland; growing 
only iu shady rocky plBces, and flowering in March and April. It was iu- 
troduced in IBOO ; and there are plants of it in the Horticultural Society's 
«^_j__ _„ j ■„ .._^ ■_. . Ijuj jj jg obviously only h variety of the 

9094 arborbtum and fruticetum. part iii. 

Genus IL 


Jacqato Ueber den 

SALISBIPR/^ Smith. The Salisburia. Lm. Syst. Monae'cia Poly&ndria. 

Ideni^fteaUom. lin. Tnins., S. p. 330. ; Willd. Sp. Fl., 4«. p. 478. ; HbriL Hort Reg. HaiC, S. p. 90S. 
■^nomipne. Ginigo of Kempfer, Llnamu, «ad otben. 

JDerbfOtion. Named in bonour otJLA. StMwry^ F. B.&, L.8., ftc, a diitingtiiihed botanist. Ginlsgo 
if the aboriginal name in Japan. 

DetcnpHony S^c. A deciduous tree of tbe fint magnitude» a native of Japan , 
^d remarkable for Che singularity of its leaves, which seem to unite Conf ferse 
with the Corylace». 

^ 1. S. ^DiANTiFO^UA Smitk, The Maiden-hair-leaved Salisburia, 

or Gmkgo TWe. 

Idemi^ficatkm. TnM. Lin. 8oe., & pi 83a ; Wilid. Sp. FL, 4u p. 47S. ; Hom. Hort Rcg. HaiT, S. 

p. 903. ; Jaoq. Ueber den Oinkko. 
'S^noi^fmes. Cffnkgo, Gin^n, or li^jKmmpt. Amom., p. 811. ; Qin^ bCIobe IM. Ifral., pL 313., 

^t. yeg.t9i. lA, p. S67., Tkunb. FL «Aw., p. 358., Pert. Synop., 2. p. 573., Trait. jUb, Toa., ed. 2., 

2. pl 80., Dec. in mi. Uid».,!. p. 130., Pemk \n BibL Unio., 7. pL Sa, Qouan Detor. du Oinkgo, 

Ac. ; Nojer du Japon, Aibre aux quarante E^cuc 
The Seaet. Both iexef are in the Kew Botanic Garden, in the Hadmey AiboceCom, and in our 

garden at Bavtwater. . 
Engravings. KannpC AmcBn., p. 811. f. ; Gouan Deicr. du Oinkgo, &c. f. ; 

Ginliga^ 1. 1. ; omjlg». VBI6SL and 1S88. ; and tfae platei of ihit tree in our latt 

Description, ^c, In its native countr^, the salisburia forms a large tree, 
like the wakiut, but is more conical in its roanner of growth. In England, 
in the climate of London, where it is in a fiivourable soil and situation, 
it rises with a stndght erect trunk, regularly fumished with alternate 
brancheSy at first indined upwards, but, as they become older, taking a 
more horizontal direction, so as to form a regular, conical, and somewhat 
spiry-topped head. The bark is grey, somewhat rough, and it is said to be 
full of fissures when the tree gets to be old. The leaves resemble those of the 
ildiantum vuIgiUre. They are of the aame oolour and texture on both sides, 
and resemble, in their smoothness and parallel lines, those o£ a monocotyle- 
donous plant. They are somewhat triangular in shape, disposed altemately, 
like the branches ; wedge-shaped at the base, with stalks as long as the disk : 
they are abrupt at the uppcr extremity, and cloven or notched there, in a 
manner almost peculiar to this genus, and to some species of fems : they 
are smooth, shinmg, and pliant, of a fine yellowish green, with numerous mi- 
nute parallel ribs ; and their margins are somewhat thickened. The male 
catkins, which appear with the leaves, in May, on the wood of the preceding 
year, or on old spurs, are sessile, about l^in. long, and of a yellowisn colour. 
The female flowers, according to Richarct, have this particularity, that each is 
in part endosed in a sort of cup, like the female flowers of Dacrydium. This 
covering is supposed to be produced by a dilatation of the summit of the 
pedunde, as may be seen in our figure. The fmit consists of a globidar or 
ovate drupe, about 1 in. in diameter; containing a white nut, or endocarp, 
Bomewhat flattened, of a woody tiesue, thin, and breaking eanly. The nut, 
when examined by Sir J. £. Smith, fi^om specimens in his possession, which 
were sent from Ohina to Mr. Ellis, was found to be larger than that of the 
pistadua, with a farinaceous kemel, having the flavour of an almond, but 
with sonie dc^gree of austerity. The tree grows with considerable ra- 
piditj in the diiBate of London, attainin^ the height of lOft. or ISft. in 
10 years ; and in 40 or 50 years, the heidit of as many feet. The longe- 
vity o£ the salisburia promises to be great,?or the largest trees in England, 
that are in good soils, continue to grow with as much vigour as when they 
were newly planted ; and the tree at U trecht, which is supposed to be between 
90 and 100 years of age, and, consequently, the oldest in Europe, though not 
large, still produces vigorous shoots. The highest tree that we know of in 
England is at Purser's Cross, where it was planted about 1767, as we have 


aeea in p. 72. ; and it is above 60 ft. high : but by (ar the hBndsoniesttree which 
we know of is that Ggured in our last Volume, from ihe Hile End Nuraer]' ; 
wbicb, roDeanired m July, 1837, was found to be eiactly 60 ft. high. 

Geograpty and HtMioiy. The NiltBburiEL, or ginkgo tree, ia genendly con- 
ndered b; botaniati to bc a native of the Uland of Niphou, and other partt 
ofJapan.andalioof China;but M. Siebold, 
who Tended seTen yeara in Japan, and is 
publtshine the flora of that country, states 
diat the mhabitaots of Japan consider the 
tree la aot tniiy indigenous to tbeir coun- 
trr, but to bave be«n brought to them from 
Cnma, though at a very remote period ; 
■nd Sunge, who accompanied the Duesion 
from Russia to Fekin, states that he sbw 
pear a pagoda, an immen 
with a tnu^ nearly 40 ft. ii 
of prodigious hdgbt, and still in the vigour "^ 
of T»etation. ( la Soc. d^ Ag. du Depart. de rHiraidt.XS^S.) It wat 
fint £scorered bv Knm))fer in Japsn, in 1690 ; and an account of it was pub- 
lishcdby thatautfaor.inhis Anat^aiei Eiolica,ia 1712. It is uncertain when 
this tree wuintroducedbtoEurope. IftheestimatemBdeby Professor Kops 
of Utrecht, aa to the age of the saliBburiagrowin^intheBotanicGarden tliere, 
be at all near the truth, it must have been Srst mtroduced into Holland be- 
tween lT87andI737; and,(rom theconnexionoftheDutch with Japanat that 
time, we think this highly probabte. Itis certain thatit was not tntroduced into 
England till 17S4, or a year or two previous ; becauae ElliG, writing to Lin- 
nsus in that year, mentions tbat Oordon had plants of it. Gordon sent a 
plant of it to LinuEus in 177] ; who, in hiaJlfanltM(i,publlshed in that year, 
noticed it, for tbe first time, under the name of GMcgo blloba; which whs 
altered by Smith, in 1T96, to Salisbitriii adiantifolia. This alteration, stated 
by Smith ta be made on account of the generic name being " equally ui 

oiid barbaroua," 

o Bt the t 

is very properly objccted tc 

ay M. De CandoUe, on tht _ 

■liiction of a midtJplicity of names-. We hsve, however, adopted tl 


Salisburia, as it is that by which the tree is most generallf known in Eng^d. 

It was planted in Rouen in 1776, and taken to Paris in 1780; it was sent 

to Schonbrunn, by Messrs. Loddiges, in 1781 ; to North America, by Mr. 

Hamilton, in 1784 ; atkd to Montpelier, in 1788, b^ Broussonet, who reoeiyed 

it from Sir Joseph Banks. The manner in which this tree was introduced* 

into thecardens of Parisis curious,and was thus related by M. Andr^ Thouin, 

when ddivering his aimual Cours iTAgricuUure Pratique in the Jardin des 

Piantes : — In 1780, a Parisian amateur, naftaed P^tigny, made a voyage to 

London, in order to see the principal:' gardens ; andamong the number of 

those he visited was that of a commercial gardener, who possessed five young 

plants of Ginkgo bfloba, which was still rare in England, and whicn the 

gardener pretended that he then alone possessed. Tbese fiye plants were 

raised from nuts that he had recdved from Japan ; and he set a hieh price on 

them. However, afler an abundant defe^ne, and plenty of wine, ne sold to 

M. P^tigny these young trees of Ginkgo, all growmg in the same pot, for 

25 puineas, which the Parisian amateur paid immediately, and lost no time in 

tdung away his valuable acouisition. Kext morniiiff, the effects of the wine 

being du^sipated. the Englisn gardener sought out his customer, and oflfered 

him 25 gumeas for one plant of the five he had sold the day before. This, 

however, was refused by M. P^tigny, who carried the plants to Fraoce ; and, 

as each of the five had cost him about 120 franCs, or 40 crowns (quarante 

ecus), this was the origin of the name applied to this tree in France, of 

iorlnre aux quararUe \ecu9 ; and not because it was originally sold for 120 firancs 

a plant. Almost all the ginkgo trees in France have been propagated fit>m 

these five, imported fi^om En^and by M. Petigny. He gave one of them to 

the Jardin des Plantes, which was kept for many years in a pot, and preserved 

throu^ the winter in the green*house, till 1792; when it was planted out by 

M. Andr6 Thouin, who eave the above relation in his lectures : but, as die 

situation was not altogether fiivourable to it, the plant was not much above 

40 ft. in height in 1834, and had not then flowered. There is another 

ginkso in the Jardin des Plantes, which was raised by layering from one of 

the tour others imported by P^tigny. Though much later planted than the 

other, yet, being in a better situation, it is about the same size, tbough it also 

has not flowered. The first ginkgo which flowered in Europe appears to have 

been a male plant, at Kew, in 1795; and shortly after, Mr. Dillwyn informs 

us, a male plant flowered at Ham House, in Essex. In the Botanic 

Garden at Pisa, a tree, which had not been much more than 20 years planted, 

flowered in 1807; and, in 1812, one flowered in the Botanic Garden at Mont- 

pelier, and another in that of Rouen. Hitherto, only the male blossoms of the 

tree had been seen ; and it was believed that the femue did not exist in Europe. 

De Candolle, however, in 1814^diBcovered the female flowers on a tree at 

Bourdigny, near Geneva; and it was from these flowers tfaat L. C. Richard 

was eiwbled to give the description and figure of the flowers, which will be 

found in his Memoiret tur les Comferes, pubushed by his son, Achille Richard, 

in 1826. The fi^uit formed ; but, there being no male tree near, it did not come 

to maturity. This tree, Professor De CandoIIe, in his account of it in the 

BibSotheque Umverselle de Geneve, tom. vii. p. 138., coi^ectures to have been 

plauted between 1767 and 1797 ; because, he says, the former proprietor of 

Bourdigny, M. Gaussen de Chapeaurouge, a zealous amateur, who sent for 

many exotic seeds and trees fix)m England, commenced his plantations in 1767, 

and continued them for 30 years afiierwards. Fortunately, w.e are able to indi- 

cate the age of this tree, with an approach to certainty, through the voluntary 

assistance of our venerable correspondent, Mr« Blakie, who went Brom Eng- 

land to France and Switzerland, as a botanical collector, and resided fi>r 

some time at Bourdigny in 1775, when he was collecting plants upon the 

AIps for Drs. Pitcairn and Fothergill of London. Mr. Blakie deposited 

the plants he coUected in the garden of M. Gaussen, till he could find an op- 

portunity of sending them to England. ** When I returned to France, m 

1776," iftiys Mr. Blakie, '* I continued in correspondence with M. Gaussen ; 


and, wben employed in fonnhig the gardens at Bagatelle and Mpnceau in 
1783 (see Encyc, of Gard., edit. 1835, p. 88.), I always sent to M. Gaussen 
8ome of all the new plants I got ; and these were numerous, as I was then 
fonning a coUection of trees and plants at Monceau (or the late Duke of 
Orieana* The last packet of trees that I sent to M. Gaussen was in 1790 ; 
and amongst them was a plant of Ginkgo blloba, which I had reared at 
Monceau. I have M. Gaussen^s ietter, wherdn he writes me, from G^eva. 
* I have received a parcel of plants f 29 species) by M. Merlin, for which 1 
beg your acceptance of my sincere thanks,* &c. ; dated Geneva, Dec. 1 1 . 1790 ; 
and signed ' Gaussen de Chapeaurouge.' " {Blalde in Gard, Mag.^\o\. xii. 
p. 266.) Mr. Blakie, whose interesting communication on this subject will 
be found in the Gardener^s Magassine, vol. xii. p. 266., was not, and, indeed, 
could not be, aware whether the plants brought by him from England, and 
propagated at Monceau, were male or female ; but, as those ori^naUy intro- 
duced from Japan were raised from imported nuts, there can be very little 
doubt that both sexes exist in various parts of Britain, as weU as of the 
Continent. After the discovery made by Al. De CandoUe of the female plant, 
cuCtings were distributed by him, from the Botanic Garden at Geneva, to the 
di£ferent Botanic Gardens of Europe, and, among others, to that of Mont- 
pelier. The iBrst sent perished; but, in 1830, M. DeliUe, director of the gar- 
<len,received, through his coUeague, M. Vialars, two cuttings from M. De Can- 
doile, which he grafted on two young male stocks, and whicn produced vigorous 
ahoots. From some of these shoots, in 1832, M. DeUUe covered a male 
tree, 50 ft. high, with grafts ; and the year foUowing the tree produced one 
imperfect fruit ; which was foUowed in, 1835, by other perfect ones, from 
whieh young plants have been ratsed. We saw a female tree raised from 
one of the cutdngs distnbuted by M. De CandoUe, in the Botanic Garden at 
Strasburg, in 1828 : there is another at Kew, raised from a cutting received 
there in 1818; and there are someyoung plants at Messrs. Loddiges's, raised 
ffom cuttings received by them from M. De CandoUe, in 1835; we, fdso, possess 
one obtained from Kew, which we had grafted on the summit of a male 
tree in 1831. M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps, in his yote Historique sur le 
Ginkgo (Annaiei de la Soc. Hort,y tom. xv. p. 93.), expresses r^et, that 
neither Uie directors of the Jardin des Plantes, nor the proprietors of any 
of the private gardens of Paris, have, as &r as he knows, availed them- 
selves of the opportunity of obtaining plants of the female salbburia ; and 
we may make Uie same remark with reference to the Hordcultural Sb- 
dety^s Garden, and aU the London nurserymen except Messrs. Loddiges. 
He ingeniously coi^jectures, hovvever, that some of the large trees in 
France, that have not yet shown flowers, may be females; because many 
males, not qutte so large as they are» have flowered; and because it is well 
known that, in dicecious trees generally, the females are some years later 
in produdng their blossoms than the males. In Great Britain, the ginkgo, 
or, as it is here called, the salisburia, has been most extensively propagated 
and distributed ; but chiefly from the stool in the Mile End Nursery, which 
we know with certainty to be a male plant, as a tree propagated from it, 
and now standing in an acljoining garden, was discovered by us in flower in 
1835, and produdng only male blossoms. ^See Gard, Mag., voi. xi. p. 380.) 
Some female plants may, however, exist m the country ; because it is un- 
certain how many were originally raised from nuts by Gordon. Messrs. 
Loddiges inform us that, about 1804, they raised one plant of Salisburia 
from the nut ; but the^ are uncertain to whom they sold it. In a garden near 
MUan, Signor Manetti informs us, there is a female salisburia, which flowers 
every year. The singularity and beautv of the foliage of this tree insure it 
a place in every good collection ; and there are accordingly many fine sneci- 
men« both in England and on the Continent ; the dimensions of some o\ the 
most remarkable of which will be found in our Statistics, 

Properties and Uses, The wood of the ginkgo is said by Kaempfer to be 
light» sofr, and weak ; but Loiseleur Deslongchamps describes it as bf a vel- 

6u 2 


lowiah white, Teuied, with a fioe dose grainy and moderately hard. It ia 
eaay to work, receiyeii a fine polishy and resembles in its genenil appearance 
citron wood. It is, he aays, much more solid and strong than the ordinary 
white woods of Europe ; and, though the tree is closely altied to the Coni- 
ferse, it has nothing resinous in its nature. In China and Japan, the satis- 
buria appears to be grown chiefly for its fruit, the nuts of which, as Dr. Abel 
observesy are very generall^ exposed for sale in the morkets of China; though 
he was not able to ascertam wnether they were used as food, or as medicine. 
In Japan, according to Kempfer, they are never omitted at entertainments; 
entering into the composition of several dishes, after having been freed from 
their austenty by roasting or boiling. They are reputed, he says, to b6 useful 
in digestion, and in dispelling flatulence. Thunbers says that even the 
fleshy part of the fruit is eaten in Japan, though insipid or bitterish ; and 
that, ir slightly roasted, skin and all, it is not unpahitable. Some of the fruit 
which ripened in the Botanic Garden of Montpetier were tasted by M. Delille 
and MM. BonafouB of Turin, who found their flavour very like that of 
newly roasted maize. M. Delille says that, after roasting the nuts, he found 
nothing in the kemels but a fiirinaceous matter, without the least appear- 
ance of oil; notwithstanding wliat Ksempfer incidentally mentions to the 
contrary. M. Peschier, a chemist of Geneva, discovered in the husk of the 
fruit an acid, to which he gives the iiame of acide gengmque (See Biblw- 
theque UniverteUe de Geneve^ as quoted in Ann, de la Soc, d^Hort, de Paris, 
tora. XV. p. 95.) Bunge says that the Chinese plant a number of young 
trees of the salisburia together, in order to produce a monstrous tree, by 
inarching them into one another; but Delille thinks that this may probably 
have been done in order to unite roale and female trees, for the sake of 
fertilising the fruit. In Europe, hitherto, tbe use of the tree has chiefly 
been as a botanical omament; but it is suggested by Loiseleur Deslong- 
champs and others, that, as it grows with great rapidity in the south of 
France, it may be planted as a timber tree, and applied to the same uses as 
the asb, of which it has the advantage of being more solid, and having a 
greater specific gravity. 

Soilf Propagation^ Culiure, Sfc, The salisburia, judging from the specimois 
in the ndghbourhood of London, thrives best on a deep sandy loam, per- 
fectly dry at bottom ; but it by no means prospers in a situation where the 
subsoil is wet. Were tliis not the case at Purser^s Cross, the trees there 
would, doubtless, have been much larger than they are ; as, though one of them 
is the hiffhest in Eneland, yet the head is not so ample, nor the trunk so 
thick, as Uiat in the I&e £nd Nursery, which b in a sandy soil on sand. 
The situation should be sheltered, but not so much so as for many exodc 
trees, which have longer leaves, and more widely spreading branches ; such 
as the Magnolta acumin^ta, the Ontario poplar, and the Pl&tanus occi- 
dentalis. Id Scotland, the salisburia is considered rather tender, and is 
planted against a wali. It is propagated by layers, of two>years-old wood, 
which generally require two years to be properl v rooted ; but, on the Con- 
tinent, it has been found that, by watering the fayers freely during the sum- 
mer, they may be taken ofl* in the autumn of the year in which they were 
made. Cutdngs made in March, of one-year-old wood, slipped off with a 
heel, root in a mixture of loam and peat earth in the shade; and their 
growth wili be the more certain if they nave a little bottom heat. Cuttings 
of the young wood, taken off before midsummer, and prepared and plantoi 
with the leaves on, in sand, under a bell-glass, wiil, we have no doubt, suc- 
ceed perfectly. In France, Lobeleur Deslongchamps informs us that, in some 
soils and situations, cuttings grow with such rapidity, that in three or 
four years they form plants 6 fl. or 7 f^. high. {Amoen,^ &c., tom. xv. p. 96.) 
Poiteau observes that, in some cases, plants raised from cuttings and layers 
are apt to form a crooked head of slow growth ; but that, afler the trees are 
two or three years old, if they are cut over by the suHace, or pegged down 



to the groun4 they will throw up shoots like other trees that stole ; one of 


which may be choten, and tWDed «o as to ibnn a hendaome erect tree. It 
maj be worthy of notice, that the two male trees which flowered first ui 
Ei^uid were trained agsunat whIIb, and tbat the flowcrs appeared only in 
«nall quandties, at the eitremity of the longest branches. U also deservea 
notice, that the tree in the Stragburg Botanic Oarden, wbich, when we ibw it 
in 1888, had flowered for several years in Buccession, waa not aboTe SO it. 
higfa : but it had been almost endrely shaded by a large popiar tree; and the 
flowers were only produced on the eitremity of one branch, which had 
atretched out to the light. Tbe same may be said of the tree wfaich flowered 
i» a garden adjoining tfae Mile End Nursery, which had the fartber ttimulus 
of the bork of the trunk having been so much i^jured for Honte years before 
u to opeiate like ringiiig. The graiUDg of the lalisburia may be performed 
iD.the splice manner, snd, appsrently, witfa as much lacility bs m grafting 
a^Ae trees ; and, hence, evcry pqssessar of a male tree may add a female to 
it iThe choose*. 

Imklk I In Ibt cBTlnDi of Lonten, * tiM at Pnnn'» Crea, pUntid In, Id 1B37, up- 

«Hdl tiw. tfac^lfliHt at >hldi [fliund In «ir lut VduuD) wn, In I8H, Sl ft. Iilah, >lib i tnmt 
3ltladmt(v:iBdtaU»Hbadnliiad3fLlDh^bL InibC(RMiidiDfmadtiSlnf vllU.tbn 

■" - ' — ''-■ ""* —■»■*» ^'-'i, whlch h»frown jlU to oh ilde, Id amKouflice of tbe diu- 

idibwidHtMorinIebloHoalnHiiT,18»,iiDdli dow (Jdu 

dal)^lBin8..butwbkfakHBMT^IowK(d. tBoiuiudcD In PaccbeM«Tnnoe,BiTiwufT,li i 
nlo tna, wtth ■ Itowlt inAfd oo Iti HiBnBlt, whlob li now (1837) DpwudaoflSn. hlgti. Atlbni 
KOUM Bmi, It «i*>l* tn», tnlDed KBhut the ftoDt of tbe faooH, wblch dowered nbout 1T96, ud li 

^^^li^l?" ??? I*!"*^'' " ^A.j^},' J°^.T**^L" 

u-L, B6 impliBtod, It 

^ , ]Lbl(b,ihee 

8011 Nonh otLoodop. In Oloui 

hl|[h,tb*iU«et*ieftbetnnklOln., ua inu oi uie neu 

KlasidnlC^ttl«,9)Huiviuited,illt)!ft.hlib.— laPnnce, ... 

4ltb»ft.h)ib,lbadUBietero(th(lTunk5ft.41n., uti of the beid iSft. Al ATnnchce.ln 
tbe Botukle OudeB, 19 tean' ohl, It ta6ft.6<n. bi(h._lD Holluid. at Ulcechl, Iho tree iIicuIt 
- - — ;,, b3}R.SlB.hl(h,w)thiitnuikln.eiD.iDdiuuierit IH Itom Ihe grnind 

. ,. - 1..™ ,1,,^ DMHnboi 7. 1S35, IhU II l> ■ branchT tren, uhj itlH 

li tluL wfaeu h* iiH^^ed lo tbe dii — ' — •■'- -' ■•■ '- 

.. .. twccB 70 uid ao T<«n of M(e } »«1, 1 

— _ 9D uid IDO jeen old 1 

•>d,ltitklliraMbt*«b«inpluIed . •. 

MUtnAt bcftn tba tne wii In- *«V.\' 

MdindMoBulud. AtLeHen, -^AI. 

I ■ liHihuH^wMdi, in IM^ 

jMMm t< Ibr '■-'-'—— 



M girdHi il 8clillnl)nian, •Bi 
mlo(«lft.hlrii, Khbfafli 


grWuaTplutHl .... . . 

UCailiruktithcnii atniceoft. hlgli,wbicb bHwitntfl. ... 

k ■ tne, 70 num pUntBd. uidoD]T WR. hiih. tn SwlURland, tln fcnwl* Irt* u BinidifnT (hc 
&*)ML)WHklBiUTDuaiiirHlfWu>lDAinlt;iS9G,bTH. AlphooKlMCudcDltj ud, ueonlliw u 
hi, eamnaSatiaD In the Oardntr'! Mifator. toI. iI., U wu ibn l!r<iB Mft. ta isn. hl(h^ wiai^ 

■— ■ *-i WH Uft^ln It»^, IB 

-■iid,tln I 


' of tbe i|i«^coTvrptf bj 

_.. ,, , ,, _ , -_ j^_ r , Jie Bwle It Wft. hlgb, 

oribetmDk jft.,«kd the diBBetir of thekeid Uft.i then l> nln I Goiule, 10 

, , lOIilTStllilih. A(HBiletiee,lnuiather|irdennair HUiul, bulonred. la 

fbe DotnBlc Oinloi U PlfU, ■ tree, BeHired br Ibe AtM BerleeC, ln im, w$t mit. hlfh. Tliii 
BHuIbelhelBeMtntlnlliitT.wthUof MootHllcTlilbeflmtlnFnDtej thU of CiilHuhe Ibe 
flnntlnOerBuni} thuofLndmllwiDertlBHoUuidindthUoftbe HUe EDd l4urKiT tbe 
Antu ID &iRUnd_ln Naith ABwitCB, *t WoMUuidL neu PhllBdelphla. there b ■ tiw Mft. hlgh, 
wllh ■ tiunk 3 ft. lOtaL tndreuBiArcAeeUEIt ftom %h9 grouBdi thcre ■ledio two otbcv liue ta 

^•■0» niden, but Dol ooe ortbcBhMerer OiiweKd. Thaetieawerebniu^tla A>WTla,bT 
. HuDUa, In I7H, [3cc Oard, W«.. slL p. 318.) 

Covmeraal SlaiUticM, Plants, ID the London nurseriea, are from 1j. 6d. 'to 
bt. each, accurdiag to the axe; female plantx, 5t. eadi, At Bc^wylkr, plAnta 
are 5 franca each ; aod U Kew Yorfc, 2 dollan. 

App. I. Half-hardy Genera belongi/ig lo the Order Taxdcece. 

■Dll whlC 

P. nucmul^lu SwL, Lunl>, Bi < 
M., Na. S.I tbe loiw4eaT(d J>[ian 
IhtftBlI Mnlked. Conuwiii In Jmpui 
atlatt.wa±, "* Mat Uibk la th 
Idio ihe Kew OudHiilD IBH. Tlii 
whlcfa Bie uruUt hopt In £ieen_hDi 
eleti'1 a«d<D, lAlch wu ptantel 

•_ a i> ..... » [|jj£ 

id.l.,)i.8U.i 7. lurophflUi TtwL Jii)i.,n&, SnriMln 
rcw; hu tbe lceTtt Kanmd, pf^ntlcfi. ipreedliM eTcry vi 
where It ii ■ luge uid Bout Ircc. tht wQ«5of which !■ •■!■ 
> •ttldu or Intecu. It il ■ niliTt of Japan, uid wi 

Id_pll» [ bul Ihne l> ■ pUnt '- -■— "-— 


thtbudleclor Ihe tenui: ■ plent ha^ni uooil oSi 
lum ■iBce Isai.whEhUnowjlft. hiih. Illialnu 
oT Ihit (iicclci et Whlle KDighti, «hldi wu 13 ft. hl) 

iDMbni Kimsr- .fcMn. £>., p.SI&, leon., amM in Hta-i (M,, Ha 5., 
he IMTM !.niikcd, dhtiBt, fanccolile, pobited. and but biiruii length 
leiBdhabiteftbesluitMrangljreKmNe IhoK of ■ dcdduoui CTpnH. 

'-r, IB tbo Dortfiem prOTlriM of jMpwi, wheie It flirau ■ Ic«t trce, 

Bi.R)undalMonniaunubuln Nc^ (pd Kunaon, The waiid l> 
iKdrarcullnmTjpurpoKC, thoufh 
roduced ln 14SU, uid U, pcrhafe. 

r. «gwUw L-Ufitt. Bh&ud Co- 
nU., B. uTtL tl.,andoiiTjii.I!OT. i 
T. don^un JU. Barl. Kni., bL 1 

In J)«('i t^ri., Nol 3. ''— -■-- 


DUln of tlw C«pa dT Oood Hia, 
_. .. w— In 1774. Tto» tra 

- Hltli. Hiu. Cnir., 

p. 11. t. L 1 1., ud ourjb. 19M., U ■ 
BiiUlMlHlW ■ udn of CMU, 
wb«f* II !• aBcd Mulril. uu 

wlMlie* IpMUMM 0( tbo BUl* plnil 

wct<MBI,lo Ennp^ b; U» eeUcctor 
1/,, i>.csi«M(,uidourX(. tsg&, f 
I / £* u"™' "^ MiBIHinl, unl itMUMM P. doiicUui, biii 
P. tai^iHM KuBtti bi HunriL ud fionp. 
NoT. 0«L,&|LCLST.i Bkfa. Hfm. ConlE, 


tm/euKU LoU.CtL,tA. IS 

""■ ■'^ fc J't,*.p.8K. 

luuTilf Aiui hMCUm ■ nlWa nf 

, dd' wbieh oBtT tfaC /Bnalfl nluit hu 

hltlHRD bOH ICDt lo EurDoe. S 

of Iti thUt wUl b« RHind In I 
l Mewi. Loddlfa'1, 
ffc% thviT uv FDdocHTpoi 
>nl P. MiUfailiii t uJ iL 

sr wbMbM tbaj on iTiiaimiic*, — 
bm no tMUM «( ■Mgnriobw. 
LcnbM^ nw>, U *A,_rd. 

ihBtli dBDcibciLr 

uid Ncw HoUuid. 

■npla otcolDeldsia InMw < 
of tb«w eoDaOki, iriiliU 

Daerfdfmm & 

— U4le. CctkiD K^lurr, tcmJncl, ^iblnf. Flow 
ated, aeb coDdMliig of • nle wid twaaMafpDUcailtH 
ed to Iti lowcr iiHlaBtb(eutrtdK-.FCBDl*. Tlnwcn b 

mtml, iolltMT i ■•Oi ibotD* npon •'■ ' — -" 

„jd bjlballanr, ind bj eontiniaua one 
3c caljl-IUie iDTOIiiae, whlcb ha* * tc 
loni uid tbe biioliien «TOotiuUj becnBn ■ 

__, r CDIHlOeDce, uid iltB^ted at tbe lowcr urt of 

tbe IMl CilTigk>bocdTtnibJDiiu.butoaDtiBctediaw*rdii)i*ilp,uid ihcB 
ofudHl toto gbndulv, nnKD», uid •pnvllBf r-^ — " ■— ' ' 
ftwc, bicludtd. nrtdi nrih*ri(gJbeped,ttMl«l 
cln bm becn dwilbMl, ud m iDlnidueed^ 

D.ttmrMamm acL In FM.Pl. Bi.,p.80- Pnd., d, M,, Lm. FId.(|i 83. 
Ltl.eZk, ILtB., iIleh.H<Bi. Cwili:,,HidDurA-»OL;niiU. 
bU e^Ttahu SprBm. Thlc ii ■ lell «let m eD trc^ wKh pewtant teuwfae^ _-_. ,.-. 

■iidtbeetnellcbDalecDTU<cdwltfaDiiiiienMMalebalainourS-nnna]ccuj-looh]Dg '■ •" 

|(aw,imantlke,*Iadlituc&tfaana(Lraapldlum. T6»BMleeitldn«^nMu ll i . «btangH>nte,lia- 
McU^wlthiiUTdawcn. TtoltaMleflower^whkh Uihown lBJb.«aLa,lipcoduMdet tbenm- 
■U or Ihe !■■( «id k hicbBM IB u InnlDcnm, whlch Kin» ■ iotf oT eug ud caoeedi Ihe jdnuiuni 
IVantbaTlaw. ItltBiMUnerNawZceluld.wheieitwudiiODTcredWM.Saluidcr, diirtD>CaDk-> 
■iitT«H*. IaCai*^i«BdTanfc,b*B«dctbcihoiei oT NewZealnd, U ■ plKe Akli be 
bod Brarloi^ DUBcd DaikT Bq, iDllinh, l'rT& ■■ The couDtrr U Ihe bKk oT tbliW U deicribcd 

■nimilliMlj ■iniiilil I lliii lilHi n Iiii j.B" fdthiil gnu ehiin which eit«Dd« tbroufhiMit 

IbtlngcrlilndfniBCaidi^tNniU. OTwie him «t» iBid lo wcu u «[— •■■ "-.■-—— 

ndeuidcnBrtaitaneurueiybeiecn: Rw Ibe DuuDtUD hudb-'-- -' 
ud CDBMTnai, ioI^IIt hurcn uid luked, eiecpt whcn tber en 
lb*n^ilHiibtb*lud uid ■U the iilandi in the baj ue doiiclr dol 

luf* *iM(i(h to Bi^ ■ DulB mul ibr ■d^-Aniijruii ihip." 
nr. wUeh be geTe to bli ihlp'i ooBpu* i uid wudi, wben 
wen pnpuBD.uia cDiRnca iid« » eiliemeeitiliiccncT bf^ decDctlan orpbiladdphui, or ta ^ut 
nni»i1'fi«iii"ii'1dl'iiiii). liii»ri (Dcd uitleeaAuUc, (nd w«> ■Gkaawlcdfcd lo b« IIHI* IbIMot 
taifie ABi>hc*a«inc*b*<i,b7theHwbDh^dmperl*nc*a(bstb. (Cnn. lo Oe M. »w.,hi1.IL 
VL U&) Hi. GeDne BcBBCtt, toi hti OtKrvtiamt em Ot CnlftM qf Mnr ZnteK^jnabbtd lo 
lAAm-iMtttuii IbttbehuiecDthBDKifdluncuptMnumEnwlngtoUiehi^l orwft. 
01 % ft., butwBh ■ liunk iokioB «undlBt io cJreumhreBce.IGR. Thc llBib— ' '-■ — - 


Blnr, IdJuiui 

— .1 ■.■.. ^ a.i i_ ... ... .... -*.„i, Boudd itldf 

- a.--(Camp. u BpL 

p.nT.) Hr.O«anBin»BwTiUiiittUan«ctH*tU)niili<lfbl 
'^- - 'Xft..w{tMinuikltaBUIttolSft.kiidiui«i«c,Mna 

vZalud. n» wiHd ti •oft. aBil uwd fbc 

. I tlw (nt lcoctb of lb« iTunk ciiaUliii 

— id of ■ largB iIh fiv orrpnc prorliUitii. 
u. I fiiii.ii—n O. Doo, !)■■ hHsata «f tlw M«i> ZMlud«n, U • tni 
(ttalninc th» b«iahi iit «Olt or TOIt, ud nguluh ftiinkih«A wltt 
bnnd», whieb, w. Bwun liiflinBi ui, !• thc nmnlnt lor Ib* buu 

enloitl^thaBUlTH. aiwUiBbaUnd,wdoru«ic«U(nti|udltT 
vttber pUBk or ur. "* 

" " - Wi^ Jluilpans cBta Raii., tc ■ Mlr « m g m n irac, ■ lutlx «( Patn-PcBui. 1 

0. I1>cr«MplMtntll— i«.LoJdit««'i.«nd'TitTlmdMD«ai«ljKnltlim 

Niiiicry. Kini-i Saad,Chcte- 
PtmlliciadS R>-L •«_ 

Zccbnd niAti belPK dred bv clmplT lipini 
Rlcliinl Cunnlnihui HaKrlbu^. Irtcbo 

w (toW 1(1«., iL f^ni.) 

aunuuHC u (V" jnvceful TCpi^BT RTOirlh, 
rbkh ii inuch cougbt ■ftci for th« dcckc d 


_We hm dwelt at mater tength on tbe tveei of New Zeelend, tban we •houM otherwiie heve done 
wttn haKibeidv niecies ; becauae, fttNU the cUmate. and the devatlon at wbich fome of them ara 
nmnd, we are incUned to bope tbat they mavproire half^budy in tbe dimate of Loodon, and nearlT, 
If not quite, hardy in the warmeat parti of I>evonsbire. Tbe singularity of the appearance of pbyl- 
locfaNhu, and itt obvioui alliance to laliaburla, would render it a moat desirable introductton, dtber 
me the greenJiouie or the oomerTatiTe wail, and poMttdy it may prove m bardy aa salliburia. 




Mtmiifieatiom. UndL Nat SyM. of Bot, a S15. ; Richard M«m.Coni£, in part 

%n a i yiwc i. Conffera JUek. mm. Caiiv. The Conifiers, tm lately, included the oider TVoioec, 

already given p. fi06&, whleh haa been lepanUed from it by Dr. Lindley. Coniu^e» himSL Kqf^ SSS. 
Ag lm Ukt . The IVziceahavebeensepaiated fromtliiaordercntheonehand, wbile,ontbeotber, 

the CycadiceK are ooosidered as ifiproaching very near It 

Gtneral Characters ofthe Order, All ligneous. Flowers unisexual ; thoae 
of the two sezes in distinct catkins, that are situated upon one plant in most 
of the specieBy and upon two plants in the rest. — Male. Catkin lonper than 
broacL Each flower a scale or body, bearing poUen contained withm either 
2 cellg formed within the scale or body, or 3 or more 1-celled cases ; in 
Araucttria Jufls., in 2-celled caaes, eKterior to, but united with, the scale or 
body : a part of the scale or body is free, above the cells or cases containing 
the pollen. — Female. Catkin more or less conical, cylindrical, or round, in 
figure ; compoaed of many, sereral, or few flowers, each, in most species, sub- 
tended by a bractea. The catkin, in the state of fruit, is rendered a strobile of 
much the samefigure. Each flower is constituted of 1—3 oTules, bome from 
an ovary tfaat resembles a scale, and is in some instances connate with the 
bractea that subtends it. Ovules rewded as receiving impregnation from 
direct oontact of the poUen with the foramen of the ovule. Bracteas imbri- 
cated. Carpels, which are the ovaries in an enlarged and xipened state, im- 
bricated. Seedhaying in many spedes a membranous wing. Embryo included 
within a fleshyoiijr albumen, and haying from 2 to many opposite cotyledons, 
and the radide bemg nezt the tip of the seed, and having an organic connexion 
with the albumen. Brown haa noticed a very general tendency in some 
spedes of Pinus and iTbies^to produce several embryos in a seed. — Trees, 
aimost all evergreen, the wood abounding in resin. Leaves needle-shaped, 
8cale4ike, or Iwiceolate ; in some species disposed in groups, with a mem- 
branous sheath about the base of tne group, at least in most of these ; in 
some in rovrs, in some oppositely in pairs, decussate in direction ; imbricately 
in severaL (lAndl. Nat. Syet. of Bot. ; T. Nees ab Etenbeck Gen. PL FL 
Germ. Ilhutr, ; Ridutrd Mem. tur les Comfiret ; fVats. Dendr. Bril. ; and 

The ConiferaB were first studied scientificall^ by Toumefort. In his /n- 
MtituHones^ &c.,publi8hed in 1717-19, this botanist established the foUowing 
nine genera; viz., il^bies, PJnus, Ifarix, TTiuja, Cupr^ssus, C^rus, Juniperus, 
Tllzus, and j^phedra. Linnsus, in his Genera Plantarum, published in 1737, 
only admitted seven of Toumefort'8 genera, uniting Lkrix to il^bies, and 
Cedrus to «/uniperus. Adanson, in 1763, in his FamUies des Plantes, adopted 
Toumefort'8 genera, with the exception of C^dms, whicb, with Linnaeus, he 
united to Jiiniperus ; and he added to the Conlferse the ^nera Casuarhia 
Rumph., and .Squis^tum L. A. L. De Jussieu, in 1789, in his Genera Planta- 
nm, formed the family of Conifer» of the seven genera adopted by Linneus, 
placing there the Casuarina of B^imphius, and lulding the genus Araucaria. 
Lamarck (Encvc. Meth., ii. p. 32., published in 1790), under the article Co- 
nffene, adopted liie eenera of Linnseus and Jussieu, with the excq)tion of 
Araucaria, which he describes, in another part of his work, under the name of 
Dombeya. Osertner, in 1791 (De Fruct. et Sem. Plani.), united in one 


group, under the name of Plnua, the genera Pinus, il^ies, and Z^arix of 
Tournefort ; and adopted the genera Tlii^a, Jtiniperus, Cupressus, and T^zus 
as characterised by Linnaeus. Solander, in 1786, in a DUsertatkm pubUshed 
at Beriin by G. Porster, indicated the Dacr^dium oipressinum as a new genus 
belonging to Couiferae, but did not give its character. Lambert, the vioe- 
president of the Linnsean Society, published, in 1803, the first volume of his 
mi^ificent work, A Description ojf the Genus Pinus^ the second volume of 
which was published in 1832, and the third in 1837. L'H^ritier founded the 
genus Podocdrpus in 1806, and Smith that of Salisbtkna in 1796. Persoon 
added the genus Aiiingia to Coniferse, having mistaken a species of Liquid- 
Ambar, the abori|^nal name of which is Altingia, for one of the Coniferae. 
R. A. Salisbury pubiished, in 1807, in the Lhmcam TransaciumSy voi. viii., 
some curious observations on the stigmas of the Coniferae, and endeavoured 
to establish four new genera; viz., Belis (Cunninghkmia), A^gathis (Ddm- 
mara), Eutassa, and Colymbea (^Araucdria), Ventenat, in 1808, gave a 
new character to the Thuja articuUtta of Desfontaines, which he named 
C6llitris. M. Targioni Tazzetd of Florence published, tn the Armais of the 
Museuim of that city, Observatkms on the Cofiafercs^ and particularlv on the 
genera Tli^ja and CUpr^us, which he unites in one genus. MM. Surbel and 
Schubert have published, in the Annales du Museum de Paris, tom. xv., and in 
the BuUetin des Sciences de lA SociSte Pkilomaiiquef tom. iiL, and in various 
otber works, many observations on the Conifene. Both these botanists have 
proposed a new classification of the genera whlch oompose tbe order, arrangmg 
them into two groups : the one containing the genera in which the flowers 
are turned up, and tne other all those in which they are tumed down. M. 
Mirbel, in 1812, separated the C\ipr&sus dlsticha fi-om the other species of 
that genus, and described it under the name of Schub^rtta; a name wnich has 
not l^en generallyadopted, because it was found that M. Richard, senior, had 
already described it under the name of Tax6dium in the Annales du Musee, 
tom. xvi. M. Tristan, in the same volume of the Annales, endeavours to 
show that il^bies and Xfarix ought to be united, as Linnaeus and Gaertner 
had previously done. In this volume appeared also a new classification of 
the genera composing the Conlferse, by M. Richard, senior ; in which he 
endeavoured to establish the three groups or sections of 7\uLinese, Cupr^aanse, 
and Abi6tm2s; and this arrangement is adopted in tlie same author'8 justly 
celebrated work, Mem, sur les Coniferes, pubhshed after his death by his son, 
M. Achille Richard, in 1826. It is the arrangement of this author, as modi- 
fied by Dr. Lindley in the edition of his Introduciion to the Naturai System 
published in 1836, that we have followed in this work; and the characters 
of the genera have been either drawn up or amended for us by Professor 
Don ; who has also kindly looked over tlie proof sheets. By Dr. Lmdley's 
arrangement, Richard's section 7\usLines b removed from the Coniferae, 
and made a separate order, under the name of TVixacefle, as given in p. 2065. ; 
and, under Bichard's two sections Abietansd and (Tupr^sinse, the true Co> 
niferae are airanged as follows : — 

Sect. I. Abie^tism Richard, 

Sect, Char, AU the ^nera included in the eroup are evetgreen, except 
LhiijL, Branches m whorls; except, peniaps, in Ddmmara, Buds 
scaly. Catkins of each sex of numerous flowers. Hp of the ovule 
pointing towards the axis of the catkin, except in Cunninghamia. Leavea 
scattered, or in groups. 

* Sexes monacious, 
Pi^NUS L,, in part. Male. Catkins grouped. PoIIen contained in 2 cells, 
formed in the scale, that opens lengthwise. — Female. Ovules 2. Strobile 
ovately conioil in most species. Carpels, or outer scales, thickened at the 
tip, exceeding the bracteas or thin outer scales in length, and concealing 
them: persistent. — Leaves in groups of 2, 3, or 5; each group arising 
out of a scaly sheath. 


iTBiBs Link. This cBfiers from Phius, as above defined, in having the cones 
pendent, and less decidedly grouped ; the strobiles cjdindrically conical ; 
the carpels not thickened at the tip ; and the leaves solitary. They are 
partially scattered in insertion, and more or less 2-ranked in direction. 

PrcEA link, This difiers from Pinus and iTbies, as above defined, in having 
the cones erect. The strobile is cylindrical, and has its carpels not thick- 
ened at the dp. Both carpels and bracteas separate from the axis of the 
strobile; and the leaves are obviously 2-rankea in direction. (D.Don,) 

La^rix 7\>wm, This difiers from il^bies, as above defined, in its leaves being 
annual, and disposed in groups ; and in having the cones erect. 

Ck^bus BarreUer, This difiers firom Xarix in being evergreen, and in the 
carpels sqiarating from the axis. The leaves, as in Xf^rix, are dusposed in 
groups, many in a group ; and the cones are erect. Anthers crowned by 
an elliptical scabrous crest. Strobiles solitary; crest with coriaceous 
compressed carpels, which are deciduous. 

CuNNiNGHA^H/ii K. Br. Male. Catkins erouped. PoUen contained in 3 
cases that depend from the scale. — Femme. Ovules 3. Strobile ovate. — 
Leaves solitary, scattered in insertion, more or less 2-ranked in direction, 
fbt, acuminate, and serrulate. 

DjftuMARA Rumphius. Male. Catkins solitary. PoUen contained in from 
5 to 24 cases, pendent from the apex of the scale. — Female. Ovules 2, 
fiw. Strobile turbinate. — Leaves ovate-lanceolate, oflen opposite. 

• * Sexet p] (tiaecious, 
Ajuuca^SIA Jussieu. Male. PoUen contained in from 10 to 20 cases, 
pendent from the apex of the scale. Ovule solitary, connate with the 
carpel or scale. Leaves imbricate. 

Sect. U. CuPRE^ssiNJB Skhard. 

Sect. Char, All the kinds ever^reen, except Taxodium Ric^. Branches 
inserted scatteredly in most, if not all. Buds not scaly. Flowers of 
each sex but few in a catkin. Ovule with its tip pointing itom the axis 

* Sexes moncBcumt. 
T^u^JA Bkh. Male. Catkin terminal, solitary. PoUen of each fiower 
included in 4 cases, that are attached to the inner face of the scale, towards 
its baae. — Female. Catkin terminal. Ovary connate with the bractea : 
the two conjoined may be termed a receptade. Ovules 2 to each recep- 
tade. Receptacles semipeltate, imbricated, smooth, or, in some, having a 
recurved beax near the tip. Seeds inconspicuously winged, or not winged. 
Cotyledons 2. — ^Branchlets compressed. Leaves scale-like, closely imbri- 
cated, compressed. 
Ca^llitris Vent, Male. Catkins terminal, solitary. Pollen of each flower 
oontained in 2 — 5 cases, attached to the lower part of the' scale, which is 
peltate. — Female. Catkin terminal, of 4^-6 ovaries, or else receptacles, 
each spreading at the tip, and disposed upon so short an axis as to seem, 
in the state of fi*uit, the valves of a regular pericarp, at which time each has a 
mucro near the tip. Ovules 3 to many to each ovary, or receptacle. Seed 
winged. — Oeneral appearance like that of the kinds of cypress. Branches 
jointed. Leaves minute, scale-shaped, opposite or whorled, situated under 
the joints of the branches. 
CupRKssus L. Male. Catkin terminal, solitary. PoUen of each flower 
contmned in 4 cases, attached to the scale on the inner face at the lower 
edge. Scales peltate. — Female. Ovaries each connate with the bractea, 
thus constituting a receptacle. Ovules to each receptacle 8 or more. 
StrobUe globose. Receptacles, as included in the strobile, peltate, having 
on obscure tuberde at tbe tip ; disposed coUaterally, not imbricatdy. Seeds 
compressed, angular; affixed to the narrow basal part of the receptacle. 
Cotyledons 2. — Leaves appressedly imbricated. 
Taxo^diuii Rich. Male. Catkins disposed in a pyramidal compound spike. 





PoUen of each flower borae in 5 cases, attached to the scale at its inner 
&ce. — Female. Catkins 2 — 3 together, near the base of the spike of cat- 
kins of male flowers, each consisting of a small number of flowers. Ovuies 
2 to an ovary. Strobile giobose. Scales peltate, angled. Seed angled in 
outline, and having angular projections on the suriace; its integument very 
thick. Ck>tyledonB 6 — 7. — Leaves linear, disposed in 2 ranks. Annual. 

* * Sexes diceciouSf or rarefy motueciotu. 
JuNi'PERUS Ir. Male. Catkins axillvy or terminal. Pollen of each flower 
iQ 3 — 6 cases, attached to tfae basal edge of the scale, and prominent from 
it. — ^Female. Catkin axillary, resembling a bud ; consisting of 1 — ^3 fleshy 
ovaries; bracteated at the base. Ovules l to an oyary. The ovaries 
coalesce, and become a fleshy juicy strobile, resembling a berry. Seeds 
1 — 3, each obscurely 3-coraered, and having 5 gland-bearing pits towards 
the base. — Leaves opposite or teraate, narrow, rigid, and not rarely minute 
and scale-shaped. 

Sect L ^BIE^TINA. 



Thb ilbi^tinse, or the pine and fir tribe (arbres verts, Fr. ; nadelholz, Ger.^ 
are timber trees, as important in the construction of houses, and in civii 
architecture eenerally, as the oak is in the coustraction of ships, and in all 
kinds of naval architecture. The trees of this section of the Conlfers are so 
diflferent in their exteraal appearance, not only from the trees of all other 
orders, but even from the section Cupr^ssinse, that they miffht well form an 
order of themselves. The AtiietJXix are almost all trees of lorey stature, pyra- 
midal in form, and regularly furaished widi verticillate frond-like brancnes, 
from the base to the summit of the trunk. These branches, unlike those 
of every other kind of tree, die ofl* as the tree grows old, without ever attaining 
a timb^-like size ; so that, in a physiological point of view, they may be con- 
sidered as rather like immense leaves than branches ; and this circumstance, 
as weli as others, seems to connect the pines and firs with the palms. Almost 
all the species are evergreen, and have linear needle-Iike leaves ; whence the 
German names of nadelholz and tangelholz, The number of ilbietinas 
described by Linnsus amounted to no more than 12 species. Smith, in 1819, 
in Rees's CycloptBdia, described 35 species; and in .Lambert'8 Gentu Ptnus^ 
the last vouime of which was published in 1837, 66 species are described. 
Besides these, some others have been introduced, of which little is yet 
known ; so that the number in British collections is considered to amount to 
upwards of 70 species, exdusive of varieties. They are all natives of temp&> 
rate regions, and chiefly of the northera hemisphere. On the poorest descnp- 
tion of dry soil, a greater bulk of valuable timber will be produced in any given 
time by a crop of ilbi^dns adapted to it, than by a crop of any other natural 
order of trees whatever. According to Delamarre, the proportion between the 
timber produced by the common pines, and the common broad-Ieaved trees 
of Europe, in a poor dry soil, in any siven time, is as 10 to 1. 

Descrifiwn, In regard to general fbrm, the ilbi^tinse, when full grown, 
and beginning to decay, are parLly trees with spiry tops, and partly round or 
flat-headed trees. The genera ^l^bies, Pfcea, and Lknx form conical trees, of 
the utmost regularity of figure, in every stage of their growth ; the diflerent 
spedes of Plnus and Cedras, on the other hand, form regular cones when they 
are young, and until they attsun a certain age ; but their heads become round or 
flattened as they grow old ; the branches near the bottom of the trank drop ofi^ 
and those near the summit increase in thickness, and in lateral extension ; and 
hence the grandeur of the heads of these trees, when favourably situated and 
ofgreatage. The genus Cedras is remarkable for the horizontal direction 

CHAP« CXIII. CONl^PERifi. ^BIE^TIN^. 2107 

taken by its branches in every stage of its growth ; and the branches of 
ifbies canadensb are equally remarkable for their slendemesSy and drooping 

The roots of the ilbi^tinae differ from those of almost all other trees, in not 
descending perpendicularly ; but, both in young and old trees, spreading 
along the sumce of the ground ; and, very generally» after the trees have 
attained some age, swelting and appearine above it. They are numerous, and 
of less thickness in propordon to tbat of the trunki than in the case of any 
other trees, ezcept the palms ; but, being near the surface, and often partially 
above it, they are of a more tough and woody nature, and are, consequentl^, 
better able to resist the action of the wind on the head of the tree, tfaan m 
tfae case of trees the roots of which run deep under ground, and which are 
consequently much less tough and woody. The vitality of the roots of some 
species is most extraordinary ; stumps of the silver fir (Plcea pecdn^) having 
been found in a growing state, but without leaves, after the trunk had been 
cut down for upwards of 40 years. The roots of none of the species throw 
up suckers; nor, when the stems are cut down, do shoots spring from the 
coUar. In some species, as in P. TVe^da and its variedes, numerous abordve 
shoots, or tufts of leaves, are produced from the old trunk ; and some of the 
Asiatic and Mezican spedes also indicate this tendency, tfaough in a much 
sliehter degree. 

Tfae trunk, in all tfae species, grows erect and straigfat ; in some, as in the 
iPfcea pecdn4taof Europe, it attains the faeigfat of 130 ft. or upwards, witfa a 
diameter of from 4 ft. to 8 ft. ; and, in tfae Picea gr&ndis of America, it is 
said to attain tfae faeigfat of 200 ft. Tfae stem is ahnost always beautifuUy 
and r^^ilarly tapered, and witfaout tfaose hi^e protuberances common in 
trees wfaicfa nave tfaeir brancfaes of equal durability to tfae trunk itself, and of 
like capacity for attaining as large a size. Wfaere tfae ilbi^tinse faave been 
grown close togetfaer, tfae trunks are almost always straigfat, and frequendy 
witfaout a single brancfa to tfae fadefat of 80ft. or lOOft. ; tfae side brancfaes, 
in sucfa cases, prematurely decaying, from tfae absence of ligfat and air. Trunks 
of tfais kind are common in tfae spruce fir plantations of Sweden and Norway ; 
and tfaey coi)sdtute tfae fir potes of commerce, so mucfa used tfarougfaout 
Europe as masts for small craf^ and as supports for 8caffi>lding. Trunks of 
tfae same cfaaracter are also found in tfae pine forests of tfae nortfa of Europe 
and of Nortfa America : and from tfaem are made tfae masts of tfae largjsst 
American sfaips; and tfae beams, rafters, joists, and boards, used in dvil 
arcfaitecture, and pardcularly in tfae construcdon of faouses in tfae temperate 
climates of botfa faemispfaeres. 

Tfae brancfaes, in tfae greater number of tfae spedes, are verddllate, faori- 
zontal in tfaeir direcdon, uniform in tfaeir size and sfaape, and, witfa tfae 
smaller sfaoots, especiaUy in old trees, generally pendent. In all, tfae main 
sfaoot of tfae brancfa b siender, and never attains a great tfaickness. In 
some oenera (as in Pfcea) tfae brancfaes are frondose, and quite flat ; faaving 
a slen&r main sfaoot, rcgularly fumisfaed witfa smaUer dde sfaoots; wfaidi are 
again subdivided into numerous twm, or spray ; and tfae surface of tfae 
wfaole is flat, like tfaat of tfae leaf ofa fem. In A^bies and L^x, tfae side 
brancfalets, wfaicfa proceed from tfae main sfaoot of tfae brancfa, are for tfae most 
part pendent. In Cedrus, tfae brancfaes are more woody tfaan in tfae oise of any 
otfaer genus ; and in Pinus least firond-Uke. As tfae tree advances in growtfa, 
the brancfaes die off, beginning from below ; more espedaUy wfaere several 
trees faave been associated tc^etfaer. Tfaere are, faowever, ezceptions in tfae 
case of flingle trees in fiivourable situadons, when the brancfaes assume a 
woody and permanent cfaaracter; and tfais is very frequently exempUfied in 
single trees of the cedar, the sUver fir, and the Scotch pine, which have 
had their trunks broken over at a certain stace of their growth. Indeed, 
pbching out tfae leading sfaoot of anv species for two or tfaree years in suc- 
cession, wfaen the tree is young, will generallv cause it to produce, instead 
of a single trunk, a number of tmnk-like brancnes, wbich form a busfay tree. 


of a character anomaloiu to that of the ilbi^tiiue in genenil. Hiis anoma* 
lous character will be iUustrated by the portraits of a siiver fir, and some 
spruce firs, which we shali give in a tuture page. 

The bart^ of the ^bietinfle is thin ip young trees ; and, in soroe spedes of 
if bies and /Ycea, eren in old trees, it is never either very thick, or very 
rough. In many species of Plnu», on the contrary, it becomes very thick, 
rigid, cracked, and deeply furrowed in old trees, from the trunks of wluch it 
may be cut in large pbites. 

The wood is ciiiefly composed of parallel fibres, arranged in a manner 
somewliat intermediate between that of dicotyledonous and monocotyle* 
donous trees ; and, in consequence of these fibres not bein^ very close, the 
wood is elastic and resilient. Beine resinous, it is also, m general, very 
durable, and of great combusiibility. Michaux remarks that " the branches m 
resinous trees consist almost wholly of wood of which the oiganisation is 
even more perfect than it is in tlie body of the tree, and that the reverse is 
the case witn trees having deciduous leaves. As soon as vegetation ceases in 
any part of the tree, the consiM^nce of the wood speedily changes; the sap 
decays ; and the heart, already iinpregnated with resinous juice, beoomes sur- 
char^ed to such a d^gree as to double its wdght in a year. The accumulation 
is said to be much greater after 4 or 5 years ; the general fact may be proved 
by comparing the wood«of trees recenily fdled, with that of others loi^ since 
dead." (y. Amer. St^l^m. p. 143.) 

The leaves are, in almost every case, linear, subulate, acicular, and per* 
sistent ; though in Cunninghlimia they are lanceolate, and in Ddmmara oblong. 
In some spedes they remain on for four or five years, and, in Araucdria, 
for ten or twelve years. In only one genus {Lknx) are they dedduous. 
In Pinus, Lktix, and Cedrus, they are placed tocether in bundles of fiiom 
8 to 6 in a bundle ; but in ^^ies and i^cea the Teaves are singje. Where 
the leaves are in bundles, they are considered by botanists as abortive 
shoots; because the mdiments of a shoot are found at the bese of the 
leaves : and hence, in pine plants of only one or two years' growth from the 
seed, the leaves are solitary ; and it is only in the third or fourth year 
that in the axils of these solitary leaves small short shoots appear, 
each terminating in a fasdculus of from 2 to 6 leaves. The leaves of 
all the spedes are without stipules ; the numerous scales which are 
found among them when the shoots are newly devdoped, bdng considered 
as bdonging to the buds. In Plnus, the leaves are in general more than 
double the len^ of those of the other genera ; the shortest, as in P. sylvestris, 
bdng {rom Hm, to 2 in. lon£; while those of P. Pinaster are from 6 in. to 
9in. in length, and those ofP. australis Ji^ScAx, are Snm 1 ft. to l^ ft. In 
all the other genera, the leaves are not much longer than half an inch ; and 
very rarely, as in Picea WebbMroa, exceed an inch. The long4eaved species 
bdong to warm climates ; and these, wben grovm in cold climates, have thdr 
leaves considerably shortened. In texture» the leaves are hard and cori- 
aceous, as in the case of most evergreens; but those of Lhiii form an excep- 
tion. The leaves, in all the species, are witliout lateral nerves ; and they are 
composed of paralld fibres, like those of the Monocotyledoneae. 

The buds are enclosed in numerous scales, and are devdoped in the axils of 
the leaves, or at the extreme points of the shoots. In all tbe spedes they are 
Yery few in number, compared with those of broad-leaved trees, m which there 
is a bud dther developed, or in embryo, at the base of every leaf. In the 
i^bi^tinsB on the other hand, there is not one bud for a niiliion of leaves ; 
and the few that are found in the axils are almost confined to the genera 
i^^bies, Picea, Lhxix, and C^rus. The buds are most numerous in Lanx, 
and least so in Pinus, in which last genus they are almost entirely confined 
to the points of the shoots. In general, the bud which terminates the summit 
of the tree, and is destined to form its leading shoot, and increase its height, 
is devdoped the last ; and this retardadon seems a provision of nature for the 
safety ot the most important shoot which the tree can producc ; thus in- 


soring its hoght rather than its hreadth, and the production of timher by tbie 
preservation o£ its permanent trunky rather than of its temporary and com- 
paratively useleas branches. 

The flowers «re disposed in catkins r they are unisexual, and those of the 
male are totaily different from those of the female. In most species, both 
nude and female catkins are on the same tree ; but in Araucaria, as far as 
that genus is known, they are supposed to be on diflerent trees. The male 
flowers consist of a number of stamens without any floral envelope, but 
simply accompanied by scales; and are much more numerous thaa4he.temale8, 
as is generaUy the case in unisezual plants. The pollen from the anthers 
of most species» when ripe» drops on the lower branches in such abundance 
as to chaz^ their colour frora green to yeliow ; and both in the Highlands 
of ScotiaiKl, according to Lightfoot ; and in the VosffeSy in the nonh.,east 
of France, accordin&; to Loiseleur Deslongchamps, it nas been carried to a 
distance by wind, and has fallen on the ground like a shower of sulphur, to the 
great terror of the superstitious. The female flowers consist of a pistil, or 
stttma, endosed in a simple perianth, or calyx, and accompanied by an in- 
volucrum composed of one, two, or of several scaies. There are in most 
genera two scales to each flower; an exterior one, which is large and thick, 
and forms the outer surface of the pine and fir cones ; and an interior one, 
which springs ffom tbe base of the otner, and is thin ; and which protects two 
flowers, that afterwHi-ds become two seeds. 

The fruit of the Abiedasd are all cones, which vary somewhat in form, 
though they are in eeneral, as the word implies, conical ; and they difler in 
aize, froffi that of iTbies canad^nsis, which is about half an inch m length, 
to that of Pinus Lambertiano, wbich has been found 2 fL long. The cones 
wliich are thickest in pi-opoition to their length are those of P. Pfnea, Cedrus, 
and Araucdna ; that of tlie latter beioff almost spherical. The largest of all 
tfae cones known, is that of P. macrocarpa, which is more thaa 1 fl. in length, 
and 6in. in diameter; and whicb weigns about 41b8. Li some species of 
X^rix, the axis of the cone is couLioued in the form of a shoot; and in Pfcea 
bracteata the scales are prolonged in the sbape of leaves. In some, as in Cedrus, 
PSmisPinea,&c.,thescaie8,or exterior calyxes, of the cones adhere closely 
together, and, as they ripen, beoome almost of a woody texture ; in others^ as 
in P. jStrdbus, and in the whole of the species of ^f bies, the scales are loose 
and open, and of a leathery or sofl texture, and may be very easily separated. 
The seed is readily extracted from the iatter description of cones, but with 
difficulty from the former. The cones in some spedes, as in P. sylvestris, 
anive at maturity in the second vear ; but in otners, as in P. i^nea and 
the genus C^drus, not till the third year. In eome, thev remain on the tree 
only two years : but in others, as in P. TsNa and C^us Libani, they re- 
main on three or four years ; and on P. p6ngens from ten to twenty years. 

The largest seeds are those of the Pinus Pfnea ; and the smallest those 
of some spedes of ^l^bies. The seeds consist of albumen, composed of fari- 
naceous matter, impresnated with resin and oil; in wbich tne embryo is 
embedded. This oil has an acrid taste ; but, as it can be removed by 
roesting, the fiirinaceous matter which remains may then be eaten like that 
of other seeds and roots. Hence all the seeds of the i^bi^tinae may be 
oonddered not only as edible, but as liighly nutritive. In some spedee, as 
tfae P. Pinea of Europe, and the Arauearia bradliana of South America, 
the terebinthinate matter in the seeds is so small, that they mav be eaten 
without roasting; while on the other hand, in Araucdria imbric^ta, and in 
Cedrus Deoddra, it is so great that the seeds are kilndried by the coUectors 
of them in the mountains, befbre being brought down into the plains for sale. 

In germinating, the seed first swells and bursts at the upper or narrow end, 
whence the radicje proceeds and tums downwards into the soii ; while, soon 
afrer, the lower, or thick, part of the seed opens, and the leaves are developed, 
and rise above the surface of the ground. The seeds in most of the species 
arc polycotyledonous ; but in Cunninghamia there are only two cotyledons. 


nnd seldom more in Araucdria imbricita. In Pinus hiops there are four 
cotyledons ; in P. sylvestris firom five to seven ; in ^^bies ezcdlsa there are 
firom three to nine ; in Zrarix europse^ from five to seven ; in Pinus Str&bua 
eight ; in Cedrus Lib^ni fi^om nine to eleven ; and in Pinus Pinea firom ten to 

The general structure bf the ^bietince is remarkable for its unity. Tfae 
vessels, both in the leaves and wood^ are strai^ht and paralid; the tnink is 
straight, and the branches and ail their subdivisions straight and parallel also. 
Even the leaves, whether inserted in rows as in the firs, or irregularly round 
the stem as in the spruces and pines, all stand out paralle!, and at nght an- 
gles to the branches. The branches form wborls; and so do the leaves of 
the cotyledons. The shape of the firuit is conical, and so is that of the entire 

The rate of growth of the ilbi^tinae is, in general,rapid; and the duration of 
the tree, compared with tliat of the oak, short. The most rapid-growing 
species in the dimate of London is the Pinus Larido, which wiU attain the 
height of 20 ft. in 10 years ; and the spedes of this section generaliy readi 
maturity, in the climate of Britain, in from 60 to 100 years. Most of the 
European spedes bear cones at about 20 years' growth, or before ; the spruoe 
fir, on dry chalky soils, in less than half that period. The pinaster arrives at 
maturity sooner than any other European pine, but seldom lasts longer than 
firom 40 to 50 years. The European species of slowest growth, and greatest 
duration, is the P, Cembra^ which sddom attains more tmm 30 ft. or 40 ft. in 
height, but which lives for several centuries. The two spedes whidi in 
Europe are most valuable for their timber are the P. sylv^stns and the Zrkrix 
europae^. The grandest and most omamental spedes is, unquestionably, the 
Cednis Libkni, and the most elegant and gracefiil the Aik» canad^nsis. The 
spedes which produce the greatest quantity of timber in the shortest time, in 
tne cUmate of Britain, are the Scotch pine and the larch; but in fiivourable 
situations, both in Germany and Switzerland, these qpecies are exceeded in 
tbis respect by the silver fir ; in Spain by the pinaster ; and in North America 
by the Weymouth pine. 

The greater number of the spedes of i^bi^dnas will live in the open air in 
th^climate of London ; but some few require to be protected there fi^om tbe 

Geography» The Abiitmss enjoy an extensive range, but chiefly in the 
temperate parts of the northem hemisphere. Some spedes are found, both 
in Europe and America, so far north as to be bordering on the regions of 
perpetuaL snow ; and others, in Central Europe and in Asia, on the Alpine 
and Himala^ran mountains, in places where, from their great elevation, the 
climate is equally cold. Wahlenber^ and Von Buch describe the genus Plnus 
as occupying the extreme limits ot arborescent plants, on Mont Blanc and 
Mont Perdu, lat. 42° 46^ and on Solitania, in Lapland, lat 68°. Next to 
Pinus, the genus Lknx, approaches the nearest to the line of snow. (Ed, 
Phii. Joum,, i. p. 316.) Tne A^bies disappears on these mountains about 
400 ft. lower than Pinus, the Bpecies of which extend to within 2800 ft. of 
the line of perpetual snow. The mean temperature necessary for ^^Hiies is 
374°, while tnat for i^nus is only 36}°. On tbe mountains of Mexico, Hum- 
bofdt and Bonpland found the genus Pinua aiways attainin^ the extreme 
limits of arborescent plants, in the same manner as it does m Europe; P. 
austraUs Michx. they found occupying a zone at the height of 6000 ft. on 
Popoc. Lieutenant Glennie, R. a,, who ascended the mountain of Popo- 
cotapetl, in April, 1827, describes the sides of the mountain as thi<jdy 
wooded with forests of pines, extending to the height of nearly 12,693 ft., 
beyond which altitude vegetation ceased entirely. The ground consisted of 
loose black sand of considerable depth, on which numerous fi*agments of basait 
and pumice stone were dispersed. (Proc, qf the Geol, Soc, ofLond., No. vi. 
p. 76., for 1827-8.) In the southem hemisphere, the Abi<6tJnab have not been 
found beyond lat. 18° or 20°. The greater number of them are indigenous 


to the north and iiud<ile of JSurope» io Siberia, and to the temperate parts of 
Korth America. Some of the South American species, such aa the Araucdria, 
difier conaiderably in general aspect from those of tbe northem hemisphere ; 
and atill more so do tbose of Australia and Polynesia, sucb as Dammara and 
CunninghbnuK. Very few species of Ab\6^nx are natives*of warm dimates ; 
for, thoogh a few, such as the Pinus occidentiUis of St. Domingo, and the 
Pinus loi^i£^lia of the East Indies, are found within tbe tropics, yet they are 
generally m localities rendered temperate either by their eievation «r their 
prozimity to the sea. In Nepal, according to Royle, the i4bi6tinae are usually 
asaoctated with the oaks, and "tbough but small shrubs are found in the 
vicinity of the higfaest peaks, no where are more splendid pines to beaeen than 
at 11,000 ft. or 1 1,500 ft. of eievation. The species most common are, Picea 
Webbunui, Cedrus Deoddra, Plnus exc^lsa, and il^bies Marinda,*' {Royle 
lUiut^ p. 83.) According to Link, the highest limit of the pine, as scattered 
treea, on the Himalayas, is 12,300 ft., but tbe pine woods do not extend beyond 
from 1 1,000 ft. to 1 1,800 feet ; though, ** at a much higher elevation, poplars 
18 ft. in drcumference have been observed.*' {Am, Jour,, May, 1835, p. 629., as 
quoted in Jame$on'M Jaumaly July, 1837, p. 38.) The AbiitinB^ are alroost ail 
aocial treea, and they are generally found covering extensive tracts of country, 
while, from their bdng evei^green, they do this to the exclusion of almost all 
odier trees and shrubs ; a pine forest consisting more exdusivelv of pines, 
tban an oak forest does of oaks, or a forest consisting prindpally of any other 
lund of dedduotts tree does of that from which it takes its name. The 
nearest to the AlAiilmBd in exdusiveness is the beech. (See p. 1956.) The 
jlbi^tinfle, with very few exc^tions, are fonnd in thin soils, on rock, or on a 
cold but diy subsoil ; and but a few species, such as the /l^bies excdlsa and 
A. canadensis, delight in situations where the sur&ce of the ground is saturated 
'with water during a great part of the year. The most common spedes in 
Europe» and also the most useful, is P. sylv^stris ; and the most common in 
^North America is P. jStr6bus, whicb produces the white deal of commerce ; 
«nd theae spedes are found covering immense tracts of arid sand, in both hemi* 
aphoea wliere scarcely anything else will grow. The spedes found In a wild 
atate, in good scni in the south of Europe, are chiefly the Picea pectin^ta, and 
aome of Uie varieties of the jPinus Larido. 

Very few species of^lbi^tinsB bave been found in a fossil state. Nevertheless» 
■ome remains of leaves, aments, and seeds of a species of Pinus, which Bron- 
gniart has named P. Pseiido-iS^trdbus, have beein found in some tertiarv de* 
podts at Armissauy near the Narbonne, in France, wbere also have been found 
the cones of eight other difierent spedes of Pinus, none of which now exist : 
the names given to these by Brongniart will be found in his Hittoire des yege' 
imu Fa$tUeey and in the DicHonfunre dee Sciences NatureUes^ tom. Iviii^' p. 3* 
Ui the same tertiary deposits in Eneland, and also in Oermany, some of these 
Gonea, or some oones nearly resembung them, have also been found in a fossU 

The distribution of ihe spedes and principal varieties of the ilbi^tinse is aa 
foUows : -7- 

In Europe, 14 Idnds: viz. Pinus sylv^stris, pumllio, Mughusy Larick>, 
PillasHnMi, Pinea, maritima, brOitiay balepensis, Pin4ster, Cembra; A^^ies 
exc^sa; Pf cea pecdn^ ; Zrkrix europse^a. 

In Europe and Ajria, 5 kinds : viz. Phius halep^nsis, Pin&ster, Cembta ; 
wTbies excllsa ; Lknx europse^ 

In AMta, 19 kinds : viz. Pinus Massoniaffo, longifdlia, sinensis, excSsa, 
Gerardidiia, halepensis, Pin4ster, Cembra ; il^bies duraosa, orient^lis, Smith- 
idna (Morinda)^ exc^a; Picea Webbcoiia, Pindrow ; Lknx. europae^a; Cedrus 
Libani» Deoddra ; Cunninghamia sinensis ; Ddmmara orientalis. 

/» Africay 2 kinds : viz. P. canari^nsis, Pinea. 

In Europe and Africa, l kind : viz. Pinus Pinea. 

/s Norih America, 40 kinds: viz. In the Umted SUUeM and Canaday 18 
kinds : Plnus Banksfana, inops, resinosa, vad&b^lis, Tle^day Hgida,' pungens, 



mea, Fraseri; Dkrixp^iidiila, mkfodffpB. Im NarA-Weti Amenca amd CaA' 

: Pinua I^ 

forma, 15 kmda: Pinua I^mbertMjaa, ponderdaay S a b in iaaa, Coulteri (i 
Groc4ipa),minic^taytabcraiUUa,radika,moiidoola^ina%m if faiea lleDzieB% 
Doogllaii ; iPlcen n'6bili8» j^riuidiay amiLbilis, bcacteka. /» Metico^ 6 kinds : 
Pkius p4d]la, Teocolff, letoph^Ua, Mnnteaahwiy, LbmaMi; Pioea idiginaa. 
/i» JStpamolOf 1 kind : Ptnua ocddent^lia, 

In Souik America, 2 kinds : Tiz. ilraitciciriaimbrici^ braailiina. 

In AagtraBa^ 1 kind : yiz. JroKcdria Cunninghaniii. 

/it Pohfnena^ % kinds : viz. Arauodria ezc^aa ; Dammara auatridis. 

Hitimy, We find the [nne and fir mentioned by moat of the early Greek 
and Boman writerB. Theophrastua apeaka of the pines of Mount Ida, which 
poaaeased sudi a auperabundance of resin, tbat the wood, bark, and even tbe 
roots, were completdy saturated with it, and the tree was at length killed. 
In tfaia state, it was used for makinp torchea for sacred ceranonies; and, 
henoe, the word teeda (a torch), was frequentiy iqiptied as an mthet to the 
pine. Herodotus tells us that, when aCltiades, king of the Doionei, was 
taken prisoner by the people of Lampaacus, hb fiiend Gnssus, king of Lydia, 
procured his reiease, by threatenins his conquenHrs, that, if they did not 
release Miltiaries, he (Citesus) would cut them down like pine trees. The 
peopie of Lampracus did not, at firat, comprehend the force of thia menace; 
but when thev understood that the pine tree, when once cut down, nevcr 
spiinei a^un nom the root, they wcre tenified, and set Miltiades at liberty. 
The Xatins, in allusion to this property of the pine^ had a proverby ** Pini 
in morem extirpare/' to indicate total destmction. The victors in the 
Isthmian sames (which. were instituted 1386 b. c.) were crowned with 
earlands of pine branches. The firuit of the pine was callcd by the Greeks 
konos, and strobilos ; but the Romans called it nux pinea, and sometimes the 
tt>ple of tfae pine. When Vadnius gave a sfaow of dacfiators to conciliate 
the people, by whom fae was much hated, tfaey pelted liim with stones. The 
ediles made an order forbidding tlie people to tfarow anything but apples 
within the arena ; and on this the people pdted Vatinius witfa the appbea of 
tfae pine tree. Tfae question was, tfaen, whetfaer tfais was to be considered aa 
a defiance of tfae law ; and tfae celebnited lawyer Cascellius beinff consuitedy 
rephed, ^ Nuz pinea, si in Vatinium missunis es, pomum est." 'nie wood of 
tfae pioe tree was employed by tfae Romans to form the fiineral pile for 
bummg tfae dead. The RcHnans also used the wood as sfaingles, to cover 
tfae rooft of faouses, in tfae same maoner as is done by the peasants of the 
Jura and tfae Voages, and by several others, at the present day. 

Pliny mentions several kinds of pine. The pmaster, he says, is quite 
diflferent from tfae wild pine, and it grows, botfa on plains and mountains, to an 
astonisfaing fadght. The silver fir k>ves mounti^nous and cold places; and it 
throws out its branches, wfaicfa are not very large, fix>m tfae very root upwards, 
on every side. The spruce fir grows in tfae same manner, and is much soug^t 
after for buiiding vessels ; it is found on the faighest mountains. The larch 
grows in tfae same ntuations as tfae fir, but its wood is better, abnost incorw 
rupdble, red, and witfa a strong scent. Tfae resin is abundant and ^udnous, 
but it does not faarden. ** Quinto gjeneri situs idem, eadem facies: larix 
vocatur. Materies prsBStantior longe, incomipta vis, mori contumax ; rubena 
piieterea, et odore acrior: plusculum fauic erumpit iiquoris, melleo colore» 
atque ientiore, nunquam durescends." (Pfin., lib. xvi.) Pliny also mendons 
tfaat the fiutt of Pinus sylvestris, wfaicfa he calls pityida, was considered by 
the Romans as an ezcellent remedy for a cough. 

Tfae cones of pines were used by tfae Romans to fiavour tfaeir wine, faaving 
been tfarown by Uiem into tfae wine vats, wfaere tfaey float on tfae surfiu^e 
along witfa tfae scum tfaat rises up fi*om the bottom, as may be seen in 
the wine tanks attached to inns and farm-houses, in Tuscany and otfaer parts 
of Italy, at tfae present day. Hence, tfae tfayrsus, whicfa is put into tfae lumds 
of Baccfaus, terminates in a pine cone. Pine cones, or pine-apples, were in 


cooseqoence mucfa employed m Roman seolpture» and the latter i^peUation» 
piDo-appley has been tnuMferred to the fruit oi the ananas, from its resemblance 
m shape to the ooneof thepine^ 

In more modem dmes, we find accounts of immense forests o£ pines and 
fin in diflerenft countries» but thoee of tbe north of Europe and NcNtth 
America are the most telebrated. 

In Sweden tmd Ncrway are enormous foreats, consisting almost entirely of 
the Scotch pine and the apruce fir; wfaich, in many places, are nearly in* 
accessible. ** If the reader, says Dr. Clarke, ** will cast his eyes on the map 
c^ Sweden, and imagine tfae Gulf of Bothnia to be surrounded by one con- 
tniuout unbroken forest^ as andent as the worid, consistiDg priDcipQllv of 
pine tieefl^ with a few mingling specimens of birch and juniper, he will have 
II «eneral and tokrably correct notion of the real appearance of the country." 
(iVw.) The manner of conveying the trees in these forests, over land, to the 
banka of a river or the sea, is thus noted by the travdler just mentioned : 
^ At Helsinborg, some fir trees of astonishing height were conductCMl by wheeU 
axea to tfae water side. K separate v^de was empioyed for each tree, drawn 
by horaes whicfa were diiven by women. Tfaese long, wfaite, and taper shafts 
of deal timber, diveated of tfaeir baric, afibrded tfae fint specimens or the pro- 
duce of those boundleas fiNrests of wfaicfa we liad, till then, formed no con- 
ceptkm." Tfae prindpal river in Sweden by whicfa tbe pine and fir timb^ of 
tfaat eountry is floatea to the sea, is the Qotfaa, by whicfa it is conveyed to 
(iottenburgfa. Tfae timber of Norway is floated down tfae Olomm to Cfaris- 
tiania, whence it is called Christiania deal ; down the Drammen to Dram, a 
aeaport about twenty miles west of Christiania, whence it is called Dram dod ; 
and down various other rivers. 

^ In Pruuia, Rumaj and Paland, are also immense pine and fir forests, the 
timber of wfaieh is brousht down the rivers, and shipped hito the ports on the 
aouthem shores of the Baltic, wfaence it is called Baltic timber. Theprindpal 
of tfaese ports are Memd, Dantric, Riga, and Petersburg. Tne river 
Memel being tfae prindpal cfaannd by wfaich die pine trees grown in the north 
of Pjruasia reaeh tae sea at the town of that name, the timber they produce is 
known by the name of Memel timber. In the hoffii, or lowlands, of this 
country, amber is fonnd in greater abundance than in any other part of the 
worid ; and it a now generally supposed that tliis substance is the resinous 
matter of decayed pines, changed by tbe length of time it has been buried in the 
earth. (See Jam. Jour., July, 1837, p. 173.) The timber shippedat Memel 
comes prindpallv fitHu tfae estates of Prince Radzivil, in Polisn Prussia, and 
it is always mucfa more abundant than that shipped at any otfaer port of the 
Baltic ; that of Dantiic is of better miaiity, and it is floated down tfae Bug 
and the Vistula, firom tlie forests of West Prussia and Poland. The best 
Baltic timber, faowever, is tfaat of Riga ; and it is tfae prindpal kind used for tfae 
«masts, both of the Bridsh and French navies. ** The mast trade," says 
M^Culloch, *'is very extensive. The burgfaers of Riga send persons who are 
ealled mastbrokers into the provinces,to mark thetrees, wfaicfa are purcfaased 
Btanding. Tfaey grow mostly in tfae districts which border on the Dnieper, 
and are sent up that river to a landing-piace, whence they are transported 90 
versts (about 83 English miles) to tfae Dwina; wfaere being formed into 
•nfta of from 50 to 1(M) pieces eacfa, they descend the stream to Riga. The 
tree which produces tne lon^est masts is the Scotch pine. Tbe pieces^ 
wfaicfa are firom 18 in. to 25 in. in diameter, are called masts ; and tfaose under 
these dimensions, spars, or in En^land Norway masts, because Norway ex- 
porta no trees of more than 18 m. in diameter. Great skili is required in 
distinguiBhing those masts wfaicfa are sound from tfaose which are in the least 
dc^gree intermUly decayed. They are usually firom 70 fl. to 80 ft. in lengtfa." 
(DicL of Com.) 

Tfae pine timber shipped at Petersburg is at present brought fi*om a 
great diatance in the interior, all the large timber of the comparativdy near 
foreats having been long since cut down. A Russian proprietor wishing to 

6x 2 


di^ose of the timber on his proporty» havfaig compkted a boreain wid» 
tbe Petenburg merchant» seta his pemntry to work in pidking out, 
cutdng down, and dragging the trees from the forest tcp the lakes and 
riyers. This work generaUy takes plaoe during the winter monthB, in order 
tfaat every tbing may be ready fbr floadng the timber to Petersburg as Boon 
as the ice on the rivers and lakes breaks up. Ab the ground is generally 
corered sevenil feet deep with snow, and the trees judged to be suffidently large 
and aound for the fore^ market lie widely apart, ihe workmen and othera 
employed in picking them out are oompelled to wear anow ahoes, to prevent 
them firom sinking in the anow. When tbe treea are found, they are cut 
down with hatcbets, and the head and branches lopped off. The trunk is 
then stripped of its bark,andacircular notch is cut round the narrow end of it, 
tn which to fix the rope by which the horsea^e to drag the trunk along; and 
a h(^ ia made at the other end for a handapike, to steer the log over the 
many obstacles which lie in its way. Many of these trees are 70 ft« in length, 
and of proportionate diameter ; and they are drawn by from 6 to 9 horaes 
each, ** yoked in a straight line one bef<|re another, as the intricate narrow 
paths in the wood will not peimit of their going in any other wav. One man 
mounta upon the leading norse» and another upon die midcUe one> while 
others support and guide with handsnikes the hurge and distant end of the 
tree, to raise it over the elevations of ttie snow, and make it glide smoothly 
adong. The conveyance of these large trees, the iong line of the horses, and 
the number of boors accompanjring them throug^ the forests, and acrosa 
the fields of snow, present an appearance very interesting." {Howuon in Ed. 
PhU, Jour^ jjL p. 65.) In many cases, the trees are brou^t above 1000 
versts (nearly 1000 English miles) before they are delivered to the merchant; 
and they generally remiun under his care " another winter, to be shaped and 
fitted for exportation, in such a manner as to take up as litde room as pos* 
sible on shipboard ;'* so that the Russian timber does not reach the foreign 
Gonsumer tul two years after it is cut down. When the trees are delivered 
to the merchant they are carefuUy examined by him, and the nobleman, or 
his overseer, to ascertain thdr soundness; and, for this purpose, a hatchet is 
■truck several dmes against them, and by the sound arismg fi^om the strokea 
they judge of the soundness of the tree. The trees rcjected, which are called 
braake, are in the propordon of 1 in 10. The tninks are formed into rafts, 
and floated down the rivers by the current; but on the lakes they are propelled 
by sails or paddles, or, where pracdcable, by horses ; the boors wno guide 
the rdfb, livmg in a wooden hut oonstructed on it. Most of the pine timber 
sent to Petersbuig, lies beyond the Biel Ozer, or White Lake, tne waters of 
which, and of the Onega Lake, it has to traverse, besides passing down several 
tivers, before it reaches Petersbuig. ** Across these great lakes, resembling 
seas in extent, the navigadbn is at times difficult and dangerous. Storms and 
sudden gales of wind frequendy occur, driving the vessels and dmber rafts 
ftom the sides into the middle of the lakes, out of sight of kuid, and often 
proving destnicdve to them and to their crews." In order to prevent such 
acddents, Peter the Great began the Ladoga Canal, along which the rafts are 
conveyed with perfect safety, to the river Neva, the stream of which carries 
them down to Petersburg, where they remain in the timber-yard of the 
merchant till they are r^y to be floated down to Cronstadt for fordgn ex- 
portadon.** (TWd., p. 70.) 

In Germamf there are extensive forests of pine and fir trees; and the foU 
lowing description of the rafts of dmber on the Rhine will give an idea of 
the mode by which these trees are conveved down that river to the sea : — » 
** A litde below Andemach, the village of Namedy appears on die left bank, 
under a wooded mountain. The Rhine here forms a litde bay, where the 
pilots are accustomed to unite toeether the smail rafts of dmber floated 
down the tributary rivers into the Rhiue, and to construct eDonnous floats, 
wbich are navigated to Dortrecht (Dort), and there sold. These ma- 
chines have the apDearance of floadng villi^es, cach composed of twdve or 
fifteen little woodeu tiuts, on a laige platform of oak aqd deal timber. They 

CHAI>. CXUf. CONI^FfiR^. MlE^TWM. 2115 

fiiBqueotly 600 ft. or 900 fl. long, and 60ft. or 70 ft. in breadth. The 
rowers and workmen sometimes amount to 700 or 800, «uperinteDded by 
pilots, and a proprielory whoee habitation is superior in size and elegance to 
the resL The raft ia composed of several layers of trees, pkced one on 
anotfaer, and tied together : a laige raft draws not less than 6 ft. or 7 ft. of 
water. Several smaJler rafts are attached to the large one, besides a string 
of boats, loaded with anchors and cables, and naed for the nurposes of 
sounding the river, and going on shore." {AnAuiumn near the Rhme,) Every 
article of provision for the workmen is carried on board these rafts, together 
with live pigs» poultry, &c. 

In Austria there are immense forests of pines and firs, particularly in the 
Alpine districts, and in the Tyrol; and the timber is in many instances con- 
veyed several miles before a stream is met with, capable of floating it to a 
large river or lake, whence it is to be conveyed to the sea. In these cases, 
semicircular troughs calied slides are constructedy formed of six or eight fir 
trees, placed side by sidey and smoothed by stripping off the bark. These slides 
are made in such a direction, as always to preserve nearly the same slope; 
and while they require in some places to pass througfa projecting rocks in 
tannels, in others they are carried over ravines on lofty piers, formed of tall 
trees. The first slide of this kind is supposed to have been tbat of Alpnach, 
of which some notice will be found in the succeeding paragraph. These slides 
are chiefly made use of ia winter, at which time they are rendered more slip- 
pery,by pouring water down them, whicfa freeses immediately. (See Handbook 
fir Trttveilen ta Southem Germantf.) 

In SwUzerland, on tbe Alps, are extensive pine and Gr forests ; thougfa but 
little use can be made of the timber of most of them, except for local pur- 
poees, from the great difficulty of transpordng the trees to tfae sea, or to a navi- 
gable river. In Sie year 1810, when the price of Baltic timber had attained its 
greatest height, a stupendous, and at the same time successfu), efibrt was 
made by an enterprising engineer to convey the timber of Mount Pilate to 
the Lake of Luceme, whence it might be floated down the Rhone to the 
sea. Bf. Rupp conceived the idea of making an inclined pkne, which 
abould extena the whole distance, fix>m the top of the mountain to the 
Lakeof Luceme; that is, above eight English miies. This extraordinary con- 
trivance (tbe construction of wfaicfa occupied eighteen montfas, and which 
waa completed in 1812) was called the Siide of Alpnach, and consisted of 
a trough, formed of 25,000 pine trees, 6ft. broad, and from Sft. to 6ft. 
deep. Its len£th was 4400 En^ish feet; and, of course, to preserve ita 
regnlar slope, it had to be conducted over the summits of rocks, along their 
Mt», underground, and over deep goiges, where it was sustained by soiflbld* 
ing8< The slide was kept constantly moist, and the trees descended by it 
into the lake with extraordinary rapidity. Tfae kuver pines, which were 
about 100 ft. long, ran through the whole space of eignt milesand a third, in 
about six minutes. A ffentleman who saw tnis great work stated, ** that such 
was the velocity witfa wnicfa a tree of tfae krg^t size passed any given point, that 
he could only strike it once with a sdck as it rushed by, however quickly fae 
attempted to repeat die blow." The speculation, however, did not answer 
long ; and as soon as the markets of the Baltic were opened by the peace, the 
Stide of Alpnach was suffered to fiUI into ruin. (See Edm. Phil. Joum,, 1820.) 

ne north of England and tome parti of Scoiland and Ireland, appear to 
bave been anciently nearly covered with pine forests. The immense tract 
of country afterwards caUed Hatfield Chase was once an almost impene- 
trable forest ; but the trees in it were partly cut down, and partly bumt by 
the Romans, not only to make a road through the country, but to drive 
the Britons fix>m their fastnesses. Fallen forests, if the trees be not re- 
moved, soon become peat bogs; by the fidlen trees stagnating the water, 
and giving rise to the growth of the iSjph^um paKistre, and otfaer mosses 
and aquatic plants, These continue growing on the suriace, and deca^ing 
at thar lower extremitics, till the surface of the sphagnum has risen so 



high above the natural surfiu;e as to throw off the raiD, instead of retainnig 
it. The sphacnum and other aquaticfl then die, and form a surface adapted 
for mosaes, wnich delight in dry aotl; and for other plants, the light aeeds 
of which may be floating in the atmosphere, or carried thither by birda. 
The Forest of Hatfieid, containing 160,000 acres, underwent this nrocesa, 
and remained a compiete waste, only inhabited by red deer, ttll, in tbe time 
of Charles L, it was sold to Sir Comelius Vermuiden, a Dutchman, who 
drained it, and brou^ht it into use. When this forest was drained, many 
trees of eztraordinary size were found, and, among others, the oak already 
mentioned, p. 1775. The pine and fir trees were, however, most abundant, 
and bore marks of having been bumt, some quite through, and others only on 
one side. Some had been chopped and squared, some bored, and otners 
half split, with large wooden wedees and stones in them, and broken ax^ 
heads, somethii^ l&e the sacrificmg axes in shape. (See Tram. Roy. Soc. 
for 1701.) In Scotland, one of the prindpal pine forests is that of Kothie- 
murdius, which spreads over the glens and valleys of the Grampian Hills. 
The timber in this forest is generally floated down the Spey : and when, firom 
a long season of drought or any other cause, there is any difficulty in getttn| it 
down to the river,the workmen coUect the trees into a suitable dell ; and, having 
built up a temporary dam, wait the coroing of a flood, which in a cotmtry ot 
such varied surface is no rare occurrence. As soon as the temporary dam is 
fiill of water, they break down the boundary ; and the liberated waters bursting 
from their confinement, carry the trees with them, thundering down the Spey. 
The trees grown in the Forest of Rannoch,in Perthshire, are floated down the 
Tay, and the rematns of this forest may be traced across the country, by 
stumps and occasional trees, to the woods of Mar in Aberdeenshire, the timber 
in which is floated down the Dee. In the valley of the Dee is an extensive peat 
rooss, or bo^, in which pine is the principal timber found submerged ; and such 
is the durability of this wood, that while the bog timber of the rarch is often 
found reduced to a pulp, and the oak cracks into splinters as it dries, the heart 
of the pine remains fi^esh, embalmed in its own turpentine : it is quite elastic» 
and is used by the country people instead of candles. In the north of ireland, 
as late as the sixteenth ana seventeenth centuries, an extensive forest of pine 
and fir appears to have extended through the counties of Donegal and Tyrone; 
and, according to Mackay {Fl, Hib,^ p. 259.}, trunks of very large dimensiona 
of the Scotch pine are ofben found in bogs, sulficiently fresh for roofing houaes. 
** The resinous roots,*' he adds, ** are sold in Dubun as fire wood, and are 
tised by the peasantry in the west of Ireland in lieu of candles." 

In North America, both in the United States and Canada, are the moet ex- 
tenstve pine forests in the world ; and the most gigantic specimens of AHi^sam 
that are known to exist, some of the firs found by Douglas in Califomia 
growing to the height of from 150 ft. to 200 ft. In Canada, from the summit 
of the ridge extending firom the shores of Labrador westward across the 
country to the marshes near Lake Winnipec, and on the south side of 
the great estuary of the St Lawrence, as far as the boundary of the 
United States, the land, before it begfn to be deared by the Enropeaa 
settlers» was covered with one immense forest of pines and nrs ; and on the 
south of the 8t. Lawrence, the forest reached doMoi to the water^s edge along 
the whole shore, and even covered the islands. The Canadian timber 
sent to England is principelly from New Brunswick ; and in 1824 it amounted 
in value to half a million sterling. The following account of the mode of 
cutting the timber in the back woods of Canada is abridged from M' Gregor^s 
Sketches of the Maritime Colotues of BritUh Americay published in 1888« 
Several persons form themselves into what is called '*a lumberinff partv»" 
under the command of a *' master lumberer,** who manaffes the whole. The 
ftecessary supplies of provisions, dothing, &c., are genenliy supplied on credit 
by merchants, who are to receive payment out of the stock of timbersent 
down the rivers the foliowing summer. The people then proceed into the 
"woods, and select a place for their encampment near a stream of water ; here 

CHAP. cziit. com'FERS. ^bie'tim«. 2 1 17 

tfa^ build a log hut, forniiDB a pit or cellHr bdow it to preserve those thingt 
which are litd>le to be bjured by the frost. The cold ifl bo intense that the; 
are obliged to keep up a conBtant fire night nnd day, and they drink enormout 
<)tiaBtttiesornuD, geDerally without water. When they work, they dinde 
into tbree ganjp : one of which cuts down the trees, another hewa them, and 
the third ii employed with oiea m dregging the logs to the ueareBt stream. 
Here theylietill thesnow bcvins todissolve in Aprit or May, when " the 
riven swell, or, according to vie lumberers' phrase, ' the freahets come down.' 
At this time all the timber cat duriog winter is thrown iuto the water, and 
fioated down till the rirer becomes Bufficiently wtde to make the whole into 
one or more rafts. The water at this period is exceedin^l^ cold i yet for weeks 
tbe limdiacra are in it from morning till night,BDd it is Beldom les« than a 
month or ax weeks froni the time that floating the dmber down the streams 
commences,until theraftsaredelivered to the merchanu. No course of life 
caa undermine the constitution more then tbat of a lumberer and raftsman. 
Tbe winter snowaud frost, althongh Bevere, are nothing toendure,in compari' 
aoD with tbe extreme coidness of tbe Enow water of the fresbets ; in which the 
hiDriMmiB,dByafterdBy, wet up to the middIe,andoftenimniersedfTomhead 
to fbol." Tbe lamberers of NewBnnwwick, and those wbo cut down timber in 
ihe United States, take gieat care to select trees of a propcr size. Mr. 
H' Oregor atates that not one tree in 10,000, iu tbe woods, is fit for the 
gmpoaea of commerce. lo the Vnited Statea the forests of pines and 
nn, when tfaey occnr on poor, dry, sandy plains, wbere broad-leaved treea 
will not ^w, are called pine barrens, aud they extend over a very consider- 
aUe portion of tfae Eouthem states, as far as North Carolina. " Upwards 
of 500 miles of our joumey says Captain Hall ' tav tfarougfa tfaeae deso- 
late forests and 1 bave thcrefore thought it wortfa wmle to give a sketch 
{J!g 8004 ), wfaich is sufGciently charactenBtic of these stngular regiODB 

OccasKHia] TiUages (J!g 2005 ) gave some relief to tbe tedium of this part 
of tfae joumQ', and wfaeresoever a atream occurred, the fertibty of tbe 
adJBcent huidB was roore^teCul to tfae eye tban 1 can find words to desciibe. 
Oiux or twice, in travelhng tbrougfa the Btate of Oeorgia, we came to high 
knolls, from which we could look over tfae vast ocean of treea, Btretchiiw 
without a break in every direction as fiir ss the eye could reach ; and 1 
remember upan one of tbese occaaionB, thinking that 1 badnever beforefaada 
just conception of wfaat the word forest meant." (Hall'a Sketcha m Canada 
amdthe ^ntteij JWrr , No. xiiiL) Thepinesin theUnited States which fumiBh 
timber for eiportation are, accordiDg to F. A. Michaux, P. mitis (theyellow 
e,) P. Arobus (tbe white or Weyioouth pine), snd P. australis (tfae long-, 
nved ptne.) Of theee, the wood of P. mitis is called, in tfae English markets. 



the New York pine and it u Bold at a lower pnce than that of P auatrilu, 
but higher than tbst of F Arobus The loDg lenved pine ib the pnncipa) 
tree in the extensive pine barrens of the gouthern statea The tunbei ofit 
is sent to Engtand, pruicipall)' rrom Savannab in Georgte, in pUnki called 
" ranring timbers," wbich are from ISfi. to 30fl. long, and IDin. or 12u). 
broB^ At Liverpool it is called Oeorgia pttch pine, and is sold S5 or 30 per 
cent higher than any other pine imported from the Uaited States. The 
timber of P. StriAniB i», however, tnat most genereUy imported into Eog- 
land from the United States; and the beat is lirought from the diattict of 
Mune, particularly from the banka of the river Kennebeck. The peraons 
engHged in felling this timber are generaljy emi^rants from New Hampshire. 
" In the summer they unite in araBll compames, and traverse thete vast 
■olitudet in every direction, to ascertain the places iu which the pines abound. 
After cutting the grasa and converting il inlo hay for the nouriahmoit of the 
cattle to be eroployed in their labour, thej' retum home. In the begtnmaK 
of winter they enter the forestE again, estabiish themaelvea in huls covered 
with the bark of the canoe birch, or arbor vitm ; and, though the cold ia so 
intense that the mercury sometimes remaius for several weeks from 40° U> 
50» Fahr. below the freezine poiot, they penevere in iheir labour." (Mdi 
Norlh Ama: Sol. iii. p. 167^ When the treei are felled they cut them into 
logs of from llft. to ISft. long; and, by means of their cattle, dr^ them to 
the river, where they stamp them as a niark of property, and then roll them oq 
its froien surface, to remain till the breaking up of the ice enables them to 
float down the current. AII the logs that come down the Kennebeck are 
stopped ut Winslow, 120 miies from the seai where each person selects hia 
own, and forms them iuto rafts with the intention of Belliiig them to the 
proprielors of ihe numerous saw mills between that place and the sea; or 
of haTing them sawn into planks for his own benefit, el the price of half, or 
even three quart»^ of the product in abundant years. The logs that are not 
sawn tbe first year, adds Michaux, are attacked by large wonns, whicb fonn 
holes about 2 linei in diameter, in every direction ; but, if atripped of their 
bark, thej will remain uninjured for thirty years. The dialriut of Maine 
fiimishea three fourths of all the white pine exported from the United States, 
including whatis brought from New Hampshire, by the Merimack, to Bos- 
ton. Thst cut on the shores of Lske Champlain is carried to Quebec 
by the Sorel and the 6t. Lawrence. " What is fumished by the southera 
part of the lake ii sawn at Skeensborough, tronsported 70 miles tn the 
winter on sledges to Albany; aiul, wich ull the*lumber' of North River, 


brought down in the spring to New Yoii, in sloops of 80 or 100 tons» to be 
«fterwards exported to Europe- aod the West Indiea." (Michjp,) Timber of 
the^ white pine is also floated down the Delaware and Susauehanna to 
Phihukiphia, and down the Ohio and AUeghany to New Orleans. fioa- 
ton 18 the principal emporium of pine dmb^ in the northem . states ; and 
the timber exported from tlut citv is generally divided into what are called 
Albeny, or common, boards» which are frequently deformed with knots ; and 
the clear, or picked, boards, which are called at Philadelphia white pine 

Tke Sterary Mttory of the pme and fr tnAe, in modem times, may be said 
to commence about the middle of the sixteenth century, when Belon published 
iiis work De Arboribu» Conijerit^ Renn^erii, &c^ aiready noticea, p. 167« 
Forests of pines and firs were at that tmie much more common throughout 
Europe than they are at the present day ; and the attention of planters 
eeems not to have been drawn to the raising of pine and fir plantations, tiU 
the comparative scarcity of pine timb^ of larse oimensions, which occurred 
about tne end of the seventeenth centurv. Eveiyn, and afterwards Miller, 
in Englaad, and Bufibn and Du Hamel m Franoe, first directed attention 
to the subject. About the middle of the kst century, the Baron Tschoudy 
iranakted into French what MiUer had written on the pine ; he also made 
A great many experiments himself ; and was the first to introduce the 
practioe of giraftii^ the pine and fir tribe. In the beginning of the pre* 
aent century» the first volume of Lambert's Genus Pmut, appeared in 
£ng)and, and it has been rince followed bjr two others; in 1810, Bii- 
chaux's Arhret FereHere$ de V Amerique, and m 1826, the MSmoiret tur let- 
Ctm^eret^ of M. Richard, were printed in France ; and these works, as 
fiv as respects botanical sdence, are by fiir the best yet pubUshed on the 
sutgectofwhich theytreat. In Delamarre'8 Traite Pratique de la CuUure 
det Puu^ 3d edit., published m 1834, will be found an alphabetical catalo^ue 
of 43 authors, who have written, more or less, on the culture of the pme 
in France ; but the works miore particularly worth referring to, in addition 
to those above mentioned, are the Nouioeau Du Hamel, and the Flora Ameri* 
came SeptenbrumaXa of Pursh. 

Several sorts of pines and firs appear to have been known in England in 
the time of Gterard and Parkinson ; and afterwards Ray and Evelyn refer to 
gardens containing particular species. It had not then been common to form 
pkntations of the pme as a useful tree; for Evelyn mentions as remarkable» 
that " a northem gentleman" had informed him that the pine was abundantly 
planted in Northumberland for timber. Evelyn mentions ten several sorts 
as then in English cardens; including the cedar, and the larch, the pinaster, 
the^ Plnus TVda, Uie silver fir, the spruce, and one or two other species or 
nurieties of doubtfiil idendty. In the London nurserymen*s Catalogue of 1 730, 
{mentioned p. 60.,) about the same number are enumerated as being then 
propagated for side. In MiUer^s tune, coUections of pines and firs appear to 
nave been first made by some of the principal landed gentlemen. Among the 
pldest of these coUections was that at Wobum Abbey, where the park, at the 
beginning of the present century, contained some immense silver firs, that 
have since been cut down on account of their age. At Whitton, an exceiient 
ooUectioo was made, between 1720 and 1730, bv Archibald Duke of AmfU; 
some fine specimens of which, and especiaUy of the cedars, pinasters, Wey- 
mouth pines, and hemlock spruces, stiU remain, and oontinue to grow 
v^rouuy. According to the Hortut Kewentit, die Pinus Cembra was first 
planted at Whitton ; and the original tree, which stUI exists, was, in July, 
1837, 60 ft. high, with a trunk 1 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Between 1750 and 1760, 
Peter Collinson made a collection of all the rarest pines and firs that couid be 
procured in his time, in his grounds at Mill HiU ; and several of these trees, 
particularly P. Cembra, P, Pf nea, and some of the cedars and spruces, stUI 
remeio» A coUectioa of pines and firs was made at Syon about the same 
period; and, when Kew Gardens were formed in 1760, as many species were 


pkmted tliere as oouldbe prociired, and tfae collectkm has siiicereoeivedeeiFcnd 
additioiis from tiiiie to time. The best ooUectioiis of old trees in the imni^ 
diate neigbboiirhood of London, now (1837) existiBg, are those at Kew and 
8yoa ; bot the moat complete coUection, where the plants are of a conaider- 
able nze, in Eiudand, and doubtless in the workly is that in the pinetnm at 
Dropmore, near Wind8or,connnenced by the late Lord ChenviUe, abont ISlQi, 
and now (1837) ainounting to aboye 100 Imids. Tbis fine coUection is kept 
up with the greatest care by Lady GrenviUe, and every new spedes or variety is 
added, as soon as it can be procured. Ail the sorts of iflii^tiiue that are in 
the country are in the garden of the London Hoiticultural Sodety; but the 
pkmts there are, for the moet part, of smaU size. 

PinetuiM, by which are to be understood coUectionsof thcilbietinse planted 
by themselyes, and withont the intermixtureof broad-leaved trees, have, since 
the commencement of that at Dropmdkre, been fomied by severai hmded pro- 
prietors in different paits of the country ; stimulated, no doubt, by the ex» 
traordinary beauty and interest of the Dropmore ptnetum, and by tfae number 
of new and beautiful species of pines and firs which have be^ introdnced 
from CaUfomia and the Himalaviis. Many persons have also made coUections 
of tfae ilbi^tiiifle, and planted them in omamental grounds along with bfoad> 
leaved trees. In En(^and, pinetums, or coUections, have been made by J. T. 
Brooks, Esq., at FUtwick House, in Bedfi>rdshire, wfaere tfacre are 100 sorts; 
by Sir Charles Monck, at Belsa^ in Nortfaumberland ; by Sir Charles Lemon, at 
Curclew in CorawaU ; by Wilham Harrison, Eso^ at Chesfaunt ; by tfae Duke 
of Devonsfaire, at Chatswortfa ; by tfae Duke of Bedford, at Wobvm Abbey ; 
bv W. A. Baker, Esq., at Bayfordbury, in Hertfordsfaire ; by F. Perkina, 
EBq., Cbipstead Place, Kent ; by Lord Amndel, at Waidour Castle ; by the 
Eari of Caemarvon, at Highclere ; by WUliam WeUs, Escj., at Redleaf ; aad by 
several others. Li ScotTand, the first coUection of A\Mtmm was foimed ac 
Methven Casde, on the estate of Robert Smith, Esq. by the zeal of his able and 
inteUigent land steward, Mr. Thomas Bishop; one has been fonned at Posso, 
in Pc^leshire (a place whicfa faas long been celelHfated for its trees, see page 
93.), which it is beUeved contains a greater number of spedes than any other 
in Scodand, thougfa the plants are aU young. At Haddo House, in Aberdeen* 
sfaire, tfae Earl of Aberdeen faas formed a coUection, and spares no expense in 
procuring plants of all tfae new sorts as tfaey are introduoed. At Ballen- 
dalloch, Moraysfaire, Qeorge Macpfaerson C^rant, Esq.> commenoed a pihetum 
in 1836, to wfaicfa every new sort is ackled as soon as it can be procured. Tbe 
soU and climate of BaUendaUoch seem to be particiilariy adapted for the 
^bi^dnsB, as wiU appear by an accoimt of the growth of some of the trees tfaere, 
which we shall give in a fiiture page ; so that we have no doubt of this pinetum 
becoming in a few years one of tfae very first in Scotland. CoUecdons otmore or 
less extent have also been forraed at LowhiU, in Fifeshire, tfae property of C 
Craigie Halkett, Esq. ; at Hopetoun Honse, near Edinbiirgfa, the seat of the 
Earl of Hopetoun, where there is the largest tree of ^^ies Smithioiui in 
Britain ; at Oxenford Casde, Bdinbiugfashire, the seat of Sir John Dairvmple 
M^GiU ; and at MelvUle House, l^feshire, the seat of the Eari of Leven. 
For this account of tfae pinetums of Scotland, we are indebted to Mr. Lawson, 
the eminent seedsman of Edinburgfa, whose communicadon on the subject 
wiU be found at length in the Gard, Mag,, voi. xiiL Li Irehnd, the first 
puietum formed was that of the Giasnevin €farden, wfaicfa was commenced in 
1797 ; and, about the same time, a number of species were planted at Oriei 
Teinple, in tbe county of Louth, by the late Lord Oriel. Both coUecdons 
continue to receive addidons, Lord Viscount Ferrard, the son and successor 
of Lord Oriel, being, lUce his father, mucfa attached to trees. In Trinity Collc^ 
Botanic Garden, in Dublin, a pinetum was commenced in 1808 ; whicfa, like 
tfaat at Glasnevin, faas since received tfae addidon of most of tfae new species* 
At Tittour, Mount Kennedy, in tfae county of Wicklow, a coUecdon faas been 
formed, and great attendon paid to tfae cnltnre of tfae pines in it, by John 
NuttaU, Esq. ; and a coUection faas been commenced in tbe BeUasC Botanic 


Garden. For these notkxs of pinetan» in Ireland» we are iadebted to Bfer^ 
Kottjdly Bir. Nerin» and Mr* Mackay, whose respectiye commmiications on 
the snbject will be found in the Gardener^s Magaauney ^l. xiii. 

Among nurserymen, the most complete coUecdon in Engiand is in the arbo» 
retum of Measrs. Loddiges ; and nezty as regards the namber of rare spedea» 
are the co|lecdons of young plants grown for sale in the nurseries of Messrs. 
Brown at Slousfa, of Messrs. Osborne at Fulbaroy and of Messrs. Lee at 
Hammersmith. The best nursery coUections in Scotland are, Mr. Law8on's at 
Edinbargh, and Mr. Ro/s at Aberdeen ; and the best in Ireland, that of Mr. 
Uodgkin at Donganston. Mr. Charlwood is the principal British nurseryman 
Ibr seeds of rare ilbiedn», which he imports annuaily nx>m Araerica. 

In France, the first poUection of ilbietinfle worthy of notice appears to have 

been that of the celebrated Du Hamel, on his estate at Monceau, noticed p, 140. 

Since that period, seyeral species have been sent fi^om America by Bfichaux, or 

coUected by the eoTemment gardeners, and plaoted in the grounds of the 

Trianon, at VersaiUes, and in the Bois de Boulogne. The Baron Tschoudy 

had a ooilection on his estate at Colombey ; and M. Delamarre had eztensive 

piantations at VieU-Harcourt, in the department of the Maine, which he 

thoucht of so much importance, that he bequeathed them, together with his 

treatiae on the subject {Traktk Pra&que de la Cvlture de§ A»), to the French 

govemment. BiL YUmorin, the joint autfaor with Michaux, of notes to the 

edition of Delamarre's woriL, published in 1831, has paid great attentioa to 

the subject of pines, and has tned many spedes on his estate at Barres, where 

he has coUected all the species which he could procure, and planted thera 

aingl^, or in groups, or masses ; the sorta most nearly aUied being placed 

adjoming to each other, with a view to the study of the species and varieties 

by botanists, when the plaots shall be ^wn up. In this pinetum, M. 

VUmorin bas been particularly assiduous m procuring and planting all the 

varieties of the species most esteemed in Europe for their timber : such as 

P. sylv^tris, P. Laricio, P» Pinister, &c. M. Puvis, who has given an 

account of M. Viimorin's plantations, in his work entitled De PAgricuUtare du 

Gatinaiif &c., states that the pinetum at Barres is at aU times open to the 

inspection and study of botanists and cultivators. Perhaps the most remark- 

able fiu;t connected with the pine and fir tribe in France, is the circumstance 

of grafting havin^ been performed on a large scale on the pine trees in the 

Forest of Fontamebieau, belonging to govemment. Here M. De Larminat, 

the conservator of the forest, had grafted many thousands of P, Larido on 

plants of Pinus sylvestris, which have become nne trees ; and tbe practice is 

annuaUy continued. In the French nurseries, tfae best coUections are those 

of M. Yilmorin and M. Soiilange-Bodin. In Germany, there are coUections 

of pines in the difierent botanic gardens; and the most complete is that in the 

Beriin Garden : but even this is surpassed in number of species by the 

coUection of Messrs. Booth, in the Fioetbeck Nurseries. 

Poeticalf mi/thologicalf and legendary AUuthnt. The gloomy grandeur of the 
pine and &t tribe, their upright growth and great height, the rc^ularity of their 
n>rms, and the murmunng of the winds through their stiff kaves and rigid 
branches, have made them favourites with the poets firom the remotest 
antiquity. The Eeyptians considered the pine as an emblem of the soul. 
Homer describes tne residence of the Cyclops as ^ brown with o'erarching 
pine;" and otiier Greek poets tell us that the nymph Pitys, who was 
beloved by Pan, having slighted the passion of Boreas, was dashed by him 
against a rock, when t& pitying Pan caused a pine tree to spring fiom her 
remains. Marsyas, who challenged Apollo to a trial of skiU as a musician, 
and was afterwards flayed aUve by that god for his presumption, was fastened to 
a pine tree, and left there to perish. He is onen represented, in andent 
sculptures, as tied with his hands behind his back to a lofty pine ; whUe 
ApoUo stands before him holding his lyre. Some authors, however, say that 
the place of Marsyas's suffering was against a pfame tree. (See p. 2038.) The 
Roman poets fi^equentiy mention the pine. Ovid tells us that Polyphemus 


carried with faim a loft^r pine tree» by war of walkinffBtick; that Geres bore a 
Bamiag pine tree, plucked firom Moimt Etna, in each faandy during faer search 
for ber daughter Proserpme ; and that Cybele» when her favourite Atys was 
about to destroy himself» changed him into a pine tree, and hence that tree 
waa considered sacred to Cybele. He adds that a grore of sacred pines 
was among the trees moved by the music of Orpheus. Ovid aUo gives us 
the history of Sdron» or Cmyon, the pine-bender, a notorioua robber, 
wfaose habit was, when he had taken a prisoner, to bend two pine treesy and 
to tie one of the prisoner^s hands to eacfa, and tfaen to let tfae trees fly back, 
wfaen tbe unfortunate traveller was tom asunder. This cruel monster was 
destroyed by Theseus. Virgil teils us that the ships of JEneas, whicfa were 
afterwards changed into nympbs, were made of pine trees sacred to Cybele. 
He also alludes to the moumfiil sounds produced among the pine branchea 
by the wind, and calls them the singing pines : 

" The pinei of Mcnalut were heevd to moura, 
Aod KHiiult of woe alMig tbe gtovet were bcHmeL" 

Tfae cones of the pine were somedmes sacriiieed to Bacchus, because they 
were put into wine to g^ve it a flavour ; and somedmes to Esculapius, because 
thdr odour» being balsamic» was thou^ht excellent for asthmas. 

The pine tree is frequently mendoned by the elder British poets, prin- 
cipally as aflbrding an object of comparison &t tall and statdy beauty, or for 
dariL and gloomy grandeur. One of the finest allusions to the pine is by 
BiGltony in fais splendid description of Satan, in tfae first book of tfae Paradite 

" His ipear, to eqiial wbich ttie talleit pine, 
Hcwn on Norweglen blUi, to be the nust 
Of Mme greet emminl, were but a wand.** 

Milton also says : — 

" H*u praiM, ye windt, tfaot ftom finir quarten blow, 
Breethe eoft or loud ; and wave your top«, ye pinei, 
Witb every plant, in cign of wonbip wave 

Among the more modem poets, perhaps the most beaudfiil lines relating 
to the pine are those of Bany Comwall. Speaking of Polyphemus, he 

— «.Mighty tean tben fiHM . 
Hia solitarf ey&— and «dtb sucb noiw 
Ae tbe rou^ windi of autumn malce when tbey 
Fau o*er a forert, and 1>end down the pines, 
Hie giant ■igfaU** Deaik qT Aci», 

■ •* Here darlc treei 
Funoeal (cyptew, yew, and •hadowy pioe 
And ipicy ceoar) cluttered : and at mgnt 
Sboolc ttom their mdancboly branches lounds 
And sight liice deaUi." mt 

Leigfa Hunt faas also some beaudful lines on tfae pine tree : — 

" And then there fled by me a nuh of air 
That lUrred up all tbe otber ftriiage tbere, 
Flllini^ tbe •olitude witb panttng tongues; 
At wbicb tbe pines woke up into tbeir songt, 
8baking thelr choral locts. 

Hqi«T*B nuiage : Etergreentt p. 94^ 

<* And *midst the flowen, turTd round beneath the shade 
Of eirding pines, a baobling founuin play'd ; 
And twixt the shafti you saw tbe water bright, 
Whicb tbroogfa tbe darlcsome tops gUmmerM with showerlng ligbt** 

Stor^ qf Rimhu, canto Ui. 

Shelly tfaus describes one of the conflagrations in the Norway forests : — 

" As tbe Norway woodman quells, 
In the depth of piny delis, 
One ligfat flame amoog the brakes, 
Wbiie the boundless forest shakes, 
And its mighty trunics are torn 
Bv the flre thus lowly bom ; 
Tne spark beneath hfs feet is dead ; 
He starts to see the flame it fed, 
Howling througfa the darken*d iky 
Witb myriad tongues, victoriouslv.** 



Pmpertie» aad Utea. The nadTe fbrerta of ^Ai^tiiue are obserred to be 
warmer in wmter than thow of M17 other eTe^reen tree in tbe Bame cUmate. 
The; coiuequentW bS(otA eicetlent ahelter for wild animals of every detcrip- 
tion, an^ one of the best aubadtutes for a houw for man. In the nDith ot 
Europe, thia ia more |)articu]arly appHcable to the forests of spruce fir, which 
(orm «o dense a covering aa bIiuosC to eiclude heat in tummer, and cold ia 
winter. Tbe pine and fir tribe, in a living state, with the eiception of tfae 
larch (that tree haiiog tender foliage), afford food to but few insectg ; but tbe 
■eeda are greedily devoured hy the sqtiirrel and other animalB, and oy aome 
birds. In civilised society, the wood of the piue and fir tribe ia in univeraal 
use, and forms one of the most importunt articles of European and American 
commerce. No other tree producea tiraber at once bo long and so stniight; 
and BO li^t, and yet so strong and sdff; it is therefore peculiarly fittea ibr 
■Imost ^lthe purpoaes of cinl architecture, and for some peculiar usea in the 
conatructioa 01 ships. Haats are every where made of it, where it can be pro- 

cnred of suScient aize ; and tbe yellow deal of Burope, nhich is produced by the 

i%iuE aylv&tris; the whitede^of NorwBy,whidiisproducedby theifbieaex- 

cSsai and the white pine wood of America, which is the Pinus Ardbua, are 

nsed throughout tbe civilised world in building and fittiog up houses, in tbe 

constructionofmachinery, in fumiture, and for an endless numberof purposes. 

Loc-houses (see^. 2006.) are more conveniently made of trunks of the pine 

■nd fir tribe than of sny other tree, on accouut of their straightaess, and the 

ali^t degree in which they taper. 

For the sarae reason, abo, the 

worm fence of America (j%. 

800T.),Bnd tfae wooden fence of 

Sweden and Norway ( &.2006.), 

are always made of pine or 

fir wood, when it can be obtain- 

ed. In Russia, Poland, and other 

parts of the north of Europe, 

and also in the interior of North 

America, roeds are formed over 

narshy ground by laying down the trunlu of pine trees,^ side by nde, and 

close together, am>as the line of road. In the latter count^, these are called 
co duroy roads. In some parts of the lowna of Russia, and particularly in 
MoBcow aod Kiow, rcxularly squared planks are laid down iustead of rough 
trunks; and, both in Hoscow and Vienna, the courts of some of the lai^ 


manBioiu are iNmd irifl» rieca of tto mmk of aboot 18 in; ta tenKth, let ride 
,byride,«ndb*HtendowntiUthcy fonn » kirel sutftce. m the »">» — " ■- 
done when itonea are used fbr b ~ 

rimilar purpoee. 'niii wood, from 
the quantity of rcaiiioua niactef 
which it containi, is ¥ery ooia- 
bnitible, and nmkciexceUentfiiel; > 
and, in the H^ilandB of Scot- j 
land, spUnters ofit were formeriy .: 

nsed B» a aubetitate for candki ; >s ,^__, ^ .^_ _ 

they atill are in Bomepansof Ire- ~ 8008 

bind,«ndiaSweden,Korway,Rusria,andsoiiie]NUtaofNortb AmericB. InAe 
latter country, accordins to MichMct,the bhabiMnts, in lomepBrts of thein- 
' terior, nilit ttie red wood of tfae pine into piecea aiwnl the thicknetsof BfingCT, 
wbieh tbey call candle wood, aod bnrn inatead of candles i but, ou Hccount 
of the disagreeable black nnoke which thesepinecandle8pn>duce,theyarege- 
nerally bumed in tbe chimney comer, upon a 8at stone or iron. The branches, 
more especially chose of the genera A^^iai and Ptcea, Irom their frond-like 
fonns, are well adapted for protecting plants during wbter, either in the open 
ground, or trMned ag^"t walls, In switzcrlBnd and Korway, they^ are used 
aa fbod for cattle. The roots, and also the tTunks, produce turpentine, resin, 
tar, pitch, and lainpblack. Tfae bark of the larch, and of sereral other 
ipecies, is, or may be, used in tannine. P. Ptnea affords a kemel which 
is Telued for the dessert in Italy ancr Greece ; the kemel of P. Crmbnt 
is equally prized in some parti of Switzerland. P. Lambertiana not only 
affords eatable nuta, but a subatance which is used by the natirea of Califomi& 
as BUgar. The keraels of tfae araucarias are higbly prized as food in Braiil; 
and, doubtless, those of most of the otfaer tpecies might be eaten, if ireed 
from their reainoui matter by roasting. A decoction of the tops of the ^iruce 
lir is employed for ilavourin^ spmce beer; and from the innet bark, dried 
and ground, a kind of meal is praduced, which, in the north of Europe, in 
timea of scarcity, is miied with that of rye and oats, anU made into bread. 
The cones of pinea and firs, thrawn into wine or beer, have a tmdency to 
check fermentadon, and also to communicete an agreeable resinous flaTour. 
The larch exudes s glutinons matter, whicb, in some countries, is collected 
by the natiTes, and used aa a substitute for manna ; and tbe same tree pro- 
duces a funguB wbicb is used medicinally in Sibeiia. The more hardy kinda 
of the pine and fir tribe are much valued in plautationa aa a shelter to othera 
of a more tender kinU ; more especially tne oak, which, ae we haTC seen 
p. 1S03., is protected in the govemment plantationE, eTen in the south of 
£ngland, for a number of years, by the Scotch pine. Few trees are so 
«ell adapted as the pine and fir tnbe for coTerinK immense tracts of barren, 
or even drifting, sanda, with wood ; either by (urcctly sowing the aeeda on 
the sand ; or by sowing them among plants of^broom or creepuic graaaes pre- 
yiously raised on drifting aurfaces, in order to fix the sand and shelter the 
young pines. Tliis practice has been cairicd to a great eitent in France, 
on thc shorea of the Oulf of Oascony ; where it was commenced in 1789, by 
Bremontier, an engineer connected with the national forests and waate 
lands of France. (See De Candolle^s P/lytiologu: VSgetalc, tom. iii. p. 1236., 
and tbe history of P. Piakata, in a fiiture page.) WhereTer waste graund 
is coTered with heath alone, a forest of pines may easily be created by merely 
■owing tbe seeds among the heath. This is a remarkably simple mode of 
raising a forest of trees, but it Ecarcely applies to ground covered with any 
Other description of hcrbage than heath, or to any other kinds of timb^ 
trees than those of ihe pine and fir tribe, and the birch. The poplar and the 
willow might bc treated in the same manner, but the seeds of these can 
■eldom be procured in sufficient ijuantity. 

The most uscliil specics of ^bietina;, at lcast in Europe, in tbe eiisting 
state of the pinc and fir forests, and of art)oriculture, is unqncstionably the 


Sootch pine : neit to it ia tbe krchy and itfkr that tfae gpnide fir. ' When 
8ome of the newlv introduced American and Himakyan qtecies are better 
known, perhaps they may rank as hi|^ as, or higher than, these European 
ones; butat present, with the exception of ^^bies Douglaati, which promises to 
be a rapid-^wing species, what thej are likely ultimately to become in 
Britain must necesaeuruy be only matter of coi\iecture. 

Reanous substances have been extracted from the pine and fir tribe^ since 
the days of Theophrastus» who has given (hock iz. c. 10.) a yery good ac^ 
count of the process, whidi has been copied, with very little variation, by all 
authors who bave written on the subjecty up to the time of Du Hamd ; and 
which» as Dr. Clarke observes» corresponcu so well with the modem prac- 
tice in the north of £urope, that there is not the smallest difibrence between 
a tar-work in the forests of Westro-Botl^ua, and one in those of andent 
Greece. Du Hamel*s account forms the groundwork of an artide on the 
resinous productions of the pine and fir tribe by Dr. Maton, published in 
Lambert's Genut Pmus, vol. li. ; but the most complete treatise on the sub- 
ject is in the jDictiontuare det Eaux et Forett, where the German pracdces 
are given firom Hartig and Burgsdorf ; and those of France, 8witzeriand, and' 
Italy» from modem authors of the respective countries. . From these and 
other sources we shall liere give what is general to all the iibi^tinse ; and 
under the particular genera and species we shall insot the details for extract- 
ing and manufacturing the products peculiar to each. These products are 
various ; but they may be all divided into two cUsses ; viz. those oDtained from 
the tree while it is in a living state, ahd those procured from the wood and 
roots after the tree is cut down. The first kinds are extracted fi^om the trunk of 
the tree by making mcisions in the bark or wood, £rom which a resinous matter 
flows in greater or less quantity, according to the kind of tree ; and fh>m this 
are procured, turpentine» liquid balsam, the common yeliow and bhick rosins of 
the shops, oU and spirit of turpentine, and some mmor articles. The other 
kinds are procured trom the trunk, branches, and roots» after the tree, is cut 
down^ by the application of heat ; and they include tar» pitch, lampblack, &c. 
The common turpentine is genendly the produce of the pine ; and tbe process 
for obtaining and manu&cturing it will be given under the h^ Pinus. The 
Strasburg and Yenice turpentines are drawn from the silver fir and the larch 
(see Picea and Xarix) ; and the best yellow rosin is that of the spruce fir (see 
^bies). The resinous matter drawn firom the trunk ofpine trees is put into 
bfiskets, and placed over stone or earthenware jars. The fluid part, which 
runs fit>m it, is the common turpentine ; and the solid part lefl in the basket, 
when purified b^ boiling, is the common yellow rosin. Oii, and rectified 
spirit of turpentme, are distilled firom the raw turpentine, and the residuum 
ieft after distilUtion is the black rosin, or colophony, used by players on 
the violin for theu* bows. Tar is procured by cutting ihe wood and roots 
into small pieces, and buming, or rather charring them, in a close oven, or 
heap covered by turf, while a tube or trough is lefl near the bottom of the 
heap or oven, through which the tar runs, in the form of a thick biack fliud. 
The Swedish tar is the most hiehly esteemed in commerce ; and that of 
Archangel ranks next to it. In the XJnited States, Michaux informs us, tar 
is ^enentUy made from dead wood coUected in the forests, and on this account 
it 18 considered very inferior to the tar of Europe. The lampblack is the soot 
evolved during this process, and is coUected from the upper part of the oven, 
or fiv>m the tiurf which has covered the heap ; and pitch is merely W boiled 
to dryness. The resinous matter of the spruce, like tbat of the pine, is col* 
lected from incisions made in the bark ; but it does not yield its turpentine 
without the aid of heat and pressure. The resinous juice of the silver fir is 
obtained by collecting the natural exudations on the surfiuse of its trunk ; and 
that of the larch^ from the interior of the trunk, by tapping it with an auger, 
as is done to obtain the sap of the birch and the sugar mapie. 

The chemical properties of the resinous juice of the pine and fir tribe 

l^ve been given at length by Dr. Afoton, in Lambert's Genut Ptnui, hoat 


which the foUDwing is abridged : — ** The Joice of jpme and fir trees, like that 
of the Pistada J^arMnthiUf has an austere astringeiit taste; it is Tiscid and 
transparenty readfl v inflammahle, and easily becomes concrete. In disdllation 
with water, it yields a highly penetrating essential oil ; and the li^uor is found 
to be impregnated with an aod» a brittle resinous matter remaining behind. 
Digestion with recdfied spirit of wine coropletely dissolFes all the resinous 
party aiong widi which some portion of the insipid gum, or mucilage» is also 
taken up. If ^s solution be filtered, and diluted brfdly with water, it be- 
comes tuibid» and throws off the greatest part of the oil, the gummy substance 
being retuned. If the solution be subjected to distillatiouy the spirit brings 
over with it some of the lighter oil, so as to be sensibly impr^gnated with its 
terebinthmate odour ; and it leaves behind an extract diflferine from the rosin 
separated b^ water, in having an admixture of raudlage. I^e native juice 
becomes miscible in water by the mediation of the yolk or the white of an 
^g, or by that of v^getable mucibge, and fonns a milky liquor. Exposed to 
the immediate action of fire, the roots, and other hard jparts of the tree, pro- 
duceathick» bktck» empyreumatic fluid, which, contauiinf a propordon of 
saLine and odier matter mixed with the resinous and the ouy, proves soluble 
in aqueous liquors, and, according to its sevend modifieadons, consdtutes 
the variedes of tar and pitch. The resinous residue of the several processes to 
wfaich the matter extracted firom pines mav be subjected consdtutes the varie* 
des of resin, or rosin» colophonyy &c. There are also other products, both 
natural and artificial, mudi employed in medicine and the arts/' (vol. ii. 
p. 146.) 

Medicinal Virtuet, <* Terelnnthine substancesy when taken intemaUy» 
seem to warm the viscera, raise thenulse, and impart addidonal exdtement 
to the whole vascular system. Appned externallyy they increase the tone of 
the part, counteract the indolence of acdon, and deterge, as it were, Ul-condi- 
doned ulcers.*' (Ib.) They also act as gentie aperients, and as diuredcs ; and 
they possess a styptic property. Formerly, thev used to be considered as higUy 
efficacious in pulmonaiy comphunts ; and, only a few years nnoe, a gende- 
man affiicted with asthma is said to have received immediate relidf by inhal- 
inc the. fumes of melted rosin, which he was employing to secure the corks 
ofbotdes. The virtues of tar-water were cdebrated for curing various dis- 
eases, about a century ago ; and Dr. Berkelev, fiishop of Cloyne, wrote a long 
dissertadon on the subject, under the dde of Sim ; ora Chmn of PhUotophical 
Refiec^ont and Enqvtriet concenmg the Firiuei ofTar- Water, Cuilen, and other 
medical writers, appear to have believed in its efficacy, and it was thought to 
strengdien the toue of the stomach, to exdteappedte, and to promote digesdon. 
It was made by pouring a gallon of cold water on a quart of tar, sdrring it 
wdl together, and tben letting it stand for 48 hours, after which the tar-water 
was stndned off for use. 

DomesHe and Mconomieal Utes of the rennout Productt of the Pine and Fir 
Tribe, The andents were accustomed to medicate some of thdr wines with 
the resinous substances of the pine tree, the astringent flavour of which waa 
also agreeable to their palates. These wines were supposed to assist di^es-^ 
don» restrain ulcerous discluuges, and strengthen the bowds; but Dios- 
corides informs us that they were known to produce verdgo, pain in the 
head, and many mischiefs not inddent to the same quandty of vinous liquor 
free from such admixtures. In modem times, tar and pitch are extensively 
used for the purpose of retarding the decomposition of wood, cordage, and 
other articles, more especially in marine af&irs. Tar aione, or mixed with 
grease, or, as in some parts of the Continent, with day, is much used for 
greasing wheds and macninery. Tar is also applied to wounds in horses and 
cattle, and as a remedy for sheep having the scab. Yellow rosin is employed 
in the manufacture of common ydiow aoap, in the propordon of 3 cwt. of ro> 
sin to 10 cwt. of taliow, both in Europe and Amenca. Shoemaker^s wax is a 
composidon of pitch, oil, and suet ; but it is also made of rosin, bees' wax, and 
taliow, aa is the grafting wax used in gardening, sometimes with the addidon 

CHAP. OCIII. C0Kl'7£RJE. ilBIB^TINiB. 2127 

ofa little sand or chalk. Turpentmey m all its difierent forms» u extensirelj 
uaed, along with oil, in painting. Tar and pitch, with a niixture of tow, or 
beaten cables» are used fbr pajring over the seams of tbe sides and decks of 
thips after they are caulked, to preserve the oakum from any wet. Oakum 
is formed of untwisted old ropes, steeped in tar, and is in universal use in 
ship-buikling. Lampblack is used by pamters, both with water and oil ; and 
also by modellers, and other artists and ardsans* 

Afl omamental objects, most of the species of the Jbietmm are eminentlj 
desenring of culture, and they may all be said to be beautiiul in every stage 
of their growth, from the r^ularity and symmetiy of their forms, from 
their foiiage being evergreen, and from the lofty stature attained by most of 
the spedes when full grown. The resinous odour of most of the spedes is 
also a poweriul recommendation to many persons in modem times» as it was 
ancientl V to the Greeks and Romans. The nragrance of the common spruce fir 
is Gonsidered, in Sweden and Norway» to be particularly agreeable and refresh- 
ing; and, hence» the floors of cottafes are generally strewed with it in those 
countries. In the Dendrogremhia of Johnston, groves of pine are said to be 
percicohtfly wholesome to walk in ; and every one must have felt the refiesh- 
i^g influence of such a walk in the beginning of summer, when the pines are 
produdng their young shootSy and the weauer is warm ; the resin at that 
time beine in a comparatively voladlised state» and floating in the atmosph^. 
Among tne most ornamental spedes are, the cedar of Lebanon, the cedar 
of DeodaTy the silver fir, the Mxntcdna imbncktt^ and the Pfcea Wehbiana ; 
bttt all the spedes are omamental in an eminent degree, when full grown, as 
fiingle objects. No spedes is more picturesque than even the common Scotch 
pine, when it has stood detached, has attamed a considerable age, and has 
grown in a suitable soil and situation. Some of the oommonest spedes, in 
particular localities, and firom acddental circumstances, become very singular 
pl:gects ; such as the spmce fir when its branches take root at thdr extremities, 
and send up shoots wnich become trees ; or when, from bdng thrown down 
on its side, its branches become trees, proceeding from the parent tmnk. 
The same spedes also aflR>rds a curious monstrosity (if bies excdlsa Clanbra- 
dlioiia), whichy when propagated, becomes a bush, seldom seen above 3 f^ or 
4ft. hi^. The silver fir and the cedar of Lebanon, and also the larch, oftea 
form branchy heads, which, from such heads rarely occurring in needle- 
leaved trees, have a very singular appearance. 

Soii aand Stuation. The ddbns or granitic rock mav be conddered as the 
maiveraal soii of the pine and fir tribe, and a drv subsoil an essential condition 
for their proaperity; but they will grow on all soils whatevery that are not 
surchama wiui vrater. The roots of all the Jbietin» run immediately under 
the sur&ce^ and hence do npt require a deep soil; and, as their needle-Iike 
leaves do not carry ofTmuch moisture by evaporation, the soil in which the 
^i^ttam will grow to a laige size may be drier than that required for any 
other kind of tr^ In pine and fiir forests, or extensive groves, the leaves 
and decaying fronds of tne trees drop on the sur&ce of the ground, and not 
only retam moisture in the soil, by forming, from the much lon^ dme which 
they require to decay, a non-conducting stratum of greater thickness than is 
ever found in groves of broad-Ieaved trees, but they supply a layer of vegetable 
food to the roots. When the trees stand singly; or in scattered groups, their 
fironds or bianches, bdng fiilly exposed to the light and air, do not iecaj so 
readily as they do when grown in thick masaes, from which the air is m a 
great measure excluded ; and, consequently, so much manure is not supplied 
by them : but, on the other hand» as in this case they cover the ground so as to 
exdude in a great measure the sun and air, pvaporation is prevented, while, 
from the greater range which the roots have on every side» abundance of 
Douriahment is supplied. Nevertheless» a soil somewhat loamy, and a cool 
subeoil^ are necessary to bring the timber of the pine to its ^reatest degree of 
perfection ; and various species, particularly those bdongmg to the genus 
Pf cea, require a loam rather rich than poor, and a dtuation low rather than 

6 Y 


ele¥iited. P. s^rlvestris, and some other spedes, will grow in bleak exposedl 
ntuations on lofty mountains ; and P. Pinaster, and others belonging to that 
section of i^nus, will endure the sea breeze : but, in general, wherever 
the Jbi^txaad are to be ezposed, they require to be planted together in masseSy 
80 as to shelter one another. None of the species, however, become om»- 
mental when so planted ; because they necessariiy lose their side branchesy 
on the preservation of which, either whoUy or partially, from the grouncl 
to the summit of tfae trees, Iheir characteristic besuty almost entirdy 

Ptopagaium, The only mode of propagating tbe pine aod fir tribe on a 
large scale is by seeds ; but all the species will sueceed by layers, by inarching 
on closely ailied kinds, and by herbaceous graflin^ ; and many, if not all, raay 
aiso be propa^ted by cuttings. That the Abiitinm migfat be propagated by 
layers and cuttings was known in the time of Evdyn, and was ** divulged 
by him,^as a considerable secret." Cook, also, mentions tfaesemodesof 
propagating pines and firs in his Fore$t Trees, third edition, p. 117.; but they 
have never tiU lately been much in use. At present, in tfae Horticultural 
Society'8 Garden, and ifi tfae FuHiam and otfaer nurseries, upwards of twenty 
diiferent species of tfae AtAitmad are propagated by cuttings witfa tfae most 
perfect success; tfae plants, in most cases, becoming as faandsome treee 
a^ if tfaey faad been raised from secd. Tfae only exceptions to tfais result 
are, wfaere tfae plant becomes busfay, and does not ttirow up a very de- 
cided leading sfaoot ; but tfais can always be obtained by pegging the branchea 
down to the ground, and leaving tfae collar fiilly exposed; whence one 
or more vifforous sfaoots will not fail to be produced, from wfaich a leader 
roay be selected, and all the others kept peeged down for a year or two 
longer, and afterwards cut away by dc^ees. We have no doubt tfaat, by tfaia 
roanner of treatment, a plant of tfae little stunted monstrosity of tfae spruce 
fir, calied A^bieB Clanbrasiltdita, migfat be restored to tfae natural form and 
magnitude of tfae spedes. 

Bif Cutiings, The species whicfa strike by cuttings most readily are tfaose 
beloneing to the eenera /^cea, il^bies, Lhix, and Cedrus. Tfae cuttings may 
be taken from me lateral brancfaes, wfaen the current year'8 riioots are 
beginning to ripen, and prepared like those of Cape heaths ; they sfaould tfaen 
be plantai in sand, and covered witfa a glass. This being eenerally done in 
August or September, the cutiings should be kept in a name, {rom whicb 
frost is excluded, tfaroughout the winter ; and the g^reater part of them will 
send up sfaoots the following May or June, and may be transplanted the suc^ 
ceeding autumn. In the London HorticuRural Society^s Garden, wbere 
Mr. Gordon, tfae superintendant of the arboretum, b sHigularly successful 
in this mode of propagating tfae pine and fir tribe, the cuttings are generally 
taken off from the points of the Uteral shoots in September; and, being 
planted in sballow pots of sand, they are placed in tbe shady padt of a 
frame, without being covered by bell-^lasses, till the following spring; wfaeo 
tfaey are put into a yery gentle rooist faeat, and bqgin growing in April. 
The kinds wbich Mr. Gfordon has found to strike roost easily are, A^nea 
SmithtoRa, A. Douglksti, A, Menziesa^ Picea Wd>biami, and Cedrus Deoddra, 
Afler many trials, and a good deal of experience on the subject, Mr. T. M, 
Lindsay, gardener to tfae Earl of Caemarvon, at Highclere, savs : ** I havefound 
the autumn the best time to put ih tbe cuttings ; and, tfaough the early spring 
will answer the purpose, I have not found success so certain at that season. 
The sort of cuttings I prefer are the smallest I can select, from 2 in. to 3 in. 
long : they sfaould be of the current year's growtfa, and taken oflT just as tfae 
wood is ripened, say about the beginning or end of October. The cuttinga 
should be cut off dose at tbe coromencement of the season'B growth ; or, if 
stripped off, and tben cut, so much tfae better. I Iiave found silver, or pure 
white, sand, witfa a small portion of peat bog or heatfa mould mixed with it, 
answer the purpose better than sand albne. With respect to bottom heat, 
I have been successful both with and without it; and thmk tfaat a Uttle of it» 


at a certain season» is of service, althougfa by no means when the cuttings are 
firat put in. I would recommend the cuttin^, for the first five or six weeks, 
to be covered with a beli-glasfl, and placed m a shady part of any house or 

E*'; where the thermometer eenerally stands at about 60^; after which they may 
ve a little bottom heat, which roay be increased until they are rooted. It is 
doubted by many, whether plants of Ck^niferse» raised from cuttings, will ever 
fi^rm leaders^ fike seedling plants, unless a leader be selected for the cutting. 
I can only say that all I bave raised have formed good ieaders, and many of 
them have grown 6 in. this season (1837). The followine are the species 
whicb I have rused fi^om cuttings : -^ Pinua sylv^tris, halep^nsis, Cembray 
ezo^lsa, and montfcola; A^ies excelsa, nigra, Pichta^ Smithiana {Morindd)^ 
J&exmem, Dougl^', and Clanbrasiltana ; ^cea pectin^ta, n6biiis, Webbtana, 
andamabiiis; Xrf^x microdirpa; C^drus Libani and i>0(N2ara ; Cunninghamsa 
sin^nsis; ilrflnccdria imbricita.'* 

jy Grttftmg, The application of this mode of propagadon to the pine and 
fir tribe was first made by the Baron' Tschoudy, pro&bly about the end of 
the last century ; and was practised by him on his estiite at Colombey, near 
BletZy and in the Botanic Garden of that city. It is described at length 
in various works, of which- one of the latest is the TraiU Praiique of Dela^ 
marre, p. 138. 142. ; the essence of which is as foUows :•— <The species intended 
to be united should be as nearly allied as possible; for, though the pinaster, 
and the P, Pinea may be grafted on the P. sylv^ris, and the cedar on the 
larch, yet it is preferable (because the grafls succeed better, and. the trees 
produced are likely to last longer)' to graft species which are evergreens on 
evei^green stocks, and those with theleaves in bundles on stocks not only with 
the leaves also in bundles, but with the same number of leaves in each bundle. 
P» PiskeA is found to succeed remarkably well on Pj maritima, and P, Cembra 
•D P, 5trdbu8. The operation of herbaceous grafting is performed in the cleil 
manner ; the slit being made a little deeper than that part of the scion which is 
to be inaerted in it« The time of performing the operation is wben the leading 
shoot of the stock has attained the length of irom 8 in. to 12 in., and will 
break over (withovt tearing tbe bark) like a piece of glass, or the most 
succulent part of a shoot of asparagus fit to gatber for the table. The time 
during^which any given spedes has its leading shoot in a fit state for being 
broken over in this manner is not more than 15 days; and, as the scions from 
the spedes to be gralled are equally tender with the stock, the^ will not remain 
longer in a state fit for the operation than about the same penod. The grafl is 
always inserted in the leading shoot ; the greater number of the side shoots 
are eitfaer removed altogether, or shortened; and the voung shoots produced 
from the stocks during the season are pinched off witn the finger and thumb 
at about half their length. In perf<Mrming the operation, tbe first step is to 
break over the leading shoot witn the hand, so as to reduce it to the len^h 
of from 4 in. to 6in. ; the leaves are next removedfrom tbis remainmg 
portion, with the exeeption of about an inch at the top, onwhich they are 
left for the purpose of drawing up the si^). The scions sbould have been 
procured the same day or the evening before, from the extremity of the 
branches of the kinds to be grafted ; and they should be preserved in a vessel 
of wata*, and covered with grass or leaves to exclude the sun. The scions 
need not be above 2 in. in length ; the Iower*half of which should be deprived 
of its leaves, and cut in the form of a thin wedge, the operator using a very 
sharp knife. The sdon should be rather narrower than tbe stock, in order that 
tt may be more completely tied into it, which is done by a lisature of matting, or 
woollen twist* After this is done, the graft is covered wiUi a comet of paper, 
alightly tied to the stock, so as to exclude the sun, but vet admit the air. 
From 10 to 15 days after grafting, the comet may be taken away ; about 
15 days later the ligature may be removed; and in siz weeks or two 
months afterwards, the upper part of the stock left with the leaves on may 
be trimmed off on both sides of the scion, and all the shoots which have 
been produced on the lower part of the stock removed, so as to throw the 

6 Y 2 

to avoid tbe n 


wbole of thenn iDto the (don. A^ood worJunaii, it is sud, «iUBnftSODor 
850 ButHocts a day, prorided he have ui BimBtant to cut tbe aitle uoots from 
the Btock, Bnd prepnre the acioii; leaving him nothing to do but to break oS 
the lcading shoot of the «ock, make the stit in it, iiisat the Bckw, ti* the 
ligBture roimd it, and fix oo the paper enrelope. Hte shoot made bj the 
sdou ii little or nothing for tbe fim jear; bat the sectmd 7« it ia conside- 
rable, and the tbird a foot or saore, aiid moBt frequaitl; fi^ 8 ft. to 3 ft. 
in length. Hie fiiture shoots, ssvs DelaowiTe, are trulj' admirable ibr 
their leq^ their thickDeu, and toeir great Tigour. Tlie most suitable 
ftocks are planu eowa where tfaey are fioallv to stand ; and of 4, 5, or 8 
1* nowtb, tbe oliject being to make thegran3il.<w4ft.£roai tbenound, 
™ j tk_ ...w..^^ of stooping oa the part of the operalor. Or^ing Id 
uns inaiiiw dbb neen carried to a g/ttat exteot by H. t>e I^rminBt, in the 
Forest of Fontunddeau. In the Bo» Jardimer for 1826, it is stated that ■bont 
10,000 sdoDs ofi*. Larldohad been at tfaat dme gnfted an P. sylTSetris hi tbat 
forest j nnd H. Ddamirre infonns ua, ia 1830, that the prDctM had beoi 
continued up to thst time, at the rate of sereral tbousmd trees erery ytmr. 

The mode of graftiiig prBctiied byH.De I*nniiiat m dcsciibed bj H. 
Poiteau in the Tolume of tfae Btm Janihdrr above refened to; and we gire 
it bcre^becaaseitdil&rSithoughinBTeiYsli^tdegreeifiom tfaat justdescribed, 
Tfae proper time for graftiiis [niMa isvhen thejoung sboota haTe made about 
diree quartm of thdc lengtti, and are sdll ao herfaaeeous ai to break l&e a 
shoot of asparagus. Tbe sboot of tbe stock is tben faroken offaboutsin. 
under itB (enninating faud j tbe ieares are 
stripped off ftom 80 to 84 Unes down 
&Dm the extremi^; leaviiig, bowcTer, 
two pairs of leaTCs of^Miaite tnd ctose 
to ae sectton of frBCtare, which leaTes 
sre of ^eat ii^Mrtiince. Tbe shoot is 
then qilit with B verj thin knife, betweai 
tfae two pairs of leares (i^. 8009 (t), aod 
to the depth of 2 io. ; the adon is thesi 
prepared (b^ ; the lows part, being 
stripped of iis leavea to tbe lengtfa of 
8 in., is cut, snd inserted in the usual 
cleft.grBfting. They maj be gra&ed, also, 
in the latend mamieT (c). The graft u tied witb 
a slip of wooUen; and acsp of paper (Jig, 8010.) is 
put OTer the wbole, ta protect it from the nm snd 
rain. At tfae end of \5 dajs, this o^ is removed, 
and the ligature Bt the end of a month; at tliat 
timc, also, the two pain of leBves (a), whicb iam 
served aa nursee, are removed, Tfae icuns t^ those 
sorts of pines which make two srovtbs in a season, or, as the '"'"1'<t1 
phrasB is, have a second sap, proauce a sfaoot «f 5 in. or 6 in. the first jear ; 
faut those of ontj one sap, as the Corsican pine, We^-mouth pine, ftc^ merdr 
rinen the wood growa befbre gnUting, and form a strong terminBting bud, 
wnich in the fiiUowing jear producea a shoot of 15 in. or 8 ft. in tei^th. 
(Gard. Mag., \o\. ii. p. 800.) Tfais mode of p^ng was {Hractised bj tfae 
Baron Tschoudj, who gBTe it the name of herbaceous gnAing, not (mlj 
widl tbe pine and fir tnbe, but wilh evei^ other clsaa aS %neoua plauts, 
and also witb faerbaceous Tesetables. It is verj RencaBUj pnwtised bj tfae 
Paris nnrserymen, and especiallj bj H. Soulange-Bodin, thougfa it is, as jet, 
biit little known in British ^ardens. One of tfae first trees, that we are aware 
of, that wBi grofted in thi* way in Britain, was an ^f bies SmitUiMa, at 
Hopetoun Houae, whidi whs grafted on a cammon spruce in I8SS, the « 

¥-Br ut whicta the above account Bppeared in the Gardenn'! S" 
his tree is now (1837) 10 ft. high. 
By Setd. Tbe number of aeeda b a cone Taries 1 


CON]'F£ftJG. yfBlE TINjE. 

■ 300; &nd the 


In 8cot- 

seedH of moBt spedes, vbta allowed t 
the cone, preserre tbetr vegetatiTe power rof eevenl 
yean. llie cones ara mnture, in atme apedes, at the 
end of d)e fint yeaz, but, in most, not till tbe end of 
the aecond uitumn. The; oueht to be gathered a 
sfaort tlme before thej btc pemctl; ripe, in order to 
preveDt the tttiea from opening, and the seeds &oin 
arop^Dg ont. In the Eun^^ean iAn^tinffi, die seeds 
bc^n U> drop fitxn the conea i^ch remnin on the 
trees gtaermy In Harefa ; for whkfa reason PetH^Hry 
i> a Kood month to coUect them. Tbe cones of Hnua 
syhStDis, and o( tbe allied Borts, soon open ofthem- 
■elves, nfter the; hsve been gathered &om the tree, and 
spread out in tfae sun ; but the cones of P. Hnliatcr, 
P. Finea, and tfae allied sorts, though trcsted in the 
■ame manner, will not roeo their scales fbr Bcveral 
mooths, or ev en a year. llie cones of CMrus Libini 
wiU not open tiU thej have been three years or up- 
wnrds on tfae treea ; snd, when they are gathered, it is 
almoet alwajs necessary to stecp them in water for 84 

hours, and afterwards to eipose them before a fire, or U. ... 

lBnd,France,Bnd6erTtian;,thc seeds ofthe i^nua sjilv^triB and of the Liiix 
europce'a, are ver^ commonly separaced Irom the cones lij kilndrying, and 
a ft erw a rj» thrashmg them ; but, as the hcat of the kiln is sometimes carried 
to auch excesa as to destroy the vitsl prindpte, it ia conridered aefer to steep 
tbe conea befbre drying, in which case less fire is requisite; or to spUt them 
by uuerting aa iron triangular-pointed instniment, not unlike a shoemakn^B 
awl, ioto me aiis of the cone, at ics brosd cnd. llie conea are elso some- 
timea tMt>ken bj paaaing them through a bone-mill, or between two cylinders ; 
orby putting them into a berk-milL The cones of the Bilver and the belm 
of Oilead fira, and alao of tbe Pinus ArSbus, open of themselves in a dry 
room, and ^ve ont their seeda with less trouble than thosc of any other 

A KHnjiir dtymg Ihe Conei of lAe MU^na is dcsciibed by Sang, as bting 
coiwtructed in the menner of h common malt-kiln. The joists or beams 
whidi sopport the floor, or surface on whicfa the conea are to be spread, 
sfaould be about 9 ft. fUmve the hearth on which the fire is placed, and 
Sin. apart. " A haircloth is apread over them from side to side of tbe 
kihi, and tbe cones are lud on it to the thickneaa of 12in. or I4in. A 
«ntle fire ia tfaen «pplied, and regularly kept up till the cones becomc opened. 
During the tinie of arying the conea muat be frequently tumed upon the kiln ; 
and wben the aeeda bc^n to drop out, they must be removed to a dry shed, 
aiid aifted till all the se^ which are loose lall out, and be taken from among 
tfae conea. Tbe cones are afterwarda to be thrashed severely with flails, and 
nfted as before, and ao on till tfae seeds are taken out as completelv aa po^ 
Ale." (Salmdar, p. 386.) Various modes of constructing drying-kilnB wiU 
be found givra in our Encyclopadia of Cottage, Farm, and PUla ArdaUctvre. 

The mott general l^mefar toamg the Seedi qf the kbiiliiur is in the end 
of Marcfai or in ApriL The sround onght to be in good heart, light, and 
mdy rather than loamy, and prepsred as finely as po^ble. The seeds 
may be most conveniently Bdwn m beda; ond, af^ being gently beaten 
down with the back of a spade or a slight roller, thcy should be covered witb 
l^fat Boil or leaf monld to the depth oT a aisteentb, an etg^th, or, at most, 
a qnarter, of an inch, occording lo the Eize of Ihe aeeds, and covered 
witlt branches of trees or BhrulM, fronds of fem, wickerwork hurdles, or 
nettin^ to shade the soil Irom the sun, and protect the aeeda from birds, 
If, ttKleed, the seeda are gently patted in with the back of the Bpade, and Che 
beda kq» shaded, and of a uniform gentle moisture, no covering ot all is 


nccessary. When rare kinds are sown in pots, if the Kuface of the soil ts 
kept 1 in. below the rim of the pot, the pot may be covered with a pane of 
glas8y and the seeds wiii come up with certainty and vigour. Traps ought to 
be set for mice, which are great devourers of the Beieds of the ilbi^tinas. In 
very dry weather the beds should be watered in the evenings ; but in this 
case it becomes doubly necessary to shade them in the day time ; because 
in proportion to the rapidity of the germination of the seeds are they 
liable to be scorched by the sun. The precaution of shading is much less 
necessary in Scotland, than in England, or on the Continent ; and, thougfa it 
requires to be regularly practised in the Ooldworth Nursery, in Surrey, yet we b altogether neglected in the nurseries in the neighbourhood of 
Aberdeen, where more plants of the Scotch pine and iarch are, we believe, 
raised, than in an^ other nurseries in the world. The seeds of the greater 

Eart of the AbiitinBS come up in from 30 to 50 days. Those of P. Finea, 
ave been known to come up in 28 days ; though some of this species often 
do not come up till the second year, and seeds of P. Pin&ster often not till 
the third year. Great care must be taken, when theseeds arecoming jthrough 
the ground, to raise sufficiently above them the material employed m shading 
the beds, and also to remove it by degrees. The young plants, in most of 
the species, grow slowly the first two or uiree years ; but some few, such as the 
Scotch pine aiid the larch, grow with comparative rapidity ; and all of them 
^ow most r^pidly between their fifth and their tenth years. 

Ctdture, The pine and fir tribe do not, in general, succeed so well when 
transplanted as the broad-leaved trees ; for which reason, most of the 
sorts plaoted for omament, such as the cedar, stone pine, Weymouth pine, 
Siberian pine, &c., should always be kept by the nurserymen in pots. The 
Scotch pme, the larch, tlte spruce, tbe silver and balm of Gilead firs, the Ck^rsi- 
can pine, and the Weymouth pine, mav be transpianted into nursery iines, firom 
the seed-bed, in the second year ; and, after remaining one year in these lines» 
they may be removed to where they are finally to remain. Very few species 
can be kept with advantage for a longer period in the nursery than 3 years ; 
viz. two in the seed-bed, and one transplanted. The species which may be 
kept longest, and aflerwards transplanted with safety, is the common spruce^ 
on account of the concentration of its roots, and its very numerous fibres. 
The worst species for transplanting is the pinaster ; because it has more of 
a taproot than any other of the Jtbi^tinae. In transplantin^ all the species 
to wnere they are finally to remain, attendon should be paid not to plant 
them too deep; and to have a pit sufficiently large to admit of spreading out 
the roots in every direction. This spreading out of the roots is more esp»- 
cially necessary in the case of plants that liave been kept for years in pots, 
and that have not naturaily taproots; for, when it is negleeted, theplantsare 
often many years before they become firmiy established and grow vigorously, 
The reason of this is easily explained. The roots of a tree, when confined m 
a pot, may be compared to thehead of a tree which has been for several years 
confined and clipped into some regular shape, so as to present an exterior 
surface of spray and leaves, without any one shoot being stronger tlian another, 
Hence, when the head of such a tree is left to itself, a smaller or greater 
number of years will eiapse before a leading shoot, or one or two ieading 
shoots, are produced ; and till that is the case, and the sap, in consequence, is 
diverted into main ciiannels, instead of being equally distnbuted over tbe sur- 
fiK^e of the bush, no vigorous growth can take place. In like manner, the 
matted roots of a plant which has been a iong ^time kept in a pot, when they 
are not spread out in transplanting, will be some years before they throw out 
leading or main roots, without which the part of the tree under ground can 
no more grow vigorously, than the part above ground can grow vigorously 
without main branches. The proper dme for transplanting the ilbietins is, 
as in the case of ali other trees, when the sap is in a comparatively dormant 
state, which is between the end of autumn and the beginnmg of spring; but, 
when the plants are of any size, care must be taken to perform the operation 


only in mild weather, when tfaere are no drying winda, and. if poasible, during 
gentle rains. In tbe case of ali the more tender species, the plants oueht to 
be surrounded by matting fixed to stakes, at a short distance firom the ex* 
tremities of the branches ; or, what is best of all, and serves at once as a 
ahdter from the sun, a protecdon finom the wind, and a euard against cattle, a 
cylinder of wickerwork ought. to be piaced round each plant. No pruning ' 
ought to be given to the heads, and nothine should be cut from the roots, 
but such of raeir extremities as are bruised. When the common ilbiednae, 
sndi as the Scotch pme, the spruce, the larch, and the siiver fir, are taken up 
out of the nursery lines for transplanting, theu* roots should be immediately 
plunged into a mixture of ioam and water, so as to cover them with a coating 
of mud ; and in that state they ought to be carried to the place of planting, 
and carefuUy inserted in the soil with as little delay as possible. For want 
of this precaution, a great proportion of evefgreen AbiituiBdy of Uuiee or four 
years* growth, perish when they are taken up, and carried to any distance; 
more espedally if the weather, at the time ot planting, should happen to be 
«lry« Tbe ilbietinse are, of ali trees, the least adapted for being sent to a 
distance, unless in pota. After the ^bi^tinsB have oeen transpluited, and 
become established in the soil, they require very iittle care for a number of 
years, and, perhaps, less tluin trees of any other order. No care is requisite, 
unless in paiticular cases, either to provide a leading shoot, or to prevent anv 
of the branches from coming in competition with the main trunk ; cares which 
are always more or less attendant upon the culture and management of every 
kind of broad-ieaved tree. 

When plantations of ilbietinae are to be made on a large scale, the best 
mode, in some cases, is, to sow the seeds where the plants are finally to remain, 
etther in drilis, which appears the most scientific moae, as it wili admit of regular 
culture betweeo the rows, or broadcast; and, where the sur&ce is steep and 
rocky, by sowing in irr^gular patches. There are many objections to sowing, 
however, which generally render planting the most profitable mode. A great 
quantity of seed is required, to provide for the ravages made by birds and 
other vermin ; aad the labour of^ preperinff the soil, u this is done properly, 
is greater in proportion to the number of planta wanted, than in the case of 
pluiting. There is aiso a certain loss of time ; since plants three years old, 
which have been one year transplanted,will be at least three years in advance 
of seedlings raised where they are to remaxn. On rocky steeps, however, where 
there is little or no visible soil, and wbere the seed can only be deposited itt 
chinks and crevices, or sown on occasional patches of soil, this mode of 
raising a wood of pines and firs mav deservediy have the preference. 

Very little pruning is necessary tor the pine and fir tribe, whether they are 
grown singiy or in scattered groups for omament, or in masses for usefiil pur- 
poses in plantations. In the former case, to remove any of the branches 
would destroy the object in view ; and in the latter, if the plantation is of 
Buitable thickness, the lower branches begin to die off of themselves, afler the 
ttees have acquired a certain age and growth, and all tbat is necessary is to 
assist nature, by cutting off the branchcs close to the trunk, the moment they 
beg^n to show indications of decay. Some authors contend that no pruning 
wlutever ougfat to be given to the pine and fir tribe ; and that they ought to 
be planted so close together, that the branches may rot off when they are 
jpiite small, as the trees advance in height* This is, doubtless, the manner 
m which the clean timber of the pine and fir forests of the north of Europe 
ts produced ; but it must be recoUected that this timber is obtained at a great 
expense of time; for, if the tnink is deprived of so many of its side 
branches, while it is small in diameter, the tree must require to stand many 
years before the few branches composin^ its head can elaborate a suffident 
portion of sap to thicken the stem to a timber-Iike size. Some, on the other 
hand, recommend depriving the trees of branches to two thirds of their heisht, 
which must place them nearly in the situation of trees drawn up in their 
natural forests* To us, there appears no reason for making the ^lbi^tinie an 

6 Y 4 


exceptioii to other orders of trees with respect to culture. They maj require 
culture of a difierent kiud, but, if they are to be subjected to ihaDy thejr must 
be prunedy and otherwise treated, so as to fit them for his puiposes in the 
most compk^ manner» and in the shortest possible time; unless it can be 
shown thaty in an artifiaal state, they will become fit for these purposes in 
a suffidently short time, without pruning, or any other kind of culture. 
M. Loiseleur Deslongchamps and M. Borc afEirm that the Alnkmm haye 
more need of numerous branches tJian the broad-leared trees; becanse, sa^ 
they, the pines absoib finom the atmosphere as much nourishment by their 
leaves, as they draw firom the soil by their roots. These authors recommend 
pines and firs to be ieft wholly without pruning for the first eight or ten yean ; 
tbat at that drae Uie iowest tier of brancbes mav be cut off ; and that after- 
wards a tier mav be cut off annually, till the trunK is cleared to the hdght of 
6 ft. or 7 ft. ; after which they should be left entiiely to nature. We caimot» 
howeyer, counsel leaving them entirely to nature, even after this period; 
because» in that case, wben the branches bcj^ to decay and drop off, the 
stumps which remain would beoome buried m the wood, and would greatlv 
diminish its value. M. Hartig is in &vour of pruning tfae ilbi^time ; but M. 
Burgsdorf is of a contrary opinion. According to M. Delamarre, the ma^ 
joritv of French authors recommend pruning and thinning; and the practice 
m the department of the Maine, where his estate lay, is to cut off the 
branches at 2in. or 3 in. firom tfae trunk, in order to leave some small shoots 
and leaves to draw up tfae sap. In Champagne, fae sam 6 in. are left at 
first; and, in a year or two afterwards, these are cut off doee to the trunk. 
Delamarre adds that 2in. is the preferable distance; and a stump of this 
lengtfa, fae says, will, in Uiree or four years, be buried in tfae trunk oT the tree. 
Ih Britain, and also in most parts of Germany, close pruning has the decided 
preference. Tfae advantage of early and close prunm^ in the case of the 
pine and fir tribe, was pointed out by Mr. Salmon, in the jyangactioru of 
tke Society ofArtty about the besinning of tfae present century ; and afterwariis 
strongly reoommended by Mr. Pontey, in fais Forat Pruner, and practised by 
iiim in various pkices where he had the manaeement of the plantations. It 
is generally considered, however, tfaat Mr. Salmon and Mr. Pontey carried 
the practice of dose praning too far. Mr. Main, wfao has paid great attention 
to tne subject of pruning, states it as fais opinion, tfaat aU tfae pine and fir 
tribe intended for profit should be planted to grow up, and be ** all cut down 
together, like a crop of cora.'* Mr. Salmon, on the other hand, gives tfae 
fotiowing directions, founded, as fae says, on several years' observation and 
ezperience :— -The praning sfaould commence when the trees are six years old, 
or, in other words, when five distinct tiers of branofaes i^pear on tfae stem. 
Tbe lowest of tfaese tters are to be taken off, leaving four remaining. After 
wliicfa, at everv succeeding four or five vears, the pnmiiig is to be repeated, 
till the stem ot the tree be deared to tfae heigjit of 40 ft,; after wfaich the tree 
may be left to nature. The best practice seems to lie between Mr. Main^s 
opinion and that of Mr. Salmon ; and we should think that if small poles and 
masts were the object, Mr. Main's plan would be the best; but for large 
beams, planks, and deals, Mr. SaImon's. We sfaall faereafter faave occasbn 
to enlaige on the subject, when treating on the praning of particular species, 
and more especially of Pinus sylv^stris. In exposed situations, Mr. Muttaii 
lias fonnd that the AbiiidTUB are much invigorated at the root by pincfaing 
out the points of the side sboots, and even of tbe leaduig shoot; whicb 
causes the plants to increase in diameter at the base, and to become fiirnished 
with roots, larger and more vigorous, in proportion to tfae elevation of tfae 
stem, tfaan would otfaerwise be tfae case, whicfa consequently enables them 
tfae better to witfastand tfae force of high winds. Plants so treated soon 
recover tfaeir leading sfaoots ; or, if they send up more tfaan one, the super* 
fluous ones can be removed. Tbe details of Mr. Nuttairs practice will be 
found in the Gardener^s MagasBine, vol. xiii. p. 350. The best season for 
pruning the Jbietinae is in miJd weather in early spring, or in the autumn. 

CHAP. CXlll. CON1'FEBjE. ^IE^TINiB. 21S5 

Tlmmmg mid FeUmg* Thiminij; ought to be carried on in oonnexjon with 
pmning ; and, when large timber is to be produced, this is no less neceflsarr 
m the caae of the ilbietine than in thai of the broad-leaved trees ; thou^ 
the former, finom their narrow oonical shapes and great beight, do not require 
80 much room as tbe latter. The advantages derived from thinning will be 
shown in a striking manner from actual practice in Britain, when we come 
to treat of the lardi. 

The pine and fir tribe, not being trees that atole, are never cultivated as 
ocMipioe-wood ; and when a grove of pines is felled, tfae roots ought to be 
taken np, in order to dear the way for tbe succeedinff crop» In the Oerman 
and French works on the culture of the Jbi^tin», there u much diflerence 
of opinion as to whether a grove of pines or firs, when fiill grown» and fit for 
ttmber, ought to be whoUy cut down at once, '' like a crop of corn'* (to use 
Mr* lftEttn'8 phrase)» or cut down by de^ees by thinnin^ out. If the latter 
mode is oonaiderea the beity another pomt arises for ducusnon; which is, 
whether the smaller trees are to be taken out, so as to leave room for the 
large ones to grow laiger, which is calied exphUation pm idaircieg; or 
the larver ones removed to leave room for the small ones to increaae in 
fiiae, wniGh ia called exploUaium en jardmani, In the Diciumnaire des Eaux 
et Fareti, a oomparative view ia ^ven of these two modes, and the preference 
is given to the nnt ; but both, it is alleged, are inferior to tfae mode of cutting 
down the entire crove or forest at once ; and this seems the most rationan 
becantey when uie air is once let in to a grove of full«f;rown pines, they 
seldom increase muoh in size afterwards; doubtless, firom the influence of 
the weather on their naked tmnks, which have, till then, been shaded and 
motected by the evergreen branches of tbe trees that have been removed. 
Deeiduoos trees, as tbej never reoeive so much protection firom one another, 
never auflfer so much firom thinning, whether wnen young, or when mature 
and fit for felling as timber. The season for felling the Abi6tiaBd is during 
winter; but in uie Aips and the Pyrenees, and also in the north of Sweden 
and Norway, where the ground is covered with snow for six or seven months 
in tlie year, tlie trees are cut during summer. It is alleged that the wood 
feUed cuiring the latter season, firom the greater quantity of sap con- 
tained in it» must neoessarily be less durable than that felled when the sap 
ia dormant. This, however, must chiefly apply to the sap wood ; because 
the heart wood, which alone is used for important purposes, is not pen&- 
trated by the ascending or desoending sap. After the trees are feUeo, the 
roots are dug up, broken into smaU pieces, and distiiled for tar; or burned 
hk eovered beaps for that product jomtiy with charcoal. 

In situations naturally adapted for the progress of pines and firs, the 8el& 
sown seeds keep up a perpetual succession of the same spedes for an un- 
known period : but when the plantation is out down before the trees have 
shed abundance of seeds; or where, from being an artificial plantation of 
trees aU pkinted at the same time^ the ground is so completdy sfaaded, 
88 to prevent the vegetation of the seeds which may have dropped on it ; 
or where the soil is not naturaiiy oongenial to the i^bi^tinsB; m any of 
these oases, this order ought to be succeeded by another totaUy difibrent 
fiom it, but at the same time suitable for the soU* Many autnors have 
observed that native woods, both in England and America, when cut down, 
are gencfaUy succeeded by a difierent kind of tree (see Gard, Mag., v. 
p. 421.); and others, that pine fbrests, when destroyed acddentaUy by fire, 
in America, are usuaUy succeeded by oak. M. Le Comte of Ricdborough, 
Geoigia, has for upwards of thirty years pdd great attention to the subject 
of the natural succession of woods ; and the followinff are the results of his 
observations respecting pine forests: — ** The pine bnds in the southem 
states have genereUy olcl oak grubs, which, by reason of the periodical fires, 
are prevented firom becoming trees, notwithstanding which they stiU continue 
■live (see p. 1891.^ ; and when land is tumed out (that is, when the culti- 
vation of it u reunquished), the pines, befaig natundly unproductive of 


Bucken, are oonsequeatly killed ht toto; while tfae oak, now eole possesBor 
oi the 8oil, starts up and grows v^goroualjr» On the other hand, land which 
has heen soldy occupied by oaks previoualy to its cultivation, ia invBriably ot 
a superior quality to what is termed pine Umd ; and is naturally a longer 
period under cmtivation before it is tumed out, by which means the roots 
of the oaks are completely eradicated. The pine seeds, bdng winged, and 
thereby easily carried by the wind to a considerable distance, if the ground 
is free from the roots of other trees, are the establish themselves; 
and, being of a free and rapid ^rowth, they take the lead of all other species 
of timber, and become the prmcioal occupiers of the land : but when the 
roots of the oaks are not destroyea, they wdl take the lead» and resist the 
pine and other trees. All pine lands, which originally had^no oaks, wiU 
lovariably produce pines again, whether they have been under cultivation for 
a long time or a short perimL" (Gard. Mag., voL viii» p. 287.) In the north 
of Europe, induding the Highlands of Scotland, a pine forest, unless it has 
been cleared, and the soil brouflfat under the plough, or iaid down in 
pasture, continues such for ever; the seeds of the older trees coming up in 
the open spaces, as thick as in the nurserymen^s seed-beds. 

jiccidents» With reference to the goodness and value of the timber, the 
most injurious acddent that can be&H a pine or fir tree is to have the dead 
stumps of the side branches left on, whether through neglect in artifidai 
plantations, or from the trees not bdng suffidently dose U^ther in natural 
ones. In such cases, the dead stump is buried under die livine wood ; and, 
Mpfaen the tree is sawn up into boards, every point wbere Uiese stumps 
intersect the board forms a knot, which, if not elued in, generaliy drops out, 
leaving a hole through the board. The pine and fir tribe, from tfaeir resinous 
nature rresin bdng a powerful non-conductor), aie said to be less liable to 
be struoL by lightning than broad-ieaved treea ; and hence they are con* 
sidered as particularly suitable for growing on mountains. (See Nuttall in Gar^ 
denef^s Magazme^ vol. xiiL p. 351.) As, wben standing sindy, Uieir s|nry 
tops do not oppose so lai^ a surface to the wind as those of round-head^ 
trees, and as their narrow leaves ofier very little redstance, thev are not 
ao liable to be blown down by hiffh winds as might t)e imagined m>m thdr 
comparativdy small roots ; and tfaey are sdll less so wfaen associated toge» 
tfaer in dense masses of plantation or forest. As forests of tfae pine and fir 
tribe are generally situated on faills or mountains, and for tfae most part 
in ciimates where they are subject to be covered with snow for several 
montlis in the year, thev are very liable to what may be called geological 
and meteorolopcal accidents. In Switzerland, those movements of rocks, 
atones, and soil which take place in the mountainous districts, more or less 
every spring, and are called eboulemetu^ often destroy several acres of pine 
forests at a time. In scattered forests, the snow falliog on thc trees 
individualhr is retained by tbeir branches, and, when tfaese are of great 
lengtfa, often wdghs tbem down, and breaks them; while those move* 
ments of snow known by the name of aioalandiet are sometimes as injuri- 
ous as the eboulemens. We have seldom been more gratified with winter 
acenery, than .when passing through a spruce fir forest in Sweden. We 
have seen trees of aU ages grouped and distributed in innumerable ways ; 
here weighed down with snow, and tbere boldly shooting through it their 
vivid green pyramidal heads. When a sudden thaw takes place in spring, the 
snow and tne branches seem aii in motion ; some brancnes, bemg reueved 
from their load of snow, are rising up in consequence of their elasticity; 
and otfaers, from tfae snow faliing on tnem from branches still higfaer up tfae 
tree, are bending, and perliaps breaking, under the additional wei^t. In tfae 
pine and fir forests of feurope, a number of brancfaes, and also of entire trees, 
are damaged in thiB way every year ; but this is nothing to the havock whicfa 
takes piace in America, during what is called aa ** ice storm." In tbe Magazme 
of Natwral Hutory (voL vL p. 100.), a very strildng description of one of 
die^e storms at PhilipBburg, near the Alle^iany Mountains, is given byiR. G. 


Taylor, Esq. A hea^j fall of snow had been succeeded bj a partial thaw 

and nun, followed b^ a severe frost, which en^eloped ** the trees and earth 

in a thidL coating or transparent ice.'' The foUowing morning, the accumu- 

lation of ice on the branches of the forest trees presented a beautiful and 

extraordinary spectacle. The noblest timbers were every where to be seen 

bending beneatn the enormous load of ice with which their branches were 

incmstedy and the heavy icicles which thickly depended from every point; 

the thickness of the ice, even on the spray, oAen exceeding an inch. The 

smaller trees, from 20 ft. to even 50 ft. m height, were bent to the ground by 

tkis uBwonted burden, and lay pressing on one another, resembling fields of 

gigantic com, beaten down by a tempest. Above, the taller trees drooped and 

swung heavily; their branches glittering, as if formed of solid crystal; and, 

with tke slightest breath of wind, clashiug against each other, end sending 

4own showers of ice. The foUowine day, the limbs of the trees began to 

give wa^ beneath their load. The leafy spray of the hemlock spnice was 

Qiickly mcased, and hung drooping round the trunks upon the long pliant 

branches, until the trees appeared like solid masses or monumental pillars of ice. 

Every where around was heard the crashine of the branches ot the loftiest 

trees of the forest, which fell to the earUi with a noise like the breakinf 

of glass, yet so loud as to make the woods resound. As the day advanced, 

instead of branches, whole trees b^n to fall ; and, during twenty-four hours, 

the Bcene which took place was as sublime as can well be conceived. There 

was no wind perceptible, yet, notwithstandin^ the calmness of the day, the 

whole forest seemed in motion, &Iling, wasting, or crumbling, as it were, 

piecemeal. Crash succeeded to crash, until at length these became so 

lapidly continuous as to resemble the incessant dischaiges of artillery; 

gradually increasing, as from the irregular firing at intervals of the outposts, 

to the unintemipted roar of a heavy cannonade. Pines of 150 fl. and 180 fb. 

in height came thundering to the ground, carrying otbers before them. 

Under everv tree was a rapidly accumuiating debris of displaced limbs and 

branches ; daeir weight increased more than tenfold by the ice, and crushing 

every thing in their iall with sudden and terrific violenoe. Aitogether, this 

spectacle was one of indescribable grandeur. The roar, the cracking and 

rending, the thundering fall of the uprooted trees, the startlin^ unusual 

sounds and sigbts produced by the descent of such masses of sohd ice, and 

the suddenness of the crash when a nei^hbourinc tree gave way, was awful 

m the extreme. Yet all this was going on m a deadcalm, except, at intervals, 

a gentle air from the south-east slightly waved the topmost pmes. Had the 

wind freshened, the destruction would have been still more appalling. 

Another kind of acddent to which pine forests appear particularly liable 
b their destruction by fire ; and, in Siberia and in North America, immense 
tracts of pine forest are sometimes thus consumed. The fire generally ori- 
ginates with man, either purposely or by acddent ; but it is supposed some- 
times aLso to be produced by the action of the sun upon the dry decayed 
wood of fallen trees ; and sometimes, no doubt, it is the effect of lightmng* 
In Captain Hali's Skeichet m Canada^ &c., he ^ives the following description 
of an American pine forest on fire : — *' SomeUmes the monotony of the pine 
barren was interrupted, in no very pleasant style, by the heat and smoke 
arising from the forest being on fire on both sides of us ; though, as it hap- 
pened, we were never exposed to any danger, or to serious inconvenience, 
m consequence of these conflagrations. The sketch (Jig* 20 lU) shows the 
Ibrest in the predicament we have ailuded to. The tree in the fox^round had 
caught fire near the ground ; and having, I do not know how, been hoUowed 
out in its centre, the flames had crept up and burst out some feet higher, so 
that they were roaring like a blast funiace, and rapidly demolishing; the tree 
at the bottom, while the branches at top were waving about in fiill verdure» 
as if nothing unusual was going on below. (HaWs Sketdket m Cafiada, &c., No. 
24.) M*Gregor informs us that in New Brunswick the forests are sometimes 
purposely set on fire by the settlers, to avoid the labour of cutting down the 



treea,and grubbiitf up tbdr roots;but he addsthat tbe ^facticeishighlyin- 
judicious, as, by Uese indjscriminate conflagrations, the liuul is not propeH; 
clcared, and " a very strong imd noxiouB plant, called the fireweed, springa 
up ero^ wher^ snd exhuista the rertilitv of the soil. The appearance of s 
buming forest is one of the moat fearful and sublime objects tbat can be 
imf^ned, snd has been poweriuliy described by Cooper in Tlie Pionceri, and 
also by Oalt in Lainrie Todd. " The flame* leap from tree to tree, and 
winding up to their tops, throw out immense Tolumes of fire from thick 
clouds of smoke, that hang overlhe bumingmasB.while thefallingtreescome 
down with most tremendous crasb." The foltowing HccouDt of one orthese 
fires, which was more thsn ueubII; destructive, is extrected from Mr. M'Gre- 
gor^B book ; — ** In October, ISiS, upwards of a hundred miles of the coun- 
try, on tbe north side of the Miramicbi riTer, became a scene of the most ' 
dreadfiil conflsgration that lias, perhaps, cTer occurred in the history of the 
world. In Europe we csn scarcely form s conception of the fury and r^i- 
dity with wbich ine (ires rage through the American forestB during a dry bot 
season, at which time the underwood, decayed vegetable Bubstances, Mllea 
Imnches, bark, and withered trees, are os inflammBble as a toial absence of 
moisture can msketbem, Whcn tbese tremendous Rres are once in motion, 
or at least wben the flameB extend over a few miles of the forest, the Bur- 
rounding ur becomes highly rarefled, and the wind naturallj increases it to a 
burricane. It appears that the woods had been, on both sides of the north- 
weat brancb, psrtially on fire for some time, but not to an alarming extent 
until tbe Utb of October, wben it came to blow furiously from tbe north- 
west, and the inhabitants on tbe banks of the river were suddenly alanned by 

CHAI>. CXIll. COm'VtUM. ^I£'TIMiB. 2139 

« tremendous roaring in the woods, reBembling the inceBsaat roUing of 

Ibunder ; wbiLe, at the same time, the atmosphere became thickly darkened 

with smoke* Tbey had scarcely time to ascertain the cause of this pheno- 

menon» before ali the surrounding woods appeared in one vast biaze, the 

flames ascending more than 100 feet above the top of the loftiest tree ; and 

the fire» like a ^ilf in flamesy roiling forward with inconceivable celerity. In 

less tfaAn an hour Douglastown and Newcastle were enveloped in one vast 

blaxe, and many of the wretched inhabitants, unable to escape,' periidied in 

the n^st of tbis terrible fire." {Sketche» afthe Mar.CoL o/SriHsh America,) 

In some parts of Sweden, also, the pines and firs are purposely bumt, to 

dear the fields for agrieultural purposes; but there are also extensive 

■ccidental fires. iSr, Clarke, describing his joumey fiK>m Stockhohn 

northwardy says : ** As we proceeded to Hamrange, we passed through 

noble avenues of trees, and saw some fine lakes on either side of the roi^. 

Some of the forests had been bumecl, by which the Und was cleared for 

cultivation. The buming of a forest is a very common event in this coun- 

try ; but it is most firequent towards the north of the Gulf of Bothnia. 

Somedmes a considerabie part of the horizon ghires with a fierv redness, 

owing to tbe confiagnition of a whole district, wnich, for many leagues tn 

jBxtent, has been rendered a prey to the devouring flames." In LapUnd, 

beyond Tomea, he adds, '* some forests were on fire near the river, and 

bad been burning for a considerable time." Mr. Tipping infi>rmed us that 

these fires were owing to the carelessness of the Laplanders and boatmen 

on the river^ who» uring the J^ol^us (Pol^porus) ignil^us (German 

tinder) for kindling their tobaoco-pipes (see p. 1834.), siSlfer it to fidl in an 

Ignited state amonff the dry leaves and moss. They also leave large fires 

buming in the midst of the woods, which they have kindled to drive away 

the mosquitoes firom theur cattle and from themselves; therefore, the con- 

fii^;ration of a forest» however extensively the flames may rage, is easUy 

explained. Yet Linnseus, with ail his knowledge of the country, and customs 

of die inhabitants, attributed the bummg of foresta in the north of Sweden 

to the effects of lightning. During these tremendous fires, the bears, wolves, 

and fozes, are driven from their retreats, end make tenible depredations 

among the cattle." (^Dravelt, ^,) 

Dueaaes. The pine and fir tribe are subject to some diseases, and more 
porticuhtfiy to the flow of resin» in consequence of being wounded by pruning 
when the sap is in active motion in apring. They are also aflected by can- 
kerous ezcrescenoes ; and the wood is liable to become shaky; an evil 
which, of course, is not observed tiU the tree is cut down, and sawn into 
boards, when the annual layers are found to separate fiK>m each other. 
The larch is subject to a verv peculiar disease, caUed pomping, whicfa rots 
out the heart wood, and whicn we shall describe when speakmg of that tree. 

Jfuects, Mr. Westwood, to whom we are indebted for this article, ob- 
flerves, that the attacks of the insect tribes upon the genus jPtnus are not, 
in this country, so prejudicial as in Sweden and some parts of Germany; 
where, owing to their very great extent» the pine forests are of such vast 
iniportance. Hence it is that in these countries the investigation of the 
liabits of the difi^erent species of insects which attack the pine and fir tribe 
has been pursued with much more care than among us. We shaU avail 
ourselves m Uus article of the most reoent labours both of Continental and 
£ng^ish authors, adding thereto some oriiginal mattary which we have not 
fimnd noticed in their works. 

The insects which attack the dififerent spedes of iHnus may he divided into 
two classes ; viz., intemal feeders, and extemal feeders. The former mav 
l^gain be separated into those which burrow into the wood, and those which 
merely reside beneatb the bark : not, indeed, that the latter are less iigurious 
than Uie former ; because, as in the elm-destroying Sc61ytus, the presence 
of great numbers of subcortical species causes the death of a tree as 
apeedUy as those which strip it of its ieaves, or burrow into its soUd sul^ 
stance, and, indeed, often more speedUy. 


Of the wiemal Feeden which bore mto the toBd Wood, the Bpecies of the 
genus Slrex of Linnsiu (Ur6ceru8 Geqffr,), bdonging to tfae order Hy- 
men^ptera» are amongst the largest. In the winged state, they are com- 
paratively innoauous. They are often as large as homets ; and some of the 
species are coloured similarly to tbose insects. They espedalljr abound in 
cold and mountainous r^ons, where the pines and other coniferous treet 
abound ; and during flight they make a ioud humming noise. The best 
known species, Sirex gi^ Lfnn.,attacks*^^bies excelsa (Rottmdtder^ Forstms.) 
It is very common in Sweden, and in the Alps and Pyrenees. The femalea 
are provided with a yery strong homy ovipositor, by means of wbich they 
deposit their eggs in the crevices of the trees. The larvae, when hatched, bur* 
Tow into the wood in various directions : they are fleshy and cylindricaly with 
a scaly head, six very minute pectoral feet, and a homy point on the upner 
side of the extremity of the body. (Lalr. Hitt. Gener.y xiiL p. 149.> ** Tbe 
species of the genus Sirex, probebly all of them in the larva state, have no 
appetite but for ligneous iwA, Linnaeus has observed this with respect to Sw 
spectrum and Cam^lus ; and Mr. Marsham, on the autherity of Sir Joseph 
iwksy relates (Lmn. Trans.^ x. 40a> that several specimens of 8. glgas were 
seen to come out of the floor o( a nursery in a genlieman'8 house, to the no 
small alarm and discomiiture of both nurse and cliildren." (Introd/to Ent.y i% 
p. 23L) In this case, it is evident that the floor of the poom must have 
been recently laid down, the pknks containing the sirexes either in the 
larva or pupa state ; and that they made their appearance en attaining the 
imago form. Linnasus (SyMt. Nat.t ii- p« 929.> says of Sirex sp^trom^ 
^ Habitat in lignis putridis antiqius Pini et Abietis." Wm. Raddon, Esif.» 
has lately forwarded to the Entomological Society of London specimens of 
Sirex juv^cus^ another large species, of a fine blue colour in the female ; 
accompanied by specimens of the wood of a fir tree firom Bewdley Forest^ 
Worcestershire, perforated and destroyed by the larvse of this insect ; some 
o£ which still remained in the wood. Of tms tree, 20 ft. were so intersected 
by the burrows, that it was fit for nothing but fire-wood ; and, being placed in 
an outhousCy the perfect insects came out every moraing, five, six, or more 
each day. The females averaped one m twelve for the first six weeks ; but 
afterwards became more pientiful, and continued to make their appearance 
undl the end of November; females being only produced during the last two 
or three weeks. {Trans. Ent. Soc, Londonf i. p. Ixxxv.) At tlie same meeting 
of this Sodety, it was also stated by tbe Rev. F. W.Hope, that, in his fiither^s 
grounds at Netley, in Shropshire, the Sirex generallv attacks those trees 
which have passed their prime ; and tiuit the Weymouth pines are more sub- 
ject to their attacks than the Scotch pines. These statements will be ouite 
sufficient to disprove the recently published view of the Count de Saint Far- 
geau (Hist. Nat. Hymenopt., tom. i.), that the Siiicidse are parasitic upoa 
ocher insects, like the /chneum6nidae. It is, however, aroongst the cole- 
opterous insects that the greatest numbers of pine-boring species are found ; 
and of these a considerable portion belong to the fiamily of the weevils 
(Curcu]i6nidae), one of the largest British species of which is thus injurious: 
it is the Hylobius abletis of Germar (Curcuiio abietis of Linnseus, C\ircuIio 
pini Marsham, 4*^.). Tbis insect varies in length fi^m half to three quarters 
of an inch. It is of a pitchy black colour, varied with yellowish pile. For- 
tunately, however, in this country it is but of rare occurence; although in 
Scotland, and especially in Sweden, it is very abundant and destructive. A 
memoir upon the habits of this beettle has been published by Mr. W. S. 
M*Leay, m the Zoological Joumal. A great &ilure of the young firs and 
larches on Lord Carlisle's estates in Scotland had taken place, which was at 
first thought to be occasioned by mice, so completely was the bark destroyed. 
The wood warden was, however, subsequently convinced that the mischief 
was produced by insects, of which specimens were forwarded to Mr. W. S. 
M^Leay. The destrucdon was more rapid when tbe roots of the Scotch fir 
were in a state of decay ; a circumstance strongty supporting the opinion that 




the author of tho mlschlef was an Insect ; fbr mice woukt only attsck the green 
ond he^diy bark : aod, indeed, the insects proved to be no o^er than the Hy" 
lobiuH abietis. According to RoBsmaiuter, it ib chiefly young trees of i^nus 
ByWistns and ^'bies ezc^sa which are attacked by this species. Another 
«pecieB of the same geuus ia the Hylfibius pinistri Dnem, which, according 
to OyUenhal {Itu, Su»., iu. 168.), "bBbitat in frondibus et ligao Pini et 

. The Epeciea of another genus of weerils (Hssodes Germar) are also Tery 
destructive to different species of the piue and fir tribe. O^UenhHl describM 
fitre speciea ; three only of which have been detected in thia country, and all 
of them BTe here of great rarity; namely: P. pini lAnn., P. notitus Foftr., 
nnd P. pineti (Fabridi Leach). An interesting memoir haa recentiy been 
publtshed by Dr. Batzeburg in the last volume of the Nova Acta Nahme 
Cuiioionim (vol. xvii. p. 4B4.), in which the hrfjits of the two firab.naineil 

tpecies are given m detail. ffc.8012. flhowa the mode -^ 

m which young trees are attacked ; the tiee bemg four 

abode of the pupa, or cocoon, aa it may be termed 
. irith the letter b ; and c indicates the opening through 
which the peifect insect escapes. OyUenbal ^vea P nus 
■vlveMris and <4^ies eic^lsa aa the habitat of Piss6dea 
pm^ti i jTbieB exc^BO, aa that of Pissddea Hercynue 
not&tuB, and piniphilus ; but he descnbes the economy 
of Pissodes pini as being more general : " Habilat n 
«rboribus resmosis, prssertim in ahietis frondibus et • 
ligDonupercauo,frequens."(/nf.5KecHi. parsS p 66 ) 
I^. Heer has also recently described the metamor 
phoses of anotfaer spedes of tbe sanie genus (Pissddea 
pfcec IliigeT), ot which many larwe and pupfe were 
discovered in the trunk of ilcea vuIgSiris in the 
middle of June, 1835. (Obierv. Etilomol., 1836 p 87 
tab. iv. B.) There is also another tribe of amall beetles 
very nearly allied to the ftunily (TurculiAnidce but ui 
which thenesdis not produced]ntoamuzzIe,af whch 

■■ very desttuctive to the treea 

eenuB HyUunus. The Bpedes H. piniperda, lign p^da, 
&ter, palliHtua, snd angustatus, are recorded as n 
halntauts of 6r ptantationB. Rossmassler gives the 
first of these be an enemy to old trees of .4 b cs ex 801S 

G^BB ; but Oj^ilenhal says of it, " Habitat m Pim sylvestris ramul b quos 
perforat et exsiccat etiam in ligno et aub cortice firequens The followmg 
observationB and figures relative to the econom} oi this spec es were com 
punicated by Dr. Lindley to Mr. Curtis : — " For the purpose of esam n ng 
its proceedings mOTe narrowly, I placed a shoot of tbe Scotch p ne under 
a glBBB with the insect. In about thres hours afterwards t had ^ust 
b^un to pierce the bark of the base of one of the leaveB Ita mandiblea 
seemed chiefly employed, its tega being merely used as a means of fix ng 
itself more firoily. Four hours after, its head and tborax were completely 
buried in the shoot ; and it had thrown out a quantit> of wood wh ch t had 
reduced taapowder, andwhich nearly covered the space under the glasB la 
nsteen hours moro, it waa entirely concealed and was be^ nnmg to form its 
perpendicular excavations, and was busilv employed m throwmg t>ack the 
wood as it proceeded in deGtroying it. Tbere were evidently two kinds of 
this sawdust ; part conBiBting of shapeless lumps, but the greater portion of 
very thin semitransparent lamcllse, or rather sbavingE. I now examined it every 
(]ay, till the fiflh ; whcn 1 found it had emerged through the ceniral buds, at 







about l in. from whcre it had first entered.** S0I3 ^ff/i 

(Curtit Brii.Eta.,yo\.m. p.l04.) Fig.20lS.thowB 

three longitudioal sections, or shoots, of Scotch r/v^ 

pine, with the various perfonitions of the insects : ^ ' 

a, where it commences ; b, the aperture which it ^ 

inakes after it has finished its excavation ; and c, 

the end of the first and b^;inning of a second ex- 

cavation." (Curtit^ loc. dt.) Stephens states that 

it is extremel V detrimental to the leading shoots of 

die Scotch pme, perforating them longttudinally 

and transversely, and also iiguring tfae wood and 

barlL of the trunk. This insect (d.) is about 

one sixth of an inch in ten^, of a cylindrical 

form, and bhick colour, with lineate-punctate ^ 

elytra. It varies to a pitchy red or dull buffish 


Dr. Ratzeburg has given numerous details re- 
lative to the history of thts spedes, and H. kter 
and angustitus, in the memoir alxyve referred 
to ; and Dr. Rossmiissler reconnnends that trees infested witfa them' to a great 
extent shoi^dd be cut down and bumed, as the only means of saving the rest 
of the plantation or forcst. 

Many species of longicom beetles also inhabit the |>ine forests, amongst 
which 5pondyits ^uprestoldes Fabr. (G^. Itu. Suec, iv. p. 117.), Prionus 
depsarius Fab. (Gyll., o. 116.), Ltoia (Acanth6dnus) JEdllis Fabr. (JEdhis 
montana ServUle, GylL^ p. 54.), and i^h^um inqufsitor Fabr.^ are parti- 
cularly to be mentioned ; the kist, acoordinj^ to Rossmiissler (p. 77.), attack- 
in^ old trees of A^bies exc^lsa, but committmg less damage than tiie other 
tnbes. Some of the «>ecies of the genus Cailfdium are, however, much 
more obnoxious. C. Mjuius inhabits the wood of the ^l^bies exc^lsB, in 
which the larva is nourished ; it is also very abundant in old posts and rails 
of deal, in which tbe female deposits her eggs by means of her donsated 
tdescope-like ovipositor, and also in the rafters of houses ; and Mr. West- 
wood nas been informed by Mr. 8tephens, tliat, at his residence in South 
Lambeth, it became necessarv several times to cover afresh the leaden part of 
die roof, in consequence of the insects which had been bred in the rafters 
eating their way throu^ the ieaden sheeting by which tliey were protected. 

The proceedings ofanother spedes of the same genus (CalUmum violi- 
ceum) liave been described by the Rev. W. Kirby in the fifth volume of the 
Dratuacliofu tf the lAmuBan Society. This insect feeds principBlIy on fir tim- 
ber, which has been loog felled, without having had the bark stnpped off; a 
drcumstance of considerabie importance; as, by taking off the barK as soon as 
the trees are fdled, tbe attacks of various insects, subsequently to be no- 
tioed, mi^t be prevented. The larva, as soon as hatched, proceeds in a ser- 
pentine direcdon, filling the space whidi it leaves with its excrement, resem- 
bting sawdust, and thus stopping all ingress to enemies fix>m without. It is 
chiefiy beneath the bark that it oonstrocts its galleries, which are more tortu- 
ous and irregular as it increeses in sixe : but, previously to assuming the pupa 
■tate, it kNirrows into the aolid wood to the depth of 2 in. or 3 in., and there 
becomes an inactive pupa; the perfect insect generally appearing in the 
months of May and June, gnawing its way out oppodte to the hole by which 
it descended into the wood. 

7^ itUemal Feedert wMch are finmd under the Bark, or the subcortical 
tribes of beedes, are» however, those by which we find the ffreatest extent 
of injury committed upon trees of the pine and fir tribe. The genus T6« 
micus belon^ to this tribe, containiDg numerous spedes, which, on account 
of the peculiar habits and mode of burrowing, have been ftmcifuUy termed 
printer, or typogiapher, beetles. Tbe type of this genus is the Derm^tes 
typdgraphus of Linnanis; a smali cylindrical beetle, one fourth of an inch 



loDg, aDf) of a pitchj bUck or redduh colour, with loog f ellow hure ; the 
elytra being obliquel; tnmcate, with mi teeth on eacb side, behind the margiiis 
ot the truncation. Tbis beetle is, fortunately, very rare in Englaod ; but iu 
Germany it hu, at various times, abounded to ki great aa eitent, tfaat tha 
grcBt pine fbrests have auAred very severely. " 'Die inaect, in its prepa- 
ratory atate, fceda upon the soft inner bark only; but it attacka this impor- 
tant part in auch vast nurobers (60,000 being soraetimes found in a single tree), 
that it i« infinitely more noiioua than any of those that bore into the wood; 
Htid Buch is ita ritality, that, though the bark be batt«red, aud the tree plunnd 
into water, or laid upon tiie ice or enow, it rcmainB alive and unhurt. The 
len^ of the trees infested by these inaects Brst become yellow ; the trees 
thenuelves then die at the tops, and soon entirely perish. Thdr ravages have 
long been known, in Qennany, under the name of wurm-trSknias f decay caused 
by worins) ; and, in the old liturgiea of that cauntry, the animal itself ia fbr- 
mallj mentioned under its tuI^ appellation, the 'Turk.' This pest was 
particularly prevalent, and caused incalculable inischief, about the year ISSd. 
In the begiimiDg of the lait century, it again showed itself in the Hartz 
foreati. It reaf^eared in 1757, redoubled its injuriea in 1TG9, and arrived at 
its height in 1783; when the number of trees destroyed by it, in the above 
tbresta alone, was calculated to auiount to a million and a half; and the 
inbfdMtants were threatcned witb a total suspension of the workii^ of their 
minee, and, conseQuently, with ruin. At this p^od, these insects, when 
■rrived at ihe perfect state, migrated in awBnns, like beea, into Sunbia and 
FnucoDia. At leogtb, between tbe years 1781 and 1780, iu consequence of 
■ succeaiion of cold and moist Beasons, che numbers of this scourge were 
aensibl]) diminished. It appeared sgaia in 1790; and, so late as 1796, 
there waa gwat reason to fear for the ftw fir Irees tbst were left." ( lVilheiM'i 
Reereatioiu m Nat. Hut., quoted by LatrrUie and by Kirby a«d Spence.) 
" " laler gives the old trees of j^^biea eicelsa as the habitat of this s\ 

inaect «iMtteto- 

cies j btit OylleDhal adds PIdub sylv&tria ; juatly calling thi 
ruin p^tis." (7nr. 5ifec.,i.p. 111. pag. 351.) Itspassages 
so aitnilar to thoseof Sctilytus destrOctor (Ggured in p. 1388.), 
tiiat wehare not thou^t it necessaryto give a representation of 
them. Its proceedingB are also very similar to those of the Sc6- 
Ijtoa (to which genus, indeed, it is very nearlv allied^ ; so that 
it would be as erroDeous to attribute the oestniotion of the 
Oennan forests to other primary causea, and to consider the 
Tdnucus typ6graphuB as a secondary couse, as it is to deoy 
that the Sc61yti are the cause of the deatruction of the elma 
around London. Wilbetm, bdeed, eipressly states tbat the 
■niaplaced confidence which many perBons entertaiiied thal the 
inseas attack only trees already injured, and that their ra- 
Tages are au^wnd^by the insects themselvea, has lost many 
fauiidreds of trees. The remedies su^ested in a preceding 
pege (1390.), for die deBtructiou of Scdlyti, may also, to a 
great extent, be advantageously adopted for the eiterroiiiatioD 
of the T6mici. 

Rossmassler, Bechstaa, and Ratzeburg detail the natural 
bistarr of several otber apecies of this genus of beetles T 
cbalciSgraphus attacks otd trees of jl^biea eic6lsa; T. pinistn, 
those of Pbus B^lv^stris; T. abietip^rde, Pintls Picea, T 
XiArids inbabits /ibii commuDis. T. &deDt^tua and T i 
turilis are also pine (eeders ; as is also T. bldens. J^. 8014 
repreaents the workings of the last-named species bencatb the 
hazk of a four-yeBrs-old Gr tree. 

Tdmicus clia]c6grapbus Gyli. (B-dent&tus Otm.) has not -^'-LjJljn 
fattherto been recorded as a native of this country : it must, 
bowever, hare been long since introduced from the nortb, in the fir trees 
M conataDtly imported. Mr. Spence has recently conununicated specimena 





to the EDtomological Sodety of LoDdon, discovered 

in a liying state, at the end of the month of March, 

beneath the bark of a foreign fir tree, which was h&ng 

prepared at Southampton for a mast; several of the 

msects being at the time jtxst emerging from the 

pup», and others stiil larvse. The perfect insect is 

Bmall (about l line long), pitcby black, with cas- 

taneous elytniy retusdy truncate behind, with three 

teeth on each side. The galleries made by the fe- 

male are horizontal, like those of the genus Hyl^sinus 

(not vertical, like those made by the 8c6iyti), though 

very often more or less curved or obhque. (See 

^.2015.; in which a represents the insect of the 

natural size.) 

Dr. Heer has described another species belon^- 

ing to the same genus, under the name of Bdstn- 

chus c^mbrse, which is found beneath the bark of Plnus Cembra, In the 

month of July, 1835, this spedes, in all its states, was discovered in the 

above-mentioned situation, at an elevation of 5700 ft. above the level of tbe 
sea, **in valle Beversiana." (Oberv. EntomoL, p. 28.) 

i^ps femiginea is another coleopterous insect, of small nze and depressed 
body, which is found beneath the bark of the fir. 

ne extemal Feeden consist, for the most part, of the caterpillars of various 
species of lepidopterous insects, together with those of a few of the saw-flies. 
Amongst the S^inffdiB is to be noticed the jS^hinx pin&stri of Linnseus, a 
fine, but in this country very rare, spedes, the caterpillar of which feeds 
upon ^^bies exc^lsa, and on Pinus syiv^tris, P, ;9tr6bus, &c. This cater- 
pillar is smooth, and at first entirely yellow ; but it finally becomes of a 
fine green, with a brown dorsal line. The upper side of the body is terminated 
by a curved, black, and homy tail. The perfect insect is of an ashy colour; 
the fore wings being marked with three short, longitudinal, black lines. It is 
nearly 3} in. in expansion of the wings. Bouch^ (Garten Im,, p. 63.^ states 
that it is somedmes very destructive, when it abounds to a considerabie 
extent, occasionally entirely stripping the Weymouth pine of its leaves. 

Amongst the Linnsean ^dmbyces, Eiktricha ph)i is oneaa, on the Continent, 
a perfect land scourge, entirely stripping many of the pines, especiall^ the 
Weymouth, of their leaves. This large moth is of a greyish colour, with an 
irregular reddish bar across the fore wings, and a small white discoidaL spot. 
The caterpillar is hairy, and varied with white, brown, and grey ; with the 
anterior s^ments omamented with two blue transverse stripes, and some red 
spots on the sides. The moth and caterpillar are beautifi]Ily figured b^ Curtb 
(Brit, EfU,y pl. 7.), who observes, in his new edition, that the havs with 
which the latter are clothed cause excessive irritation when handled. The 
caterpillars were found at the end of June ; and tbe moths appeared at the end 
of the following month. Rossmassler gives old trees of Pinus sylv&tris as the 
habitat of this species. The irritating powers of this insect are, however, 
far surpassed by the cdebrated pityocampa of the andents, which is regarded 
as the caterpiiiar of the j96mbyx Pityoc&mpa Fabr, (genus Cnethodimpa 
Stepkent), which resides upon the fir, the hairs of which are said to occasion 
a very intense d^ee of pain, heat, fever, itching, and restlessness. By the 
Cornelian law, " De SicariiB," the punishment of death was inflicted upon 
those who should, with malice prepense, administer either the pityocamjpa or 
the buprestis : — *' Qui buprestem vel pityocampem, tanti fadnoris conscu, aut 
mortifeii quid veneni ad necem accelerandam oederit, judicio capitali et pcena 
legis Comelise afficiator." This moth belongs to the same modera genus as 
the processionary moth, before described. (See p. 1820.) The moth is of a 
greyish colour, with three darker transverse bars ; and the caterpUlars are 
dark or dusky grey, with a white lateral line. They are processionary in 
their movements, but not so regularly so as the Cnethodimpa processidnea. 

CHAP. CXIII. CONi'f£B£. ABIE'TiVX. 2145 

Tbe caterpillan of PsilAra moDicha (or tfae black archei moth) occuioa- 
mllr feed upon the old treea of Piaua ■ylT^HtriB, sccordii^ to Rossniassler. 

In the &jnil/ Lithoaiide, Lithdais aur&>la fbeds upoa the j4Mnes exc£lsa 
and OD Piaua sylr£atria ; P. complina, occaaionallv upon the latter ; P. de> 
pr£asa, upon tbe same ; and P. quUra, occBsioaail; on the £r. 

Amongst the ^octi^idee, the most destTuctive species is the AchitGaspr^ 
Fa&r, (^iictua pinip£rda Sob.), a spedes of consideniide raritj b En^and, 

which is recorded by the Continental writers ai occasionally doins verj 
inju^ in the pine forests. It ie figured, both in the wiuged and larva 
bvBIr. Curtis (Bril. EjU.,p\. 117.); who remarks tfaat the caterpillars. 

tnoae of 5ph{n.( pin&stri, fiikpelu« piniibrius, &c., are striped in a waj to 
resemble ihe leaves upon which they feed: they are full grown about thc 
end of June, when they descend into the earth, and become chrysalides ; and 
the fbllowing March the lly appears. At this tinie multitudes, no doubt, are 
destroyed by the inclemency of the season, thereby preTenting the serious 
coDsequences that occur when such a check is withheld bj the great Author 
of nature, who has protected them with a clothing that bas b greater resem- 
hlance to hait thao scaleei,and, no doubt, is better adapted to their wanta, 
lince we Snd the some in many othn moths which make their Bppeainnce at 
an ^iriy period of the year." Rossmtissler gives the old trees ot Plnus syU 
T^atiis as the faabitat of this species. A^6ctuB (Dypter^^ Steph.) pinAstri 
IJm. feeds on Beveral species of iiiiroex. In thc lamily Geom^tridte, the 
Oe6nietia (Bilpaluf Leacli) piniBria Lmn. is b greBtpest ; and it is fortunate 
that it u of coDsiderable rarity in this country. Ine following report, ad< 
dresied by the inspector of foresta at Strasburg to the bureau of the admi- 
nutration of wooob and forests at Parig, and published iu Silbermann'^. 
Remte Entomologiaue, will show the extent of damage whicb thia insect la 
c^table of commitDng : — " At tbe end of 1828, a malady occurred aroongst the 
Gr tree« in the Forest of Hagenau, one of Tery considerable eitent, near 
Stiasburg, extending over 7000 hectares, The firs, coTerins a Bpace of about 
40 hectares, were at first obseiTed to have thdr leaves oi a yellow colour, 
and to be dried in their appearance. The cause of this malady waa lougfat 
fbr in Tain ; but, durjng the following year, it was so much increased, that 
more minute researches were made; and it was at length discovered tiiet it 
was owing to the attacks of the hirva of tfae moth, whicfa commenced ita 
iBTages at the beginning of the month of May, passing from tree to tree, 
untirthe month of October, when it descends bto the ground to underg» 
ita trsniformations. The trees atCacked in 1S32 are now entirely destroyM, 
without faope of fiiture vt^etalion,'' Stephens ffves A^biea ,., ^. 

exc^lsa Boa Pinae sylv^tris bs its habitats. (lUutlr, Brit. 
£mI., iii.p.I47.) Bouch^stateathatthe mostadvantageoua ^S^-'- > 
■neaiu of preventing ita attacks is, to hunt for and destroy Ip^ \\ 
AecluTSslideaintbe winter, under the mossat therootsof f^^V^ 
dw attacked treea. The catcrpillara of Ellopia fasn&ria , 
(Getfinetni Imn.) and Th^a varikbt bIeo feed upon dif- \ 
iatM, ipeciea of i^nus ; the latter preferring Pfcea Tulgkris 
«nd jf bus esc^lsa. De Qea {Mijmtet, tom. ii. t. 9. f. 
lO— 12. has figured the transfonnationB of several small 
iDotha, the caterpillars of which feed witfain tfae cone of the 
Gr. PbalR'na rfnea pini Retz.,ibid., fig. 14. Q^. 8016. 
ia a cone enclofflng two caterpillars; a a r^resentin^ 
tbe excrement ejecUd from the cone) ; i^alc^na ttrohi- 
Idnim plni miijor Reix., ibid., fig. 15.; PfaalEe^ strotn* 
l^rom pini minor Retz., tom. i. pl. SS. fig. 37. ; PbalK^na 
gemmirum pint Rett. There are severBl other small 
moths vrhich are also deetructive to the young cones and 
budj of tbe fir; nainely : Tdrtrix fiuoliaDa (^Raiteburg and RoumSttler) 
and T, Turion^a (genus Orthotie'nia Stephent). Hr. Curris bred tbe 
latter fix>m cateipillan which feed on the shoots of the Scotch pine, Ortho- 
6e 2 



PABT 111, 

unongst fir treet. Eud6re>ratDea 

Hmn. frequentB the trunka of fin 

andpines. DeOeerbaafiguredthe 

natmvl historj of Orthot«'iiM re- 

lin^Ua Iakk. Tbe caterpiUBrs of 

ibii beautirul little nMth re«ide in 

reetDouB gaUt, wbich the; noduce 

tX the tips of the youns sboots of 

the fir. Vig. 8017. cihilnts oue of 

these galts ; in whicb a rqpireeenu 

tbe withered bud at its eztr»' 

mity; i, one of these ealU opened 

■howing Ihe intemar cavit; ^ 

cloeing tbe caterpiller; and e, thc 

moth. The paeudo-caterpilliuv oi 

•ereml of the species of ttie genus G 

Lopfa^ruB (belongins to tbe fkmily of the «aw-flies, T^thredinidB) aUo feed 

upoD tbe leavea of Uie pioe. De Geer has dren fiill details of tbeir histmj. 

(Mhiuiret, tom. ii. pl. 36.) Hie males of this interesdw genas are dts- 

tmguisbed by having the anCennn Tery deeply ^^ectinated. L. plni, according 

to RoBamassler, is ottscheil to old trees of iinus Bylv&tris. The mn^nlir 

byineiiopterouB genus Xyela of Dalman, WM uamed Pinicola by Btebuon, 

io consetjuence of the species being found eiclunvely upon tbe pine. 

■-'■•^— ■ *o tbe precedin^ tbere are numerous omer small insectt, be- 

In addition ti 

lonrang to differeot onlers, whicb iniubit trees uf the genua i^nus ; namdy, 
A^^iu» fdni umI pin^ ErioBdma abletis, Cdccus abtetu, Psyila abietis and 

S'[ii, aiM Hantinea (Pach^erus) Bbietis, beloi^ng to the Linneau order 
emlptera; aHnall midffe (Ceddomyiapini), which produees smaUgalla oo 
tbe young stetns m whi^ its larva rendes {De Geer, Mim.^ tom vi. t. 36.^ : 
and belongiitt to the Cole6pten are, Crvptoc6pbaliu plni, Brachyonvx indi- 
gena, BrachTdereB incftnus, and MJgdalis violAceus (all of wfaose bistoria 
SK detailed by Batzebui^) ; as well aa Cfphon pbii and Idalthlnus Pinicola. 
Paraalet md Ejnpkj/tei. Among the plants wbich life on the [nne and fir 
tribe, may be included the mistletoe in Europe, and the Arceuth6bium Hook. 
(nscum Ox^cedri Dcc.) \a Kortb America: the fbrmer, we believe, ha« 
been chiefly found on P. sylv^tris and on the silver fir, and the latteron P. 
BanltMau and P. ponderoso. For tbe foUowing enumeratioB of Fiingi that 
live OQ tbe l)ark, or on the decaTing wood, of the pine snd fir tribe, we are 
indebted to tbe Bev. M. J. Berkeley : — 

Fiingi. The natural order Conifera is verj- lich in FOngi, and produces 
■naoy tbat are pecuUar to it, thoush it has hkewise a few spedes wluch ar« 
found on trees of other orders. We shall first notice those wbich grow upon 
■pedes belonging to the genera/^uus, ^'bies, anil Z, Jrii, treatingof those wliich 
belong lo other ConiferiE under cheir respecttve genera. It is probable tliBt 
mHny pines aud firs have species peculiar lo them ; but, though thia is well 
knowQ with regard to a fcw Fungi, authors have, in genmd, so looselT iodi- 
cated tfae kinds whicfa produce panicular Fun^ ; Bnd tfae termB pinfcola md 
aluftina are so oflen apphed inaccurately, tl^ it is not alwsys poavble to 
Epeak dcddedly on the Bubject. 

Upon tfae wood of different flrs and a 
V pinea, the following are amon^ the more 
' interesting ormostseneral species obBerred 
this couDtry : — .^iHcus riltilans Sdusff., 
n. XenuDpeltnus Sow., t. 31., and 
. SOIB., is remHrkable for its rich a 
n red downy pileus, tinged occBsionally 
with oliTe brown, and itE ^ellow floccoso- 
serrated gills. Tbis q>ecieB oecaHionally '"1" 

1 treea of other nalural ordera. A. Pct BeHt. Eng. FL, v. p. 56., 

CHAl*. CXIII. COHfl^FERm. ABIE^TllfJB. 2147 

with a downj sky-blue pileus; A, campan^lla 
BaUdi^ syn. A, caulicinalis Sow.^ t. 163., and our 
JSg. 2019.; A. lepldeus Fr,, syn. A. squamosus 
ScheBJf.y t. 29., and our^g. 2020. Monstrous fbnns 
of this fungus occur m dark situations, with or 

without a pileus, exactly analogous to certain "'QOfC ^S^ ^^ 
states of Polyporus squamdsus. Such are figured 
bv Schaeffer at t. 248. and 249., and by Sowerby at t. 382., under tbe name of 
if . tubflef^rmis. A. pdrrigens Pert. S^., p. 480., found by Herr Klotzsch near 
Inverary; A, fl&vidus Sducf,yt, 35., and our^^.2021. Merulius pulverul^ntus 
i^. EL, ▼. i p. 60., syn. Auricul^na pulverulenta Sow, ; one of the 
species known under the name of dry rot; first found at Ash Hill, 
in Norfolk, on fir beams in a wall. Dsedklea sepiaria Wulf.y syn. 
iUricuB 6oletif6rmis Sow,, t. 418.; found upon unsquared dcsds in 
a Thames dock. Dsedklea abi^tina Fr, Syst, Mycy i. p. 334., ilg4- 
ricus abi^tinus BtiU,, t. 442. ; a nearly allied species, found in a 
aimilar locality at Glasgow. Possibly both these haye been imported 
ioto our dockvards. Pol^ponis ctt^sius Fr, Sytt, Myc, v. i. p. 360., 
syn, JBoletus albidus Sow,, t. 226. ; remarkable for turnin^ blue when ^^ 
bruised ; a property which exists in an eminent degree m several jffoleti, and 
appears to arise firom a chemicai change taking place in the juice of the plant 
when exposed to air. Pol. irregulkris Klotzich ; s]p. j9oI. u-regulliiris Sow,, t, 
423., Pol. am6rphus Fr, Syst,, i. p. 364., PoL abi^tinus Pers. Syn,j p. 541., 
Grev, Sc. Cr, Fl.^ t. 226. ; a very beautiful species, el^antly tinged with 
▼iolet. Pol. /nnlcola Fr, Syst, Myc, y, i, p. 372. ; found on pine trunks in 
Scotland, by Mr. Amott. r^ol. und^tus Pers, Myc, Eur.^ y. ii. p. 90. t. 16 • 
f. 3; PoL incamitus Fr, SysU Myc, v. L p. 379.; PoL armeiuacus Berk, 
Eng, jFT., V. V. p. 147., a beautiful buff and wnite species, found 
«mongst the treasures of the coUection of Capt. Carmichael. 
rrpex p6ndulu8 Fr, El.y v. i. p. 143. ; syn. ^ydnura p6ndulum 
Aw, et Sckw., t. 6. f. 7. ; Thel^phora sanguinoienta Alb, et 
Sckw,, p. 274., Grev., t, 225., and our Jig. 2022.; Thel. am6rpha 
Fr. ELy v. L p. 183. Thd. lact^cens Berk. En^, FL, p. 167., s^m 
and Brit. Fwtgif No. 21.; remarkaUe for distilling drops of milk when 
wounded, which, in taste and smeU, resembles that of Jg. quietus. This 
«pecies occurs also on the elm. Thel. gigant^ Pers. Myc, Eur., v. i. p. 150.; 
Thel. Ifvida Fr, SysL Myc, v. i. p. 447. ^ Thd. puteaua Schum,, Fr» SysL 
Mycy V. L p. 448. ; a peculiarly hygrometric fungus, which occurs in houses. 
When placed, afler bemg gummed on paper and preserved in the herbarium 
ibr sevend weeks, in the cupboard where the ningus was first found, «nd 
where it had been entirel^ destroyed by a sokition of corrosive sublimate ; 
^ou^ the woodwork, which, in consequence, in an unusuallv damp 
season, had before been constantly dripping, was quite dry; it, 
in 12 hours, recovered its original fLeAiy appearance, and was studded 
with drops of cofiee-cc^oured moisture. (^Berk, in Mas. of Bot, 
and Zooi,, v. L p. 44.) Cal6cera viscdsa J^, Syst. Myc, v. i. 
p. 486.; syn. Clavaria viscosa Pers. Comm., t. 1. f. 1. Peziza caly- 
cina Schum., syn. F. pulch611a Grev, Fl, Ed,, p. 421. ; extremely com- 
mon on fallen branches of the larch. Pee. buccina Pers. Syn,yp^ 
659, ; Pez. sanguinea Pers, Syn., p. 657. ; Pez, xanthostlgma Fr. 
Obs., L p. 166.; Pee. flexeUa Fr, Syst, Myc, v. ii. p. 152.; Ditiola 
radicata Ft - SysL Myc, v. ii. p. 170., and our fi^, 2023. Helotium SQSS 
fliadicatum AVb, et Sehw,, t. 8. f. 6. ; a yery beautifid, but destructive, fungus, 
growinc on boards of /^nus sylv^tris. The mucedinous roots insinuate 
tbemsehres between the fibres of the wood, and, creeping far and wide, sepa- 
rate, and at length render the substance soft and rotten, by exhausting its 
natritive particles. Besides which, from the erumpent mode of growth of this 
lungus, tne wood is rendered pervious to the rain, and, in a few years, 
becoraea brittle and perishes. The roots are perennial, and put forth iteA^ 

6x 3 



indiTidiula tntty jeai, which are in per&cdon aSxr the Bpring 
rui». Sdctia pamlela Fr. Sytt. Myc^ v. iL p. 197. A curioiu 
undescribed spedee (Stlctia nlves) ii faund m great abunduice 
near Paris, in tbeBoia de Boul(»Qe,oti ihelallenleaTes of i%iuE 
Duultiniua, and ia moit probabl^ to be found iu some of the 
^^ LoQdon nurseriet. Nsmatilia 

Grev., t. 159., and our^.202*.; 
Agjrium rufum Fr. Sytt. JHtfC., v. 
■. ii. p. 23S. ; Niduliria crucibuluin 
/ Fr.Syrf. JMyc.,v.ii.p.899,Gm>., 
t. 34., snd our ^. S085. Sphs^ria geladndn 
Tode Frnig. Mect., n. p. 4S. f. 123, 184. a verv rare species. Sp. obletii 
Fr. S^tl. Myc, V. ii. p. 398.; 8p. EtrigdBa Alb. et S-Aie., t. 5. f. 7.; 8p. 
■ordiuiB JFV. Syil. Myc., v. ii, p. 45B. ; ^pearing like a black Ecurfy atain on 
moist pine wood. Sp. pillfera Fr. Syit. Myc, v. ii. p. 478. ; remarkable for 

i. p. 533., ff«r., 


» hair-like orifice. Ld^wium mytiUnum Fr. Sytt. Myc, • 
1. 177. f. l.,andour^.208e.i 
and Ldphium eUtum Grev., t. 
177. f. 8.,andour &.8027,; 
are moat curious and elegant 
9KG Fdop, resembling minute Vt- 

valve sheils, pUced with their frontal mHrcin upwardE. 

Phacidium Piid Schmidt, Myc Hefl., ii. t. 8, f. 1 1 . ; on tbe 

baii of Plnus Bylv^atris. Beticuliria iltra AH. et Schw., t. 3. f. 3. ; Lycoptr- 
don fuIigindEum Sow., t. 857. ; Bet olivicea Fr. SytU Myc, v, 
iii, p, 89.; remarkable for its beautiful olire^reen sporidia. 
PenchK^na obi^na Fr. Syil. Myc, v. iii. p. 191.; ^hEero- 
cirpos s^sailia &ur., f. £58. ; and Padmikvbe femiglnea Bci*. 
Etig. Ft., V. V. p. 334., ajD. MOcor ferrugfneus Sow., t. 378. f. 
Sevenl apeciea occur on the fallen eones ; 
^ amongat which are : A^neu» teoac^llus 
Per: Ic. Pid., t. 1. (. 3, 4., ayn. Ag. spi- 
__ nipes Soa., t, 806., and our ji^. 2088, ; 

Ag. contgenui Peri, Syn., p. 388. Ag. sangmnol^ntus i 
m6. el Sdia., p. 196. ; a amall but elesant ^ecies, ' 
disdllinf a clarec-coloured fluid wben broken, wnich often occura on conea 
of the Scotch pine, though found also on tbe twiga of verioua trees. Ag. 
atrotnllDua Peri. Syn., p. 393., and our fig. 8029., 6jn. A coccfneua Sote., 
1. 197.; which occura, also, occBsionally on twiga, aa in veo 

our figure. HfAnom auriacaliuum L., Som., t. 267., 
Grev., t. 196., and our f^. 2030. ; ou cones of Pln\a 
aylv^atria. Peziza piniti Battch. Cont., i. f. 140.; P. coni- 
gena Pert. Am., p. 634., Grcn. FL Ed.,p. 425. ; 8ph«'ria 
strobillna HolL et Schm., Fr. Syil. Myc, v, ii. p. 495. ; 
Hyst^um conigenum Moag, el Neit., No. 475.; on 

^H^P^^^^^^^^HHH^fe )>erich»'na Btrobilina Fr. Syit. 
^^Si^ii^ -~Jj^'-^ Myc, V. iii. p, 190., Gret., t. S75. ; 

between the scoles of old cones 
of the apmcefir, 
— -- .-.e leaves are prodiiced ; 

Pezlza subdlis Fr, Sytt. Mye., v. ii, p. 157.; Sph«Via Piniitri Dec Fl. Ft-., 
v.Ti,p. 133.; Hyst^rium Pin&stri Schrad., Pert. !h/n., p, 88., Gtw, t. 60. 





£e(diiini Pitd Pert. 9^., p. 213., Grev., t. 7., aod our Jig- ^31. ; od Hnua 
tjWiEtna, occuning sometinieB oa tnigs, and bdng theii much larger. An allied 
niecjes, M. abietinum, is found, ia (^nnany, on the spruee fir j ond two on 
Anus Picea, M. cotumnkre and M. « Ifitinum. AU ire figured by Albertini and 
Schweinitz, in their Gflb plate. The latter inieati trees to auch an extent, that 
therarekDownb; thename of heienbaume. 

.Tv^~ — , "Many Fimm grow beneath the 
' "^^JsliaJe of ConfferB; as ^lgfiricus hy- 
~" put^qua ^.,B;a. il.limaclnuB iStni'., 
I. 8., andourj^.8038.i A. multi- 
ruriiiia Scht^^ syn. A. t^rreus Sow., 
~S., aud our Jig. 9033. ; A. delici- 
. _j £.., 5ou>., t. 802., and oax fg. 
2ua*.( therdtzkers of the Genuans, *"'' 

i^ aa itB name impliea, a most delicioua aganc, but not 
vith impnnity. It abounda in mucilaginouB matter, and 
li M,t(im fore, been recommended for pulmonarj afiectioni by M. Duiresnoy. 
"■ A. rilfiis Scop. ; A. b^Uus Pm. ; A. maculkus Alb. et Schw., 

m Bvn. J. comoBus Soai., t. 246., andour - - — 

W fig. 8036. ; A. TulgiriB Pert. ; and A. 
ImidniuB Fr., Caiithar£llus HurButiacuB 
Wu^. ; a poiBonous apecies, «hich 
■OM must be carefuUy diadnguished Irom 

tbe edible one, C. dbaHue Fr., oaTfig. 20S7. Aol^uB | 
panulitui L., syn. B. lactffluus WiiJi., Sow., t. 420. 

— an esculeDt Bpecies, according to Persoon. B. borinus 
I £. ; tind B. vari<^tus Swarti. ^^dnum imbricitum L., 
GTev,,t, 71., Mid our Jig. 
2035. ; and H. comp&c-^ 
tum Pert. TheI6phora 
terristria Fr.; T. laci- 
niita Fr., lyn. HelT^lla 
caryophyllK^ Bok., t. 
173., and our ,/%. 2038. ; 
and T. bysBoldes Fr. 
ClavAria id>i£tiiia Pert. ; 
syn. Leiiia mftrula Grev., t. 81., and our 
Pert., Grev., t. 165., and our ^. 8040. 
^due^ria ngaricifSnnis Smii., t. 354., and _ _ 

:^a^^yecs granul&tUB JF^.; and S.aluticea Pert., ^ 
d»ata Sew., t. 159., nnd our ^. 2044. i are both among the 
most curions and rare of Bntiah Fuugi : and to these may 

Get^l6BBuni cucullitum Fr., 
iCa wiRg. gpatbulitria fllivida 
1 capitfkta Halmdi, syn. 
r J!g. 2042q parositic upon 

b«*dded the bteresting 8- !««<«!» ^- '*^^'<'P*^,?t^rf^?'"^^!',X 
so atraDgely «Itered by tiie parBdte as to asEume the forra of a ffelvaia 

"'•nSknches of Ihe larch, which are cul off for the purpone of thinmng 
pUntatiouB, are fr^ently covered with Jgincua mlnB Pert. ; and under the 
shade abounda Jol^us iaridnus Beri. c,i™^ ■„ ,i.= .,.,A« 

The Sludv oflhe Specie.. The mode which we have foUow^, '" Ae itudy 
of the ^i^na:, as in a\\ the olher orders and gener» treated Ol in 

I this work. 


has beeiit fint, to study the subject historicall^, that ia, to ascertun wfaat has 
been said of it in books ; and, next, to study tt practicidly, that is to compare 
the information and the platea given in books» with uying plants. After 
perusing aU the works we could procure on the subject, indudmg Lambert'8 
Gemu Pmui^ 2d edit., 2 vols, 8vo, and the third volume of that work (whidi, 
though only three or four copies have vet, August, 1837, been published, 
we have been very kindly favoured with the loan of by His Grace the Duke 
of Bedford), we took me first two volumes of Lambert's work, and that 
volume of Michaux*s North American Sylva which contains the ^bietinee of 
North America, in our hands, and visited Loddiges^s arboretum, the Horti- 
cultural Sodet^s Garden, Kew, 8yon House, Dropmore, Whitton, Pains 
Hill, Miil Hiil, White Knights, and the prindpal nurseries; and, from the study 
of the pknts in these places, in connexion with the descriptions and plates 
in the books we have mentioned, we have arrived at the ^ eneral conclusions 
which we shaU now shortiv lay bdbre the reader, as prelimmary to giving each 
genus, and its spedes and varieties, in detail. 

In every arrangement of spedes and varieties, it appears to us that there 
ought to be two objects in view. First, to throw ali the kinds into groups 
caj^le of bdng more or less distinctlv defined ; or, at all events, of bdng repre- 
sented by one species as a type; such, for example, as the group Sylvestres, 
of the section IBInfle, which consists of spedes aU more or less resembling the 
Scotch pine in foliage and in cones. The use of these groups is, to render 
the whole mass easily comprehended by any person who knows only a few of the 
spedes ; and, secondly, wnen separating these groups into spedes and varieties, 
to give as prominent a place to all varieties and subvariedes that are truly di»^ 
tinct, as if they were spedes. Besides the argument wbich we have advanced in 
fiivour of throwing the kinds into groups, there are the important ones men- 
tioned in Part IL of this woric ^p. 216.^ ; viz. those of assutinga collector of 
trees to make a judicious sdection, and of preventing a beginner in botanical 
studies firom puzzUng himself in finding out specific distinctions where none 
reall^ exist. The reason why we wish to keep every variety and subvariety 
as distinct as possible is, tbat, in the practice of arboriculture, whether for 
useful or omamental purposes, a variety is often of as much importance as a 
species, and sometimes, indeed, more so : for example, in P. sylv^tris, the 
Highland variety is known and acknowledged to produce timber of a superior 
quality to the common kind ; and, in point of ornament, for situadons where 
tne common kind of Scotch pine is too Leurge, the species may be repro- 
sented by P. (s.) p. Miifhut nana, whifih forms a beautiful iittle bush. 

In studying the i^bi^tinae from iiving. trees, the terminal buds, the number 
of leaves in a bundle or sheath, and thdr posidon on the brandi, the sbeatha 
being persistent or dedduous, and the form of the cones, and the character 
of thev scales, are the principal points by which, we think, one spedes or ^up 
of kinds can be disdnguished fi-om another. Thus, in Pinus, all the varieties of 
P. sylv^stris have short-pointed resinous buds, differing less in this respect 
than they do in their cones, or in the length of their foliage. P. Laricio 
(which we condder as mcluding a number of European and some Asiadc 
kinds, ffenerally ranked as spedes, such as P. tatirica, P. romkna, P. cal4- 
brica, jP. caramdnica, &c.^ is disdnguished by its iong, sharply pointed, con- 
cave-sided, resinous buos ; and P. Pin&ster and P. Pfnea, by their short, 
blunt, imbricated buds, which are never covered with resin. The buds of 
P. Tbe^da (which we consider to be the centre of a group of varieties ^^enerally 
treated as species, under the names of P. rlgida, P. vari&bilis, P. ser6tma, &c.) 
are very small and resinous, and they are more numerous on the shoots than in 
any other species, dther European or American. AU die kinds belonging to 
P. TVe^da have also the peculiar property of sending out numerous small abor- 
tive shoots from the dormant or advendtious buds in their trunks and krger 
branches, by which the trees may be known at a glance, even at a distance. 
All the cender kinds (such as P. iongifolia, and its allied sorts, P, Idoph^lla, 
P. canari^nsis, &c.) have small obscure buds ; and so on. The scales of 


Che cones of all the varieties of P. sylv^trb tenniiiate in surfaces having 
more or less the appearance of a depressed pyramid ; those of dl the varieties 
of P, Lari do have a smooth lip, more or less protruding, and terminating 
in a depressed point ; those of all the varieties of P. Pin^ter terminate in 
ft atrong woody pyramidal point; and those of all the varieties of P. Tle^da 
in a slender sharp prickle, tumed upwards or downwards. The cones of 
diflerent varieties ot what we consider as the same species vary much in 
aize; and, as these variously sized cones are genertdly reproduced from 
seed, the plants bearing them have been usual^ treated as cUstinct spe- 
cies. We do not, however, consider the fact of the seed of large-coned 
varieties producing phmts b^uring lar^ cones, any more a proof that die kind 
18 a species, than we do that of seedlings from the seeds ot a large apple pro- 
ducmjj trees bearing large apples, a proof that the particular kind otapple is 
a species distinctifrom apple trees bearing small apples. The cones of P.(s.) p. 
Mughtu are twice the size of those of P. (s.) p. pumflio ; but in other respects 
the plants are hardly distinguishable. Perhaps we shall be told that the com* 
parison between pine trees and apple trees is not a fair ground of aigument ) 
because the apple tree is in a state of culture, and far removed from its natural 
habits ; but to this we answer, that the same Gflfects as those produced by 
cttlture in the apple tree, are produced by a varietv of geographical and phy- 
flical drcumstances in the pine tree ; and of this the two above-named 
varieties of P. sylv^tris may be cited as a proof. 

The leaves of all the species of pines may be classed according to the num- 
ber in a sheath ; and this is a most convenient mode of determining the groups 
and even the spedes, in the case both of young plants, and of trees without 
Gonea. All the European spedes, with the exception of P. Cembra, have only 
2 leaves in a sheath, and most of the Asiadc, Mexican, and Califomian kinds 
faave 3y 4, or 5 leaves ; while those of the United States and Canada have, for 
the most part, 3. The leaves vary in length in difierent species ; but much less 
so in the varieties of the same species than might be imagined. Thus, in aU 
the variedes of P. Larido the leaves are nearly double the length of those of 
P. svlv^tris. 

Pinus. In studying this genus, and arranging the kinds according to their 
buds, cones, and leaves, we consider P. sylv^tris, P. Larldo, P. Pin&ster, 
P. PKnea, P. halep^nsis, and P. Cembra^ as the prindple European species, and 
the other European kinds as only varieties of them. P. austrMis, P. T^^da» 
P. BanksM^, P. hiops, P. p6ngens, and P. iSftrdbus, we consider as the prin- 
dpal spedes of North Amenca. P. Sabintana, P. ponderdsa, and P. insignis 
are the prindpal spedes of Califoraia. P. Lambertiami and P. mondcola 
also from Califoraia, and P. excelsa firom Nepai, appear to be onlv variedes 
of P. 5tr6bus. The most remarkable spedes from Nepal is P. GerardMrfuiy 
which has straight stiff leaves like those of P. Plnea, but with caducous 

J^bies is a genus of which there are so few species, that it is attended with 
no great difficulty. A, rikbra, A. nigra, and A, 4Iba are probably only differ- 
ent forms of one and the same spedes. A, Smithtana may possibly be a variety 
of A, exc^Isa, and A. dumosa of A, canad^nsis. A, Do6gIasi and A, Menzids» 
appear specifically disdnct, but there are only yery small plants of the latter 
in this country. One of the most remarkable spedes of ii^bies, from Cepha- 
lonia, wiuch has lanceolate and sharp-pointed leaves, iike those of an arau* 
caria, has just (1837) been introduced. 

Pf cea b a very easy genus ; P. balsamea, Fr^ert, and Pichta are probably only 
variedes of one spedes ; and, though P. Webbcana has ptirple cones, we doubt 
whether it can be considered more distinct from P. pectinkta than Tllia 
crandifdlia is from T, parvifolia. The colour of the cones in the ^bi^dnse 
haa no claim to be considered a specific distinction ; because in ali exten- 
sive woods of one species, such as of P. sylv^stris and JSarix europse^a in 
Scodand, they will be found to vary considerably. 

JMx, It appears very doubtful to us, whether there are more than one 



spedeB of this genus ; but the yarietieB we admit to be distinct ; and thete might 
be increBaed in numbery if the colour of tbe flowera and of the cones were 
taken into consideration. 

To obserre the different forros assumed by the aame species, they shouid 
be studied in all their native habitats ; and, to marlL how all these different 
forms retum to diat of the bpecies which may be considered the cential or 
normal form, it is necessarv to stud^ them under cultivation in the same soil, 
situation, and climate. Miuiy species of ilbi^nse that are very distinct in 
the forests of America, come very near to each other in the pinetums of 
Britain ; and species which appear very distinct in the pure air and elevated 
situation of Dropmore, are hardly reoognisable as dirorent in the smoky 
atmosphere of the Hackney arboretum. It is very remarlsabley that» in this 
faut situation, the only species which thrive are P. Larido and its varieties, 
and P. Pin4ster and P. Pfnea. These, therefore» may be considered the 
bestpines for pUmting in dties. 

Wnatever we may think on the subject of spedes, we have treated all 
the kinds in such a manner, and given so many synonymes, that those who 
difler from us in opinion will find no difficulty in recognising in our pa^es the 
npedes of other authors. The great objects that we have had in view, in 
tnis work, in redudng the number of spedes, iiave been to simplify and to 
generalise, in order to render the subject of technical distinctions less per- 
plexing to ffeneral readers, and to young students in arboriculture. 

As the diied spedmens of the ^n^ietinfle, from the laige size of the oones, 
cannot, in generaf, be kept in paper, like the spedmens of broad4eaved trees, 
we may mention, for the benent of gardeners, that we have found slight paste- 
board boxes, like those in which hats are kepty which cost, in London, about 
6d, each, a very convenient recq)tacle for enciosing thera. Each box will 
contain, at an average, half a dozen species. The specimens, as soon as 
possible after being gathered, should be dipped in boiiing water, in conse- 
quence of which they will retain thdr leaves ; and as the cones generally open 
by dryinff, when it is wished to see their correct shape, they ought to be put 
into cold water for a quarter of an hour, till the scales close up, and the cone 
resumes its original form. 

Genus I. 


PrNUS Ir. The PiNB. Lm, Sysi. MonQe\:ia Monad^lphia. 

JdemMeaHon. lin. Gqx, 409. : Jum.,414; FL Br., lOSl.; TaanL, tSSS, 3S&j GarCn., t. 81. ; 
N. Du Ham., & y. SSgT ; LunfaL Pin., fld ed., L t 1. 

Sjfnonffmet. Le pin, jy. ; Flchtc, Pynbaum, or Kiefer, €rer. ; Pjmboom, DnieM ; Fino, Atf. aod 
Span. ; Plnu* Anffa-Sa»m ; Pinnua, Wekk ; Peigne, Erse. 

Deritatkm. The word Plnus oomes flram tbe Greek jrfnot, uted by Theopbrastui to detignate the 
plne tree. Pku>i hu for its root nlom which ■ignioes fat ; beceuie the tree* of tfali gcnut flimiBh 
plteh aod tar. Others derive tne word Flnus flrom ph^, otpifn, a mountain or rock, CelUci In 
anu^cm to tbe habitat of the tree ; the Biitisb towns ren-rTn, Pen-rith, and Pen-maen ; and tfae 
Spanith onei, Penna.ilor, Penna-fiel, ftc, being lo call from being built on hilU, or rocks. 

Deicripiion, Eveip*een trees, generallv of large size, natives of Europe, 
Asia, and America, and in an eminent degree both useful and omamental. 
They flower, in Britain, in IM^y and June, and generally ripen their cones in 
the autumn of the following year. The species may be arranged either 
according to their cones, or their leaves ; and we have adopted the latter 
feature as the foundation of our sections, because it is appli(»ble to trees in 
every stage of their growth ; and because many of the species in London 
gardens have not yet bome cones. 

Sect i. Birue. — Leaves generaUy 2 in a Sheath. 

§ i, Sylvistres. 
Sect, Char. Leaves short, more or less glaucous ; cones short, generaily small. 


; P, I^ttMrll 

A. Cona havmg Ihe Seale$ iBiihoul Pncilet. 
± 1. P. BTLTB'sTRia h, The wood, or Scolch, Pine, tyr ScoUA Fir. 

JAnMniM»!. Un. Sp. FL, IMB.i WiUiLt.«M.j Otr. Enuc., 135« ; Hodk. ScoC., ?f5. ; Dum. BoL 
Co£,S.p.4fifl.l WoodT. M«!, Bot., STO. t.lOT.1 Bin[lh F1. Br., 1. 1031. : Kudl, Angl., 4!3. I 
Wtb. Att., cd.3.AI3.i PillRoH., 1. p,l.&i V111. Dioph., 3. p. 804 i Hlli. IIIUiC., L »i. ; Du 
IM Uaibk., sd. Patt., «. p. 1& i Uunt, Erel. S>1., I. p.»*.; Eng, FL, *,p.1». ; WUld. B4imi., 
p,SGS.i HinH Dcnd., p. 171.1 Jaunlii St. HilaJce, t. 5& ; Bich. lur 1c* CaDit,p.5G.j HHh An. 
ML, ^ & i Smllh ln 11«1 Cjct., Nol I. ; Hink. Br.,p. 4d6. i M. Du Hun., S. fJisO. ; Luib. Pln.. 
«Lft>rLtI.,UHlal.STa,l. LL: Mleht N. Anwr, Syl, 4 p. IKj Mm*.. K Hlbem., p. !SB. ; 
UBdL SriKn., p. ML i Foochel Bot Hi^liiufe,!. p.66G. i Liwi Min., n.918. 

%iiMy«L >. niUli blnli, «I!., HatL Acfir^ Na iee& ; P. rkbn Mi/j^ ^i l'"' 

fV.; «HDd» FEbr^g«ulneFie£tt,'Klcrcr,7)iune,>iii^&SoLh(T'piiiiB, wlil^ u. _ 

Bmi:-*Att O^ M.,aer.iVjatiaaia,Diitc\; Fliio ■jlTntJco, IMj; ; Flno •;lTen», ^il i f>tTC, 

BBn.tMSmid.xsimom,Ptt, Akl.. Htd Aui. 
SuTviAn WoodT. Hid. l([<. tSOT.i PilL Riih., 1.1.£I.| MIH. muiL, t.BS.i HunL EtcI. 
^^L,p.l74i BUdi.,t isai Bi(, BDL,i6. tUeo.; imb. Fln., Sded., 1. 1 L; M. Du Hun,,5. 

t. SE. ; Ucbi. H. Amcr. Sfl., 3. 1 13& ; Hin» AbMM., t. IS3. 
^>ee. Char., ^c. Leaves rigid, in pairs. Young cones stBliied, 
recurved. Crest of the antberB Tery Bmall. (SmUh.) £uds 
{fig- 2043.) OTate.blunt-pointed.from ^ in. lo t in. long.aud } in " 
wide in the broadett part ; wfiite, with a reddish tip, the woitf 
producedbTresinoui eiudjition. The centrsl bud generallywith 
SorSsDiBlIeranesrouiidit. Leaves (y^.8044>.i.) from l^in ' 
2}in. lang, somewhBt WBTedand twisted, glightly concaTe on 
upper, and codtcs on the under stir&ce ; lignt bluisb eti 
finelj ■emilated on the edgea; the sbeatb lacerated and sbahtlj ^ 
riuged. Cones (^.2044.a)fromSin.to3in. loDg,and&om , 
1 in. to IJin. broad. Scales {fig. 8044. d) from I in. to IJin. «« 
loi^ termioating in an irregular four-aided projecting point, ollen re- 
cnrred. Seeds, wiih the wing (e), bata 1 in, to )} io. long ; without tbe 

wiDg. from .fjm. lo ffu,. 
long ; dark-coloured. Colj- 
ledons (j%. 8045.) 5 to7.— 
A tall, atraight, hardy, long- 
liTed tree, from 60 ft. to 
1000. hidi; a native of most 
parta of £urope,flowering in 
May andJune, and ripeaing 
its cones about 16 moaths 
afterwards; the most Talu. 
able, fbr iti timber, of ell the 
European species of /^nus. 
Varieiia. Like all treea wbich 
have an extennTe geographi- 
cal range, and grow on almoat 
CTcrj Kind oT soil, and at 
grest dcTattona as well aa in 
plains, the varieties and Tari- 
adoni of the Scotcb pine 
are exceedinglj numerous ; 
both as Tespects the exterior 
MtpeacBDCe of the tree, and 
tne quaHt]' of its timber «nd 
resinoDS producta. On poor 
■oils, at great elerations, it 
becomes a diminutive shrub : and 
timber tree, the wood 


1 low aituation», where it i» a loflj 

light sandj soi!s, is white, almost 

without rcMn, and of little duration; wiiile on other soils, of a i»ldeTand 

, it ia red, heavy, and of ^reat durBbility. It 

nie Boil will produce both wbite-wooded, and red- 




woodedtreei; andthat seeds from red«wooded 

trees wilU at least in maoy instances, produce 

others the wood of which is red. The first re- 

corded notice which we have of varieties or varia- 

tions in the quality of the timber of the Scotch 

pine is in the Treatite on Forest Treet, published 

by the£arlofHaddingtoninl760. HisXordship 

says : ** Though I have faeard it asserted that there 

18 but one kind of Scots fir, and what diffearence 

is seen in the wood when wrought is only owing to 

the age of the tree, and the soil where it grew, || | 9045 

yet I am convinced it is otherwise ; for this reason : 

when I cut firs that were too near the house, 

there were people alive here who remembered when 

my father bought the seed. It was all sown to- 

gether in the seed bed, removed to a nursery, and 

afterwards planted out the same day. These 

trees I cut down, and saw some of them verv 

white and spongy, others of them red and hard, 

though stanoing within a few yards of one another. 

This makes me gather my cones firom the trees 

that have the reddest wood, as I have said 

before.*' iTreatuej Src) Boutcher, in 1775, saj^s 

that it has been an old dispute, which stdl 

subsists, whether there are more sorts than one of the Scotch pine or fir. 

It is commonly objected, he adds, that the diiference which we see in the 

wood is owinff to the age of the tree, or the quality of the soil in which it 

ffrows ; but tiiat this opinion is founded on insufficient observation, for 

he has seen many pine trees cut down of equal age, in the same spot, 

where some were wnite and spongy, and others red and hard. *' Tbe dif- 

ference of colour may easily be distinguished by any one who walks 

through a newly pruned plantation even of young trees." (Treatue^ ^c, 

p. 137.) The important fact, that both red and white wood may be pro- 

duced by the same soil, is confirmed by two specimens of wood in Law- 

8on*s Museum, Edinburah. They were presented by James Farquharson, 

£sq., of Invercauld, in dvemess^hire, tne proprietor of some of the fincst 

native forests of Scotch pine in Scotkuid. One of tbe specimens was of 

very fine-grained red wood, cut fi-om a tree 200 years old, and grown on a 

^ravelly soil with a mixture of clay ; and the other was a specimen of a 

white-wooded tree, cut from one about 70 years of age, which had been 

^rown on the same soil. (ilian. p. 83i^.) 

The difference, both in the extemal appearance and in the qualities of 
the timber of diiSferent trees of Pinus sylv^stris, recdv^ a good deal of 
attention from Mr. Don of Forfiu', about 1810 (see Mem, Cal, Hori, iSbc., 
▼ol. i. p. 121.); and, subsequently, fi^om various other authors, more eso^ 
<nally tne cultivators of the pine and fir tribe in France : but, after all that 
has been done on the subject, we agree with M. Viknorin, who has studied 
P. sylv^tris, in its various forms, more, we believe, than any other man, 
that its varieties can only be properly known and described by those who 
have studied them in coUections, or Scole$ d^etude^ in which several plants 
•of each sort have been planted in the same ground, and allowed to attain 
maturity there, both standing sinjriy, and in masses. (Delamarre's Trmti 
Pratique de la Culture des Fmi, &c., p. 24. : note by M. Viimorin.) M. 
Vilmorin, as we have already mentioned (p. 2121.), has made a coUection, 
for this purpose, of all the varieties of the Scotch pine that he could 
procure m Kurope, on his estate at Barres, near Montargis ; with the view, 
after a suitable period, of determining the distinct sorts. In the present 
atate of uncertainty on this subject, we shall confine ourselves to ^ving 
the names of a few of the more marked varieties, of which we have seen 
plants in the environs of London. 

CXlll. CONI'fEB^ Fl^NUS. S155 

a. TlmieT Treet. 
P. *. 1 m^arii, Ihe ctmmon tuOd Pine (fig. S046., to our uhiuI 
■cale), is tfaus deBchbed by Don of Porfu-. Brenchea fbnnn^ 
k pyramidal head; lesTes marginated, of a dark green colour, 
Dnd but Uttle glaiicoui uuderneatfa ; conea 
conudcnblj donnted, aai tspering to a 
poiut, aad tbe bark of the truitk very rusged. 
" This Tarietj Beenia to be but «horl-Ked, 
beconimg soon stunted io ita appearBnce, and 
it is altogether a very inferior tree to either j 

Tariety 2, or niriety 3." (Cal. Mem., L p. 183.) 
The common wild pine of the Frenclt is, by 
Loiseleur Deslon^naaipt and some other 

anthora, called sunjily P. ByUfttne, wbile 
others ngaia name it P. s. «nevinaia ; but, 
iriietfaer die P. BylT^atria o? Loiaeleur Des- 
loDgchunpa (in the Noweeau JDu Hamel) and 
of BoBC, and the P. b. generfnaia of DdamBire 
(Tndti Prat., &c,, p. 83.> and of sereral 
otber Frencb autfaors, apply to ane and the 
nme Tariety } and whether this TBriety be 2046 

dentical with the P. s. geneTfnsiE of Uie Horticultural Society'i 
Oarden, rec^Ted from Noisette of Paris, and of wfaich a plate ii 
gjven in our laat Volume ; we are nnHble to dedde, If they are tfae 
same, wfaich we think Terv likety to be the case, theo the P. sylv^ 
tris of the Prencb is of Uttle value as a dmber tree, and Tery 
interior to eren theP. s.Tutgilris,orcoromone8tTariety of the Scotch 
pine found in Britain. 
X P. t. 2 horkontaSi ; F. hotiiontaiia Don of Piirfiir ; P. ayWitaie yw. 
montina Sang, Plant. Cal., p. 63. ; tfae Speyside I^ne, Horl. 
Soc. ! the Uigfaland I^e, Grigor la Gard. Mag., vtu. p. 10. ; 
tbe faorizontai-branched wild Kne, Laait. i the red-wooded Scotch 
Pine, Snng ; ? P. rilbra Miil. Dict. and N. Sa Ham. — Tiiia ts- 
rien is described by Don of Forfar as being "strongly mariced 
and pennaneot." It " is distingmshed from tfae formra- by the 
diapodtion of ita branches, which sre remarkable for tbdr bori- 
aontal direction, and fbr e tendency to bend downwardB close by 
tbe trunk. The leaves are brooder than tfaose of the first variety, 
■nd aefrulated, and not marginated. They are diatinguisfaBble at a 
distance by tbeir much lighter and beauliful glaucous colour. The 
bark of the trunk is not so rugeed as in the preceding vBrietr. Ita 
fN>nes are thicker, not so mucb pointed, and smoother. Tfae tree 
«eems to be a more hordy plant, being easily reconciled to very 
various soils and situatioos. It grows very freely, and quickly 
■rriTes Bt a considerable uze." Blr. Don abo coi^ectures " that 
the fir woods which fonneriy abounded in Scotland, tfae treea 
of wfaich arrived at a large size, may have been of this variety or 
speciea." " I have certainly observed," he adds, " tbat the greater 
part of the fir woods of tbe present day, which are so much com- 
plained of, are of the common THriety {P. s. 1 vulgiris] ; at least, 
not more tban one tree out of 10 or 12 is of tfae second and moro 
desirable kind [P. s. 2 faorizontalis]. I thmk," continues Mr. Don, 
" that this is the raost natural way of accounting for the supposed 
decline of tfae Scotcfa fir in this country, for two reasons : Ist, b^ 
cause Ter. 2 [P. s. 8 horizont^ia] retains all the good qualitiea 
fonnerly attributed to tfae Scotch fir; and, Sdly, beca^se, as var. 1 
[P. s. 1 Tulgaris] produces its cooes much more freely then the 
other, tfae SMd-gatfaerers, who are paid by the quantity, aad not by 
the ^iality, would setie upon tbe former, and ne^ect the latter. 


(Cal, Mem.^ i. p. 125.) Tbis variety abounds in the counties of 
Aberdeen, Moray, ana Inverness» more especially in the Hisfaland 
districts of Abemediy and Strathspey ; ana in the forests of Mar, 
Invercauldy and Glentanner, alouff wiui the white-wooded pine» and 
always on a light hazelly loam. Tbe first individuals who coUected 
seeds and raised plants for sale of this variety were Messrs. A. 
and J. Orisor, nurserymen at Elgin and Torres ; for whose ezer- 
tions the Highland Society awarded them a premium in 1830. 
This variety appears to be that alluded to by Sur Walter Scott in 
the Quarterfy Review for October 1828, in which he recommends 
procuring the seeds of red pine from the Hi^lands of Scotland, 
aileging that the ordinary, or white-wooded, ''Scotch fir" is ''an 
inferior variety, brought from Canada not more than half a century 
since." This Ganadian variety he describes '' as a mean4ookin£ tree, 
but very prolific of seed ; on which account the nursery gardeners 
are enabied to raise it in vast quantities." (See Gard, Mag,, voi. iii. 
p. 351.) Every botanist knows that the Scotch pine is not indi- 
genous to America; and every nurseryman, that seeds of pines of 
anv kind are received from that country only in very smaU quan- 
tities. It is certain^ however, that the commonest description of 
Scotch pine is rouch more prolific of seed than the P. s. horizon- 
tMis ; and thb circumstance may have led Sir Walter Scott into 
tbe above-mentioned error. We may also add that at Stratton 
Strawles, in the neighbourhood of Norwich, there are two kinds of 
pines in the woods of Robert Marsham, Esq., of both of which 
that gentleman has sent us specimens. One of them is caUed the 
Scotcn pine, and the other tne American pine ; but both are ob- 
viously P, sylvestris: the so called American variety has lonfier 
leaves and a redder bark than the other; and, when cut down, uie 
wood is found white throughout, whUe the heart wood of the other 
is red. There are young plants of P, s. horizontMis in the Horti- 
cultural Society's Garden ; and both plants and seeds of it may be 
obtained in liffge quantities from Messrs. Grigor of Elgin and 
Forres, Mr. Lawson of Edinbur^h, Mr. Ciiarlwood of London, and 
M. Vilmorin of Paris. There is a tree at Syon, which, in 1837, 
was named P. rikbra, and which answers to the description of Don*s 
variety. It ts 25 ft. high, and was planted about 1825. The hranches 
are depressed towards the stem ; and the ieaves are short, and of a 
beautiful glaucous hue. 
f P. «. 3 uncmdta, the kooked<oned wUd Pine ; Mar Forest wUd Pine, 
Hort, Soc, Garden ; is another of Don of Forfiu^s varieties, which is 
described by him, in the artide before quoted, as a reraarkable 
variety, quite distuict both firom P, s. vulg^ris and P, s. horizon- 
t^. Its leaves are of a stiU lighter coiour than those of the last, 
insomuch that they appear of a truly light glaucous hue, approach- 
in^ to a sUvery tint. Its branches form, iike P, s. vulg^ris, a pyra- 
midal head ; but it difiers remarkably in its cones from both the 
former varieties ; the cones in this variety having the appearance of 
being beset with blunt prickles bent backwards. The leaves are 
serrulated; a character which at once distinguishes it fi^om P, s. 
vul^i^s, with which the tree agrees in having a pjramidal head. This 
variety is more common than P, s. horizontalis, and it also pro- 
duces good dmber. There are young plants of thb variety in the 
Horticultural Society's Garden, and it may be obtained, also, of 
Mr. Lawson, Edinburgb. Fig, 2047. is a cone of the P, s. uncinata 
of M. VUmorin, taken fi-om a cone received fit)m that gentleman, 
and which we concludeto be the same variety as,or at aUevents nearly 
related to, that described by Don of Forfar. It wiU be observed that 
this hooked cone is quite different, both in its general form, and the 



fonn of its Bcalei, &0111 the ci 

Afi^4w,»bich ia bIbo often called P.uncin^ta. 
Z P.t. 4A^u«n^niu; 1%) de Haguenau, ^. j Ro- 
thentanne of Schoctet, seedsmiui, Rastadt. — 
Thia Tarietj was introduced from the foreata 
of HaguenBu (wheoce ita name) aod Rastadt, 
(iD both sides of tfae Rhiue. It is thua de- 
scribed in Lawson^B Mmtiai ; — " Tbe old trees 
are remarkablj tai), straight, firee &om 
branches, eicept near the Bummit, with re- 
markably amooth reddlbh-coloured bark. The 
leaves of the young plantB are longer than 
those of any of the preceding varieties; they j<\ , 
are much wayod or twiated, of a light green jfS; 
ali^tly elaucoua colour, and minuteh' Bemi-L^^i. 
laKd; the young terminal buda areof apecu-V'' ^, 
liar reddish colour, and generally oioreor leas v /^' 

readily distinguisbed by their stroneer and more 
rapid growth." {Agricuit. Mamial, p. S30.) On DecemberS. 18S8, 
we inspected tfae trees of this Tariety growing in tfae neigfabourfaood 
of Rastadt, and purchased some BeeOB ; and on the next day we 
went through the Forest of HagueDBu, in company with M. Nebel, 
of the firm of Nebel and Neunreutter, dealers in madder and in 
seeda of the Haguenau piae. The young treea on bothsiiles of the 
Rhine were of remarkably vigorous growth, and answer weil to the 
descriptiou of the variety given by Mr, Lawson. The soil in wfaich 
they were growing on tfae Oerman side of the Rhine was gravelly 
or sandy on the surbce, and somewhat loamy bekw; that at 
Haguenau seemed to be sll a deep sand; but, the suHacea of both 
ibresta bdng quite flat, and very little above the level of tbe Rhine, 
there can be no doubt of the subsoil, at a certdn depth, bdng moist 
in both cases. The Forest of Haguenau, M. Nebel informed us, 
extended over upwards of 30,000 acres ; but the greater part of the 
pine trees were cut down during the war. There were stUl, how- 
ever, a number remwning, with trunks remarluible for the red 
colour and scaly (not fmrowed) appearance of the ba^, from S ft, 
to 3ft, in diameter, aud from 60ft. to 80ft. ar QOfl:, faigfa. Tbe 
seed is taken out of the cones by drying on tbe same kiln which is 
used for drying madder; and was sold, in 1BS8, at ] franc 15 sous a 
pouud. Webroughtoversomeanddiatributediti BDdthereareyoung 
trees in Perthshire, In two places, to which the planters faave given 
the names of I.oudon's Howe aod Loudon's Brae. (See Oard. Mag., 
vol. V. p. 663.) Seeds of this varietv may be obtained from ^^1- 
morin, Charlwood, and Lawson ; Rnd &om the latter, we believe, 
also young pfamts. 
t P.t.5righuu; PindeRigaDra^.^f., tii. p.61,; I^ de Russie, Pin 
de Mlture, iiV. — This variety ie sud to conBtitute the forests of 
Lithuania and Livonia; to whicfa, according to Deafontaines, tfae 
minitter of marine of the French govemment, in 1785, sent a 
master maBt-maker, named Barb£, fram Brest, who farought back 
witfa him a great quantity of seeds. Theae were Bown at Koual, 
ueai' Breat ; at Couatilloux, near Annion ; at Mency, in the vicinity 
of Odieme; and on the Brounds of Du Hamel at MoQceau. Accord- 
ing to M. Pougeroux, the plants which came up did not difler from 
the P. sylv^tris ; and he adds that Miller, in a letter to Du Hamel, 
thanking him for the seeds of the pin de Riga which he hsd sent, 
states that he had previouBly received50Ib. of tfae seed of theRiga 


pine from the Duke of Northumberland, and that the trees produced 
were ezactly similar to the Sootch pine. Pallas aBsures us that the 
pine of Livonia and Lithuania differs not from the P. sylT^tris : 
mastSy he says, are not made of any peculiar species, as foreigners» 
and more especially the French, thmk ; but they are all of the P. syl- 
v^stris. Those trees are chosen that have a yellow bark^ and a tall 
straight trunky free from branches. {Derf, HiU. de$ Arb,^ ii. p. 619.) 
In 1814, this variety was again brought into notice by the late Pro- 
fessor Thouin, who published a tract on the subject» recommending 
its culture, on account of the superiority of its wood to that of the 
conmion French variety of P. sylvestns. M. Puvis {DerAgric, 
du GatinaiSf &c.) describes the pm de Riga as growing beside the 
pin de Haguenau, od M. Wmorin'8 estate at Barres, and rivalling 
that variety in dimensions. The following are Mr. Lawson's remarks 
on this variety : -^ " From the superior quality of the timber of 
P. sylv^tris imported from Riga under the name of red pine, to 
distinguish it from that of iTbies cpmmiknisy or whitedeal, it bas been 
conridered advisable to procure seeds from the natural forests in the 
neighbouriiood of that pkLce, and to the plants produced from such 
seeds the above name is applied. They may at least be considered 
as possessed of equal merits with such as are derived from the best 
native forests in the Highlands of Scotland." {Agric. Manual,D. 331.) 
Seeds and plants of this variety may be obtained of Mr. Lawson 
and M. Vilmorin ; and there are specimen plants of it in the Hor- 
ticultural Society*s Garden, in the arboretum at Kew, and at 
Messrs. Loddiges. 

Other Timber IVee Varietiet, The names of several might be ^ven from 
books; but, as we could neither accompany thero by descnptions or 
synonvmes, nor refer to any place where liviug plants may be seen, we 
consider that it would be of very little use. P, s. altfsstma, in the Hor- 
ticultural Society*s Garden, is a strong-growing variety, resembliug 
the pin de Haguenau, and is probably identical with it, though raised 
iroro Caucasian seeds ; but P. aldsslma is a name more generally applied 
to P. Laricio than to P. sylv^tris. 

b. Farietiet curiout or omamental. 

t P. «. 6 aenevensit. The Geneva wild Pine. — There is a plant of this variety 
in the Horticultural Society*s Garden, a portrait of which is given 
in our last Volume, by which it appears to be a low crooked tree, 
with nuroerous twisted branches, exteudine considerably at thebase. 
There is a good specimen at Dropmore. We have alreadv suggested 
that this maypossiblv be the commonest and most worthless variety 
of P. sylvestns which attains a timber-like size in France. (See 
p. 2155.) 

f P. <. 7 monoph^ila Hodgins. — The leaves are iong and glaucous, and 
those of each sheath are generally attached to each other through- 
out their length; though when the points are taken between the 
finger and thurob, and the apparentiy sin^le leaf twisted, it gene- 
rally separates into two, and sometimes mto three leaves. We 
have omy seen one plant in the Horticultural Society*^ Garden, to 
which it was sent by Mr. Hodgins, nurseryman, Dunganstown, near 
Wicklow, about 1830. 

t P. «. 8 tcariota; P. scaridsa Lodd, Cai,,ed. 1836. — A French varietv, 
introduced about 1820; but the plant at Messrs. Loddiges'8 is smaU, 
and scarcely appears difierent from the species. 

t P.t.9 intermed»a.^Tbja is a Russian variety, of which there is a plant 
in the Horticultural Society's Garden, having slender voung shoots 
depressed towards the stem, and leaves shorter and less glaucous 
tban those of the species. 

CUAP. CX11I. CONl^FEltfi. PI^NUS. 21.59 

1 P.f.lO a!M!a Ledebour.— A plant tn the Horticultural8ociety's Oarden, 
raised from seeds received from Dr. Ledebour in 1836, itnd wliich 
is only between 3 in. and 4 in. higb. 
1 P. «. 11 tofittdia Bon of Forfar.^Tbis variety Mr. Don describes as 
having the leaves shorter than P. s. vulg^is, and somewhat cnrled, 
or, rather, twisted. He only saw three or four trees of tt, and thinks 
it nearlv approaches the P. Banksioiu» of Lftmbert. 
Oiker VdrieHet ofcurhus or boiamad Inieresi. Several names might be 
added firom books ; but, as we have not seen the plants, or seen them only 
in a very young state, we do not think them wortli notice. We mijriit have 
included in the list, P, (s.) pumllio, and its subvariety P. (s.) p. Miighui i 
but though we have no doubt of their being only variedes of P, sylvStris, 
yet thev are so very diflerent both m appearance and magnitude, that we 
think them well worth keeping distinct. 

Detcripium, The wild, or Scotch, pine, in favourable situations, attiuns the 
hei^t oi from 80fl. to 100 ft., with a trunk from 2ft. to 4ft. in diameter, 
and a head somewhat conical or rounded, but, as compared with the heads 
of broad-leaved trees, ^enerally narrow in proportion to its height. The 
bark is of a reddish tinge, coroparatively smooth, scaling off in some 
varieties, and rough and fmrowed in others. The trunk, when the tree stands 
singly, is generally fumished with branches from within a short distance of 
the ground to the summit; nevertheless, in this, as in all the species of the 
pine and fir tribe, tbe lower branches have a greater tehdency to decay and 
tall off than in broad-Ieaved trees. In like manner, when the trees are grown 
in masses, the branches die off sooner, and so much so, that no European 
broad-Ieaved tree, of equal girt of trunk, is found clear of branches to so 
great a height as the wiKl pine. The brauches are disposed in whorls from 
8 to 4 together, and sometimes 5 or 6 : they are at first slightly tumed 
upwards, but, as the tree advances, in growth thepr take a horizontal 
tendency, and finally become somewhat pendent, with the exception of 
those branches which form the summit of the tree. The leaves are in 
aheathsy spirally disposed on the branches ; they are distin^ishable at first 
sight from those ot all other pines in which the leaves are m pairs, by being 
much more elaucous, more especially when in a voung state, and straighter. 
Those of P. fianksiana and P. Inops are also rather eiaucous when young, 
bttt they are much shorter and more twisted. Those of P. LaHcio and P. re- 
aindsa can never be mistaken for those of P. sylv^tris, (rom not being elaucous, 
and fi^om thdr much greater length ; nor those of the section 7\e*da from their 
being 3 in a sheaUi. Examined more minutely, the leaves of P. sylv^tris will 
be found to have their two interior surfaces (wbich, while they are in the sheath, 
&ce each other) quite flat, or nearly concave, so as to form before they expand» 
or when they are pressed together, a cyllnder of about half a line in diameter. 
The general lenffth of the ieaves, in vi^rous-growing trees under 20 or 26 
years* growdi, is from 2 in. to 3 in. ; but in old trees uiey are rouch shorter : 
they are smooth on both surfaces, atiST, obtuse at th^ extremities, with a small 
point, and roinutelv serrated; dark green on the upper (that is, the flat or 
concave) side, and glaucous and striated on tbe under side, which is convex. 
They remain green on the tree during four years, and ^enerally drop ofT at 
the commencement of the fiflh year. Long before this time, and generally at 
the beginning of the second yeaf, they have entirely lost their light glaucous 
hue, and have become of the dark sombre appearance which is charac- 
tertstic of this tree at every Season except that of summer, when the young 
glaucous shoots of the vear give it a lignter hue. The flowers appear com- 
monly from the middle of May till the middle of June. The male catkins are 
from 4 in. to 1 in. or more in length ; and they are placed in a whorl or whorls 
at the extremities of the branches of tbe preceding year, and round the base 
of the young shoots of the current year. The flowers are composed of two 
or more stamens ; each stamen bein^ surmounted by two anthers of a sulphur 
colour. The anthers contam a considerable quantity of yellow powder, wnich, 

7 A 


wheD they burst, is somedines dinieraed in such immeiise quantilies as to 611 
the air, and give rise, as we have already observed (p. 2109.), to the idea of a 
shower of sulphur. The female flowers, or embryo cones, appear on the 
summits of the shoots of the current year, generally 2 on thepoint of a shoot, 
but sometimes 4, 5, or 6. The colour of these embryo cones is generallv 
purple and green; biit they are sometimes yellowish and sometimes red. 
After impregnation, the young fruit becomes lateral, stalked, and reflezed ; 
green, and of a more ovate figure. The first year, it ceases to grow about the 
middie of July, when it has attained the size of a good bean ; and in the 
second year it begins to grow in the month of April, attains its fiili size by 
the end of June, and ripens into an ovate, pointed, hard, tesseliated, but un- 
armed, woody cone, about the middle of October. If left on the tree, it is 
Dot tili tbe foilowing March or April that the scales open, and allow the seeds 
to drop out. It thus requires 18 months to mature the cones; and in a state 
of nature it is two years before the seeds are in a condition to germinate. 
After the seeds have dropped out, the cones generally reroain on a year, or 
at least till the following winter ; so that fiill-grown trees generally exlubit 
cones in three or four diflerent states ; viz. young cones in thetr first stage; 
cones of full size, but green ; cones brown and opening; and cones with their 
scalet» fully expanded, after the seeds have dropped. The cone, which is 
stalked, and when mature begins to open at the naiTow extremity,as shown in 
Jig. 2048., is, while closed, perfectly conical, rounded at 
the base, from IJ ui. to 2m. in length, and about an 
inch across in the broadest part ; as it ripens, the co- 
lour changes from green to a reddish brown. The 
scales are oblong, swelled on the back part of their 
upper extremity into a sort of pyramid, wnich appears 
pressed down upon itself, and is truncate at the sum- 
mit. The form of this sweQed part of the scales is 
very variable. Somedmes it does not project at all, 
and the surface of the cone is quite smooth; and, 
in general, it projects much Icss on the side of the 
cones which is next the branches, than on that which 
is exposed to the air. Sometimes the pyraroid in 
which the scale terminates is raised so as to form 
a protuberance of more than two lines in height. 
Soraedmes the summit of the pyramid is sunk ; and 
sometimes it is pointed, and turned to one side; 
while at others, as in P. (s.) p. Mughus, it b 
tiu^ed downwards towards the base of the cone, and terniinates in a 
prickle. This variation in the form of the scales of the cone of P. sylv&tris 
has given rise to difierent varieties ; though hooked cones and smooth cones 
may frequently be found on trees having very difierent habits, such as P. 
(s.) p. Mhghut and P. s. uncinMa. At the base of each scale, on thc 
inner side, close to the axis of the cone, are lodged 2 oval winged seeds, some- 
what flattened. * Each seed is a little monospermous nut, to which, as in dl 
the other i^bi^tinae, the wing is not attached, otherwise than by enclosinff it 
with its membranaceous texture. Hence, tfie wings of the seeds of this pme, 
like those of every other spedes of ^bietin», may be separated from them 
without doing them the slightest injury. Sometimes the cones are sterile ; but 
in this case the winged membrane is as fully developed ss if it were fertile, which 
clearly proves that it does not forra a part of the seed. In germination, the 
first appearance of the seed exhibits 5 or 6 linear leaves escapingfrom theiren- 
velope, as shown in fig, 2045. a ; and in a few days aflerwards, when the 
envelope has dropped, they assume the appearance of h, It is remarkable, 
that this species, which has the leaves of trees of 3ft. or 4ft, in height 
^laucous when young, has the seminal leaves, and the leaves of young plants 
in the first or second year, and sometimes even for 3 or 4years, not glaucous ; 
whcreas in P. Pinaster, P. Plnea, and some others, the leaves of which» in 


planU of 4 or 5 years* growth, are not glaucous, the seminal leaves, and 
the leaves of young plants of 2 or 3 years' growth, are entirely so. The 
seeds of the Scotch pine come up in about 3 or ^ weeks after they are sown : 
the growth is not above 3in. or 4in, the first year; the second, iF on a 
good soil, they will grow from 4 in. to 6 in. ; and the third year the plants 
begin to branch, and attain the height of frora 14 in. to 2 ft., according to soil 
and ftituation. In the fourth and fifth years, if not transplanted, or if they have 
been transnlanted carefullv in the second year, they b«gin to push strongly, 
making a leadine shoot from 1 fl. to 3 ft. in length, according to soil and 
situation ; and Uiey continue growing vigorously for half a century, or even a 
century, according to circumstances. In 10 years, in the climate of London, 
plants will attain the height of 20 ft. or 25 fl. ; and in 20 years, from 40 ft. to 
50 (L Evelyn mentions a Scotch pine which grew 60 ft. in height in little 
more than 20 years. Like almost all the other species of the ^bietinse, the 
Scotch pine is a social tree, and is always found in masses of considerabie 
extent. The tree is considered full grown, and fit to be cut down for timber, 
at 50 or 60 years' growth; but where it grows slowly, as in its native 
habitats in the north of Scotland and other cold climates, it will continue in- 
creasing for three or foiur centuries. Mr. Farquharson of Marlee, in the 
Highlands of Scotland, Mr. Strutt informs us, cut over close to the root a 
tree of 2} ft. in diameter, which is nearly the size which a Scotch pine, reared 
in a nursery, and then planted out, wouid attain in about 50 years ; and he 
counted exactly 214 circles, which made this self-sown tree about four times 
the age of the cultivated one. In Sweden, Dr. Walker informs us, 360 circles 
have been numbered in a tree that was composed entirely of sound wood. 
The largest Scotch pine that was ever cut down in Scotland is supposed to 
be one which stood in the Forest of Glenmore, which was called the Lady of 
the Glen, and of which there is a plank in the entrance hail of Gordon 
Castle, 6 ft. 2 in. long, and 5 f^- 5 in. broad. The annual layers of wood, as 
reckoned by Mr. Grigor (see Hi^hiand Soc, Trans,, xii. p. 128.), are about 
235. The plank bears the followmg inscription on a brass plate : — 

" In the year 1783, 

WiLLiAM OsBOURNB, Esquire, 

Merchant of Hull, purchased of the Duke of Gordon the Forest of Glenroore, 
the whole of which he cut down in the space of twentv-two years, and built, 
during that time, at the mouth of the nver Spev, where never vessel was 
built before, forty- seven sail of ships of upwards ot 19,000 tons burthen. The 
largest of them of 1050 tons, and three others, little inferior in size, are now 
in the service of His Majesty and the Honourable East India Company. 
This undertakin^ was completed at the expense (of labour only) of above 
70,000/. To His Grace the Duke of Gordon this plank is offered, as a speci- 
men of the growth of one of the trees in the above forest, by His Grace's 
most obedient Servant, 
HuU, September 26, 1836. Williau Osbournb." 


The Scotch pine which is supposed now to contain the most timber of any 
tree of the spedes about Gordon Castle is one of which the skeleton portrait, 
jfig, 2049., was kindly sent to us by the Duke of Richmond. It is about 
100 tL high, and contains 260 cubic feet of timber, exclusive of the brancheSiL 
8ome of the finest single specimens of Scotch pine in the neighbourhood of 
London are at Whitton and Pain's Hill, where some of them are between 
80 ft. and 90 fl. high, and, standing singiy, are very picturesque in their general 
forms. A portnut of one of the handsomest ot those at Pain*s Hill, by 
by H. Le Jeune, £sq., is eiven in our last Volume. There are also a few very 
fine specimens at Muswell Hill, a portrait of one of the most picturesque of 
which, by W. A. Nesfield, Esq., is given in our last Volume. There are 
others at Studley, in Yorkshire, of one of which, 82 ft. high, iig, 2050., to a 
scale oi 24 f^. to 1 in., is a portrait by H. W. Jukes, Esq. ; and uiere is a very 

7 A 2 



1>AKT 111. 

noble fpecimen at Dunmore, which is eon- ^049^ 

ridered to be the most picturesaoe tree in 

the Lowlands of 8cotIand, and ot wfaich flg. 

S051. u a portrait after Strutt, to a scale 

of24fLto1in. The heigfat of this tree was, 

m 1836,67 ft. ; andthediameterofthetnink, 

at 1 ft. from the ground, 3 ft. 9 in. ; and it 

waa eatimated to contafai nearly 300 ft. of 

timber. Among the fineat spedmens in tfae 

Higblanda of Scotland zre those in Strath- 

•pev, of a sroup of whicfa fig, 2052^ to a 

icale of 24ft. to l in., is a portniit by W. A. 

Nesfield, Bsq. The taUest of these trees is 

75 ft. faigfa. 

The quality of the timber of the Scotcfa 
pine^ acoording to aome, ia altogether depoi- 
dent on soil, cnmate, and slowness of growth ; 
bot, according to otbers, it depends jointly ! 
on tbese circum8tanoee> and on tfae kind of | 

Tariety cultivated; and tfais is our opinion. 1 . 

It is 'acknowkdged, tfaat tfae timber of tfae [j ^ftznu _ 1 „*A?.**-J 

Scotcfa pine, grown on rocky surfaces, or ^ " *» * " 

wfaere tfae soil is dry, sandy, or faazelly, is, 

in general, more resinous, and redder in co- 

lour, tfaan that of sucfa as is grown on soite 

of a clayey nature, boggy, or (Hi cbalk : but 

tbis 18 not always tfae case; for an instance 

is given, in Lawson's ilftfaua/, of ** a planta- 

tion, recently cut down, which stood on the 

iiortfa side of tbe Pertfa and Dundee road, 

nearly 10 miles firom the former, the seed of 

whidQ was, 70 or 80 years since, received 

from the Forest of Mar ; and the timber, al- 

thougfa grown on a poor, damp, tenacious 

clay, besides attaining to a gr«it size, was 

found equal in quality to that for wfaich the [ 

abovenaturalforestisesteemed." (Ag.Man, I 

p. 320., note.) Scotcfa ** pine timber," 8ir 

T. D. Lauder obsenres» '^is best in tfae 

colder situations. In the warmer regtons, 

it contains a great deal of white, or si^, 

wood. At what time the sap wood is transformed into durable, or red, 

wood, has not yet been determined by vegetable physiologists ; and, though 

most writers believe that the ligneous matter is deposited in the second 

year, we are disposed to doubt tfae fact. More tfaan a dozen layers of sap 

wood may be counted on some trees ; and, what is a very interesting ob- 

servation, where trees have been inuch exposed to the mid-day sun, the whole 

southem half of tbe tree is sometimes found to be little better than sap wood, 

wfailst the northem half may contain only a layer or two of k at the cir- 

cumference.'* (Lavd. GHp., i. p. 174.) 

The durability of the rea timber of the Scotch pine was supposed, by the cele- 
brated engineer, Brindley, to be as great as that of the oak ; and Dr. Smith, in his 
Essay on the Production of Timber, in the T^rantaetimu ofthe Highland Soeiety 
of ScotlandyVol, i. p. 165., says tfaat fae faas seen some Scotcfa pinegrown in the 
iHortfa Highlands, whidi, when taken down after it faad been 300 years in tfae 
roof of an old castle, was as firesh and full of resin as newly imported timber 
from Memel ; and Uiat part of it was actually wrought up into new fumiture. 

Oeography* P, sylv^tris and its varieties are indicenous througfaout the 
greater part of Europe, from the Mediterranean on uie soutfa, to 70^ N. lat. 

CHAP. Xltt 


in Norway on the north j and 
frooi 8pain snd Britaiii on tbe 
«cRt, to the coafines of Siberia 
and Kamtachatka on the eaat. 
It extendi ioto the north, eut, 
■nd wcat of Aaia; and, accord- 
iiigtOBome,ttiBrouDdU Nootka 
Souud, in North Auerica. In 
the louth of Europe, it grows 
U the elevBtion ol 1000 ft. to 
1500 ft.; in the Highlands of 
Scotland, st 14«0ft.; and io 
Norwa]' and Lapland, at 700 fl. 
Id the extreme elerationB, as in 
tfae extreme limitB of ita northsni 
nnge, it aMumes the cbaracter 
of 8 stunted tree, or buah. 
Hirbel indicates the range of the 
Scotch pine to be, " CaucMuB, 
Peloponnesus, CaJabria, Valen* 
da, Pyreneea, Ijaptand to 70°, Bocharia; Westem SU 
beria, on the Oby, undi 

between 55° and 97° ; Dahuria, 
Japan." The elevation to which 
tt atlainB on tfae roountains, ac- 
cording to the Hauie tuthor, is, 
in Lapland, UDder 70°, to 125 
toises (of about 6 ft 6 in. each) ; 
OD the Carpathlans, to 500 ; or. _ 
870; on the Fjrrenees, from 600 
toiws(or3850a.) Von Buch 
perpetual Bnow in Nor- 
waytobe 2771ft;and 
that the mean tempcr- 
■ture where it ceases 
is 31° of Fahrmheit. 
Wahlenbetg inakeB the 
iDcan temperature of tbe 
earth 1° 8' Cel. (ab ou 
35° Fahrenheit), "nd 
tbe eleration 127611., 

dish Lapland." {Wal- 

the Alps oT SwitzeriBnd and Dauphin^ to 

" *- 1250; and on the Csucasua, to 900 

ifli^uu and 

jm'* OtUUofM, &C., 

869.) The Scotch pine 
ia most abundant in the 
Dortfa of Europe, be- 
tween latitude 52° and 
65°. There are im- 
menae furestB of it, on 
ere» ground, in PoJand 
and Russiii, and on faills 
and mountainB tn 8we- 
den, Norway, GeriDany, 
Ihe Alpa, the Pyrenees, 


Bnd tbe Voi^. In Spaia it is found, buE not in great abundsnce ; exeept 
in the rorn) of the P, unciniitB of Cuptun S. E. Cook, which we betieve to 
be onl; a mountaiD variety of thia tree. In Britain, P. Bjlv^stris is indi- 
genouB to the mounttwnous dUtricts of Scotland ; but it appeiirs not to be so 
to England, tbough this may prohably have been the caae at sonie (tistant 
period; ae Mr. Winch states that the roots and trunks of very laige pinea 
are seen protniding from theblackpcat mo8E,ataueleTatioaofnearly3a00ft. 
in Yorkahire and Lancaabire; cones are also frequenlly dugup out of the peat 
bogs, particularly in the iatter eounty. (See p. 21.) In Scolland, it erows 
at the height of 2700ft, on tbe Grampian Mountains; at the heignt of 
2300 i^. on Ben-na-Buird, in Aberdeenshire ; and aa high, or higher, on the 
mountuns near Locb-na-Garr. {WaliM.) 

lu all these various situations, the Scotch pine is always found on soils drj, 
sandy, gravelh', granitic, or argillaceous, but least IrequentlT on such as are 
calcareouB. Tbe largest treea and finest timber in tbe Highlanda of Scotland 
are found on light hazelly loam ; on a cold, but dry, subsoil, generally graoitie 
rock. The roots of the tree, in indigenous foresCa, run along che surfo», and 
even rise above it; and the tree seems to derive a great part of its nourish- 
inent from the black vc^table niould formed by the decay of its own leaves. 
The wind frequently carries the seeds of this tree to marsby surfacea and 
peat bo^ ; but there, as Sir Thomas Dick Lauder observes, it is always 
Bluoted in growth, and soon sickens and dtes. In the higher pnrts of Aber- 
deenshirc, lo the vicinily of the Dee and the Spey, where the surface is the 
most elevated of any land in Scotland, i[ ia only in the valleya, on the borders 
of tbeie rivers, and in the smalter vales on the banks of tributary torrents, 
consisting of alluviol aoil, in the gentie slopea at the bottoms of the hills, or 
in the elevated recessea of the motinCainB, tbaC che naCive pine tbrives, and 
bccomes valuable timber. (Granl af Monymiuk in Ponte^i Forat Prvncr, 
ed. 3., p.60,) ThenoitoftheForest ofBraemar la a light grftvel, fonneil of 


the debriii of jfranidc rock ; there is a considerable extent of siiriBce, in which 
rocks of granite, porphyry, and gneisfl rise in the most predpitous manner; 
«nd some other parts entirely coveredwith peat bog ; but, on the rocks, the 
trees, where they occur, have dwindled to mere bushes; and great part both 
of the rocky surface and of the bo^ is entirely destitute of vepetation. A Re- 
port on the native Pine Forests ot Scotland, by Mr. John Gngor, nurseryman 
and seedsman of Forres, and for which he received the Highland -6ociety's 
silver medal, will be found in the TVanMactions of that body, vol. xii. p. 122. 
The following is a brief abstract of this Report : — 

Ahemeihy Pme Forest, the property of tne Earl of Seafield, stands on the 
southem extremity of Morayshire, on the south side of the Spev, and is one 
of the most ancient forests in Scotland. The surface is partly ntily and partly 
level. The soil is principall v composed of thin sandy peat, with a subsoil of 
faard, hazelly-ooloured grevel ; anu, in some parts, it is a black mould mixed 
with sand, and very stony. The timber produced is very resinous. Great 
part of it was bumt down by accident in 1746 ; but a new crop of trees has 
risen from the ashes, and the forest now produces excellent timber. Mr. Grigor 
saw tninks barked, and prepared for fioating, 10 ft. 7 in. in length, 6 ft. in girt 
at the root end, and 5n.2in. at the other end. The number of annual 
layers indicated 73 years of age. The finest specimens are understood to be 
at Reynioit, one of the largest of which Mr. Grigor found fix>m lOft. to up- 
wards of 13 ft. in circumference, at 1 ft. firom the ground ; and at 8 ft. from 
the ground firom 9ft. to 18 ft.; tapering with a clean trunk to the height of 
fi^om 20 ft. to 35 ft., and shooting up to the entire height of fi-om 40 ft. to 65 ft. 
These very old trees stand on iow and level ground, on the side of the Nethy ; 
but perhaps the finest tree in this forest stands on a steep hill side adjoining, 
thougli not highly situated, which measures in circumference, at the height of 
I ft. fit)m the sunace, 13 ftL 3 in., and at 8 ft. high, 12 ft. It tapers to 32 ft. of 
trank, its whole height being about 50 ft., with a top branching like an oak ; 
€o which all the large trees, in point of form, bear a strong resemblance. A 
few yards diatant fi^om this tree, one of similar dimensionar had latelv been 
felled, the stump and roots remaining to indicate its size. The annual rings 
of this root indicate the ase of 242 years, and that of the top, 224. The top 
lay at the distance of 27 ft. from the root, and Mr. Grigor imagines that the 
tree had grown about that length in 18 years ; that being the number of 
years intervening between the ages of the root and top. Several others had 
been fdled of nearly the same size, which had alinost attained the age of 200 
years. Mr. Grigor observed, fi^om the size of the interior layers, that the trees 
had rapidly advanced in erowth between the ages of 8 and 70, the growth 
having afterwards diminisned ; and, eventuall^, the outside lavers, although 
distinct enough to be numbered, are very mmute, and the whole timber is 
eoually strong, hard, and red, to within less than an inch of the bark. Many 
or th^ had been thrown down by the great fiood of 1829; the stumps of 
which stili remain, and show that the roots had derived all their nourishment 
fix>m the surface soU, none of them being more than 1 ft. firom the suHace, 
where the subaoil ia hard and gravdly. They are disceraible above ground ; 
and each forms a rib, to the helght of severaf feet, on the side of the trunk. 
The soil on whidi these larse trees have been produced is sandy moss, to the 
depth of fi^om 4in. to 8 in.,lying for the most part on a brown gravel of se- 
Teral yards in depth ; and m some parts the subsoil is more fertile, and of a 
blackish colour, with a mixture of large stones. These soils produce only 
the following smdl varietv of plants : — Callikna vulg^ris, Facclnium Fitis 
idse^^ r. MyrtiUus, J/ypochae^ris radicata, ^l^hnum bore^le, and a species of 
Scirpva. {Hjgh, Soc, Xraru., xii. p. 124.) 

JjtUhel Pme ForegU^ also the property of the Earl of Seafield, stand north 
of the 8pey, to the west of Abenietny. The surface is mountainous, and the 
beat trees grow in the lowest grounds, and on the sloping sides of the bases 
of the mountains. The soU is a thin peat, on a rich subsoil of thin brown 
naouklr Mr. Grigor examined several trees, varying from 1 12 to 126 yearsof 

7 A 4 


age, and giitiiig from 6 ft. to 12 ft. at 1 ft. iroin the ground» consistiDg of 
excellent timber, with the sap wood yaryiitf from l in. to 9}in. in thicknesf. 
The river Dulnain omaments these glens, noats the dmbery and impek aaw 

Roihiemurchus Fore$i i« the property of Sir Jobn Peter Orant. The 0ur- 
iace is irregular, the hollows for the most part marshy, and the soil and aub> 
aoil of the devated portiona dry and sandy . The old trees are chiefly cut down, 
but many patches sciil remain. The pines are not so remarkabie for thor girt, 
as for their eztraordinarily tall and smooth trunlis. Mr. Grigor found troes mea- 
•uring, at 6 ft. high, 4 ft. 6 in. in circiunference, with atrunk continuing neariy 
of the same girt to the height of about 35 ft. The average heigfat of the 
trees he found about 70 ft., and their age from 120 to 125 years. The trees 
atand so closely, that the surfiuze of the ground, within the masaos, b abnoat 
destitute of herbage; and the lai^geet trees are uniformiy found on the out- 
skirts. The progresa of young treea in this forest appears to be at the rate of 
9 ft. 6 in. in 15 years. 

Glenmore ForeHy the property of His Grace the Duke of Richmoad, is 
situated in a ^len surroundiag a lake. The aurfiice soil is a thin saody peafc; 
and the auhsoil a rich brown day, which feels quite soft to the toucfa. The 
trees grow slowly till they are at the age of 12 yeara, which Mr. Oriipor con- 
jectures to be owing to their roots not penetratmg earlier into the rich sub- 
aoil. The average rate of growth of young trees, in 10 yeara, is 5 ft. 6 in. 
There are few old trees remaining ; the greater part having be«i felled and 
carried away by Mr. Osboume (see p. 2161.), who comple^ hia contract in 
1804. Some scattered trees are yet standing at great «tistances, wbicb are 
very pictureaque in appearance, with trunka measuring (rom 9 ft. to 10 ft. in 
drcumference i but knotty, with bushy headSf and ef no value aa timber, 
having evidently been left on that account. 

Plantationt at Castle Grani, In addition to the naitural foreats, Mr, Gri^r 
notices the plantations on the estate of Castle Grant, where the Scotch pme 
haa made extraordinary progreas ; tree8,apparently still young, haviog trunks 
9 ft. 6 in. in drcumference, fmd beinff from 60 ft, to 70 fL high. These trees 
stand on a surface of rich black ear£, on a subsoil of graveUy sand ; but» un- 
fortunatdy, Mr. Grigor had not an opportunity of ascertaining tlidr ag^ ao 
as to calculate their jate of ffrowth. 

" The SoU m the JHf^hUind Forests,** Mr. Grigor observes, '' is found of very 
difierent qualities, which, in some measure, reguJates the ouality of the timber. 
The richeat ground produces the largest trees, consequently, the timber is not 
so fine in the grain as that grown on aand or poor gravei; but the quick- 
grown treea appear as full of resin, as healthy, atand to as great an aM, and 
are as red when cut up, as those which grow on poor aoil, & general, uie aofl 
of the native Highland forests ia superior to th^ on which firs are commonly 
planted throughout the low countrv. Ndther poor soU nor bad dimate can 
account for tbe auperiority of the Highland pine, as the forests are generallv 
dtuated in glens, or in the most shdtered slopes of the faills. Natitfal birch 
and alder are frequently met with in Uiese forests, but none are kii)ge or 
valuable ; the latter not being confined, as might be supposed, to the lowest 
grounds, but frequendv found at oonsiderabie hdghts on the hiUs. It is 
very rare to see any other trees in the vicinity of these foreaCa ; but I ob- 
aerved an ash standing alone, atid much exposed, on tbe western extremity of 
the parish of Inverallen, and on the nortb of the Spey, oppoaite Abemethy. 
Perhaps another hardwood tree is not to be found within a mile of this one. 
. At 1 ft. from the sur&^e, it measures 20 ft. 9in, in circumferencei at the 
height of 8 ft., it measures 14 ft. 10 in.; at the height of 13 ft., it ts divided 
into five limbs ; and its wbole height is about 60 ft., several of its large brancbes 
having been blown down. The trunk is hoUow in the centre, but its ieaves 
have a healthy appearance. The surface of the groukid where it stands is 
rendered fertile trom its decaved foliage, and by toe tree ofibrding a shelter 
for ^heep, which pasture on the surrounding heath. The subeoii is of a sandy 


clay, inferior to tho geoerality of tbe eubsoil in Duthel and Qleninore. The 
quaiity of soil in the Highlands ieems, in no d^ee, to alter the extemal 
appearance and figure of the pines. Under every circumatancey they assume 
a rough and shaggy forni. In general, they are older than most piantations 
/hroi^out ScoUand, and are of greater size» even in proportion to their i^. 
Notwithstanding thisy it is very uncommon to see a single tree in a decayug 
state. We observed several trunks that had a few feet of timber scooped out 
from the side of each, to be used as candtet by the cotters, yet the trees con- 
tinue quite green and healthy, with the hoUows overtiung with turpentine 
icicles sevend inches in lengtn. The pines grown in these districts appear to 
be of one species, and differ from the great bulk of those produced in the low 
counties or Scotland in the following respects : — The Highland Pine is of a 
more robust and shaggy appearance. In early life it grows, althoug^ crowded 
together, to a greater girt ; it is found to attain a greater si2e on very wet 
ground ] its wood is redder and harder, consequenUy more durable, and ia 
found to be more inflammable. It produces very few fertileflowers or cones, 
and wfaat it does produce are uniformly found to be rounder, smaller, and 
whiter; and it outlives many generations of the common cultivated fir, and 
ultimately attains a larger sise, It may be difficult to ascertain the diflerences 
in plants neceasary to constitute a distmct apecies, but, if the superiority of 
the Highland pine to the common tree of the low countries ahould not be 
attributed to a diflference in kind, the great proportion of the trees in Scot^ 
land, by repeated cultivation, muHt bave lamentably degenerated ; aince it ia 
knovm, that thousands of the comraon fir have amved at maturity, and thou- 
aands have died of old age, without ever produeing timber in any respect 
comparable to that of the districta now attempted to be described ; and they 
who aun not to propagate theae magnificent objecte of nature, overlook that 
analogy which is every where observable in the worka of creation." (IM,) 

The influence of these vanous climatea and aoils on the Scotch pine is so 
mat as aimost to chanee its character. In Sfiein, and in the aouth or 
Prance^it flowera in Marcn ; in the climate of Paris, about the end of April ; 
in that of London, about May ; and in the Hi^landa of Seotland, and in 
Norway, it flowera from the begmning tiU the middle of June: On the north 
aide of the Hi^land and Norw€gian mountaina, wbere it ia crowded together, 
and on the pUuna of the north of Germany and Ruaaia, where the treea ahio 
atand in doae wooda, they are drawn up to a great height, and produce clean 
atraight timber. On elevated irregular aurfiicea, and in very poor aoii, the 
treea, when crowded, are often atunted ; and, when scattered, become tortuoua 
buahea. or low bianchy treea. The leaves and conea vary, in theae situations, 
as mucn aa the entire tree; aad the quality of the timber aa much aa the ez- 
terior appearance. 

Hiitonf, The PXnm aylv^tria waa doubtleaa known to the Greeka and 
Romana. (See p. 19.) Fiiny, aa we have aeen (p« 2112.), expreaaly mentiona 
the wild pme, which waa called pityida, from the name oi the nymph Pitya 
(aee p. 2J21.); and that the fruit of it waa considered an exoellent remedy for 
a oough. (lib. xv. c. 10.) The firat modern record of the tree ia by Matthiolua, 
who calla it Pinua aylv^tris montcUia; and the firat of theae epitheta, aylvda- 
tria, waa adopted as a apecific name by Linn^ua. Miller, in the eariier edi- 
tiona of hia Dictionary, made four apeaea, P. ay Iv^tria, F, rubra, P.tat&rica, 
and P. montana; but theee are now (aa we have seen, p. 2150.) conaidered 
bv moat botaniata aa only varietiea ; viz, P. a. vulg^ria, P. a. horizontMis or 
P, 8. ri^nsia, P, (a.) pumllio, and P, (s.) p. Mt/gkm, The diflerent qualitiea 
of the timber of this tree, according to the soil and situation in which it waa first 
grown» aeem to have been aacertained in Bngland in the time of Evelyn ; but it 
waa not tiU long after hia time that it waa generallyknown that the red wood 
and yellow deals and planks of the Baltic, so generally esteemed througfaout 
Europe, were produced by the Scotch pine. This point aaema to have been 
determined by Pallaa and Cox, and made j^nerally known by the latter in hia 
TVaiDeli, whicn were published in 1784, The tree only began to be planted 


in Britain about the end of the 17th century ; and about the middle of that 
feltowing, 8ome planted trees, more espedaily in Scotland, having been cut 
down, and employed as timber, were found to be of inferior quaiit^ to imported 
timber, or to that grown in natural forests. Dr. Walker, wnting near the 
end of the last century, observes that the Scotch pine had been planted every 
where in abundance, but had not yet had time for its timber to arrive at per- 
fection. The timber of this tree, he adds, is depreciated, because it is white, 
aoiiy and perishable ; though he ai^es that this is merely from want of age 
in the tree. In the course of years, he says, this white wood will become 
red ; and the planted fir will become more and more valuable in quality^ and 
be held in greater estimation. The prejudice against the wood of the Scotch 

Sine seems to haye been at its greatest height between 1790 and 1810; for 
ffarshal, writing in 1796, says, the Scotch pine " should be invariably ex- 
cluded from every soil and situation in which any other timber tree can be 
roade to flourish. The north aspect of bleak and barren heights is the only 
situation in which it ought to be tolerated ; and even there the larch is seen 
to outbrai^e it. In better soils, and milder situations^ the wood of the Scotch 
fir is worth little ; and its growth is so licentious, as to overrun every thing 
which grows in its immediate neighbourhood ; and this renders it wholly un- 
fit to be associated with other timber trees ; we therefore now discard it 
entirely from all usefiil plantations." {Plant, and Rur, Om^ i. p. 146.) Soon 
afterwards (in 1798), Mr. Thomas Davis, a planter and manager of timber of 
great experience, and hish and deserved repute, who had then had the care 
of the fiiuu*quess of Bath s plantations, near Warminster, for 35 years, and who 
had planted upwards of 25,000 trees a year on poor heathy land, at the foot of 
the Wiltshire Downs, published a paper in the TrantacHons of ihe Society of 
Artif vol. xvi., in which he refutes the generally received opinion, that the Enp- 
lish-grown Scotch pine was of no use as timber, by facts that had come withm 
his ovm knowledge. ** I can assert fi*om experience," he says, ** that, for strength 
and durability, English-grown fir is equal to any foreign deal whatever. I allow 
that the Scotch fir (although it is, undoubtedly, the real yellow deal) is sel* 
dom of so fine a ^jndn as the foreign yellow deal ; but this is certainly occa- 
sioned by the rapidity of its growth, and its having too much room to throw 
out large side branches. Lord Bath's Scotch firs, which are known to have 
been planted in 1696, are from 2 fc. to 3 ft. in diameter ; whereas the best 
Christiania deal, although evidently 100 years old, is scldom above 1 ft. in di- 
ameter ; and its knots, which denote the size of its side branches, are small 
and inconsiderable, therefore evidently appearinff to havegrown slow and close 
together. We have a cart-house on Lord Bath^s estate, which was built 
above 80 years ago, out of small firs, which is now perfectly sound and up- 
right ; and, for the last 20 years, all the carpenters oi the country have used 
small firs for rafters, &c., with success ; and no timber is more ready of sale.*' 
(p. 125.) In Lambert's Pinusy ed. 2., voL ii. p. 177., is published a letter to 
nearly tbe same efiect, firom the same writer ; and tlie same facts have been 
lately ( 1837) confirmed to us by Mr. Davies^s son and successor, the present 
Thomas Davies, Es^., of Portway House, near Warminster. Pontey, in his 
Forett Prunery published in 1805, also defends the Scotch pine against the 
** almost universally prevaleut " prejudices agmnst it. ^ At first sight," he 
says, ** it seems natural to suppose such pr^udices roust be weli founded ; 
though, in fact, they rest upon no better foundation than the prejudice that 
prevuled, less than a century ago, against foreign fir timber ; namely, a pre- 
judice, the effect of inexperience. At that time, no workman could be found 
credulous enough to suppose that a roof madeof it would answer the purpose 
as well as one made of oak ; and yet now the tide of opinion is completely 
turned. An article which, apparently, has but little of either strength or 
durability is found, by experience, to possess a very extraordinary desree of 
both." (Forett Pruner, p. 52.) Mr. Pontey traces the prqudice to &e use 
of young trees as timber ; the absifrdity of which, he says, where strength and 
durability are required, every one will admit. 

CHAP. CXI1I. CONl^FERiE. Pl^NUS. 2169 

The historj of die indigenotis pine forests in Scotland is thus given by Sir 
T. D. Laader. Comniencing with tbe Westem Highlands, he notices the 
remains of the Rannoch Foreet, on the confines of the great counties of Perth, 
Invemess, and ArgvU, which» he says, has been ** unmercifully slaughtered/* 
in consequence of the high price of Baltic timber during the late wars. *' The 
roots that exist, and tbe occasionai single trees and groups which may still be 
seen here and there, in situations not easily accessible, show that this forest 
atretched far and wide across the country, meeting witb those which now re* 
raain on the Dee, the Spey, the Findhora, the Ness,and the Beauley ; as well 
as those connected with tne Glen-mor-naralbin, or Great Caledonian Glen, 
and with the Glengarry, Lochiel, Glen Nevis, and more western sylvan dis- 
tricts. Of these remnants, none were more extensive, or more esteeuied for 
their timber, than the forests of the Spey and the Dee. The Aberaethy fo- 
rests still continue to furaish a great quantity of very fine timber. In 1 730, 
a branch of the York Building Company purchased 7000/. worth of timber ; 
and, by their iniproved mode of workmg it up, by saw-mills, &c., and their 
new methods of transportinff it on floats to the sea, they introduced the rapid 
manu&cture and removal of it which afterwards took place throughout the 
whole of the sylvan districts. About the year 1786, the Duke of Gordon sold 
his Glenmore Forest to an English company for 10,000/. [It will be perceived, 
that there is a discrepancy between this account and that of Mr. Grigor, 
p. 2161., which, however, is of no great consequence.] This was supposed 
to be the finest fir wood in Scotland. Numerous trading vessels, some of 
them of above 500 tons burthen, were built fi^om the timber of this forest ; and 
one firigate, which was called the Glenmore. Many of the trees felled mea- 
sured 18 ft. and 80 ft. in eirt ; and there is still preserved at Gordon Castle 
a plank nearly 6 ft. in breadth, which was presented to the duke by the com* 
pany. But the Rothiemurchus Forest was the most extensive of any in that 
part of the country : it contained above 16 square miles. Alasi we must 
now, indeed, say that it was ; for the high price of timber hastened its de- 
atruction. It went on for many years, however, to make large returas to the 

froprietor, the profits being sometimes above 20,000/. in one year. The 
'oreats of Gienmore and Kothiemurchus, though belonging to diflerent es- 
tates, were so united as to form, in reality, one continuous forest ; and they 
are now equaily denuded of all their finest timber. The Braemar and In- 
▼ercauld Forests, ou the Dee, are as yet most entire. They are very exten- 
sive, and some very magnificent pines are to be found among them ; but the 
destructive axe has been let loose on that of Mar ; and we fear that nothing 
but a reduction in the price of timber will save it from the ruin which has 
befidlen those we have raentioned. It is curious to observe, in the Rothie- 
RMirchua Forest, and in all the others, how the work of renovation goes on. 
The young seedlings come up as thick as they do in the nurseryman's seed- 
beds ; and in the same relative degree of thickness do they continue to grow, 
till they are old enough to be cut down. The competition which takes place 
between the adjacent individual plants, creates a nvalry that increases their 
upwardgrowth; whilst the exclusion of the air prevents the formation of 
lateral brancbes, or destroys them soon after they are formed. Thus, Nature 
produces by far the most valuable timber; for it is tall, straieht, of uniform 
diameter throughout its whole Iength,andfreefi*om knots : aliwhichqualities 
combine to render it fit for spars, which fetch double or triple the sum per 
foot that the other trees do. The large and spreading trecs are on the out* 
akirts of the masses, and straggle here and there in groups or single trees.'* 
(^LauderU Gilp., vol. i. p. 177.) These last are the trees which are described 
by tourists, and drawn by artists, as the Highland pine. (See fig. 8052. 

The pine forests on the Continent, and espedally in the north of Europe, 
have suflfered like those of the Higblands of Scotland, and fi-om the same 
causes ; but, on tbe Continent, the work of reproduction goes on with rapidity, 
while this b the case in only a few of the Hignland forests. The reason is, that 




the Scotch foraitii are for the most part pastured with cattle and sheep, which, 
as weU 88 the deer that are found wild in these fbreats, browae upon the aeedlii^ 
trees, and prerent them from attainine the siie of timber. The forests of Sweden, 
Norway, and Russia are ako pastured by cattle, but in a yeiy alight degree ; the 
proportion of cattle to the range of country open to them being incomparablj 
smaller than in the Highlanda. In France and Oermany, tfae native forests are, 
for the mo8t part, carefully endosed, and placed under the care of woodmen, 
who are under the general direction of scientific men ; and, consequeotly, for 
whateyer trees are cut down, a succession of young ones, either suppiied by 
nature or art, are protected. 

In Norway, according to James White, Esq., an extensiye proprietor of pine 
and fir forests in that country, the only tall straisht trees, fit for exportation, 
as timber, either of P. sylv^tris or ii'bies excSsa, are found in sheltered 
situations on the phuns, and on the sides ^053 
of the mountains; and always in a good 
soil, that wouid bring oak, or any other 
kind of timber tree, to perfection. On 
the sea shore, and in all elevated ezposed 
pkces in the interior, and also where the 
trees stand singiy, or in small groups on 

Elains, they are stunted, short, or witfa 
rancby headB, so as to be fit only for fuel. 
In an estate belonging to Mr. White,of 5600 
acres, there are 250 acres of naked rock 
and bogs ; of the remaining 5350 acres, 
one tenth part consists of the stunted 
trees already alhided to, or of trees only 
half grown. There remain 4118 acres 
of thriving wood, all situated on the sides of hiils, in narrow valleys, or 
on plains; and all the trees are flrowii^ close toj^ether and sheltered, on 
good soil, the bads of whtch is the debris of gramtic rock. On each acre 
of this good soil there wre firom 380 to 500 trees, of which above 30 in each 
acre are considered fiili grown, and fit for timber; that is, fi*om 130 to 900 
years of age. The diameter <^the trunks of these trees, at about 1 ft. fi*om 
the ground, is firom 16 in. to 20 in. ; and at fiY>m 52 ft. to 63 ft. in heiefat, fi^m 

4 in. to 6 iu. Thus tbe average dimensions o£ the Scotch pine and spruce 
fir timber produoed by such an estate are as follows : — Length of the log, or 
tree, 57 ft. 6in.; diameter, at the lower end, 18in. ; and, at the upper end, 

5 in. Each log, or tree, may be sawn up into two deals, 9 in. wide, and 3 in. 
thick, fit for the En|^h market ; and two other deals 8^in. wide, and ^in, 
thick, fit for the French marl^ The manner in which tliese deals are cut, 
ao as to include only a small portion of 
tlie sap wood, is shown in the cross sec- 
tion, Jig. 2053., in which the shaded part, 
a, represents the sap wood; bb, the two 
Engush deals ; and cc, the two French 
deals. Another mode of cutting these 
trees into planks is shown in Jlg, 2054., 
in which </ is an English deal, 9 in. by 3 in., 
and ^tf are two battens, each 7in. by 
2^ in. When the timber is intended for 
masts, the tree is simply barked, and a 
portion of the sap wood is cut off, after 
which it is sent down to the seaport, 
and shipped. (Reports, &c,, for 1821 and 
1835; and MSS. communicated hy Mr. White.) 

By far the ^r^ter jjuantity of pine timber employed both in civil and naval 
construction u Bntam is imported from the Baltic, and from the coast of 
Norway. One London builder alone (the Mr. White inentioned above), who 


imports his own timber, is the owner of pine and fir forests, in Norway, of 
S0,000 acres in extent* 

Artificial plantations of tbe Scotch pine have been made to a great extent, 
not only in Britfun, but in France and Germany, durinff the present century. 
From 1780 or 1700, to 1815, many thousands of seedlings of Scotch pines 
were aent by the nurserymen of Aberdeen and Edhibnrgh to tbe English 
onrBerymen and promrietors, and raore perticularly to the proprietors o£ 
estBteB in Wales. These trees were planted, not always with a view of 
prodacing timber, but rather for the purpose of sheltering other trees which 
were oonsidered of greater valuej such as the oak, &c. Both in Scotland 
and in EDeland, also, phmtations of Scotch pine were formed solely for the 
purpoee of being cut down as a crop at the end of 25 or 30 years ; when 
the produce was disposed of for local purposes, and the ground dfterwards 
either planted with broad-leaved trees, subjected to the plough, or laid down 
in pasture. At the present time, the Scotch pine is stiil in general use as a 
tree for sheltering others, especially the oak (see p. 1800.}, and also for the 
sake of its timber; and, for the latter pui^ose, the red-wooded or Hi^land 
yariety is generally planted, at least in Scotland. 

Poetictu AiiutUmi, The pme mentioned by the Boman poets was probably 
P, Pinea; but tbat of AGIton ts, no ddubt, the P, sylvdstris : -~ Speaking of 
the fellen angels, he says, — 

*« FaitbAil how ^bey atood, 
Tbelt gHonr wlthefd ; a» whva tleaveii*» flrt 
Hi^ fcethed tbe fareit oekt, ot mountBln pioei^ 
With singed top, their itately growth, though bixe, 
Standi on the titaated hcath.*' 

Sir Walter Soott, also, mentions the Scotch pine in tbe foUowing lines :^ 

** And M^er vet the plne tree hung 
HiB •batter^d trunk, and frequent flung 
Whefe ieeinM the cliflk to meet on hlgh 
Hif boi«h« athwait the nanoWd aky.*^ 

Churchill, with reference to the growth of the Sootch pine in various soils 
and situations, says, ^ 

-— < " That pine of mountain race, 
Tbe flr, the Scoteh flr, never out of plaoe. 

Wordsworth has frequent allusions to this tree : — 

'* Unheeded night hac orercome the ralee : 
On the dark earth the baflled ▼Ition faib : 
Tbe hrteit lingerer of the fiMrest train, 
The kme bbu!k flr forsakes tbe fkded plain.*' Vol. I. pu 67. 

" And there I sit at erening, when tho tteep 
Of flllirer.bow, and Oi«mere't placid lake, 
And one green itland, gleam between the tftaat 
Of the dark fin — a ▼itTonary tcene.'* VoL ii. p. 879. 

<* WhUe o'er my bead, 

At eirery impulte of tbe morlng breeae,^ 

Tbe flrgrove muimun with a toaHliejioUDd» 

Alone f ttead thit path.** Vol. iL pi S80. 

Keats, also, appeara to allude to this tree, when he says : — 

I ** Flr treet grow around, 
Aye dropiikig thcir haid fttiit upoa the gxoand.** 

Propertiet and Uses. So much has been said on the uses of the pine and 
fir tribe generally, in our introduction to the ^bi^tinse (p. 2123.), that we 
have only here to notice such uses as are peculiar to the species before us. 
It is universally allowed, that the timber of the Scotch pine makes the best 
oaasts for ships; and, indeed, we are not aware of any use to which the timber 
of the genus l^nus is applicable, that that of the Scotch pine will not fuliil. 
All the resinous products common to the pifte and fir tribe ma^ be obtained 
from it, and this is the case in the north of Europe; but, in Britain, the tree 
ia seldom used for any other purpose than for timber. The timber of this 
species, when grown m a suitable soil and situation, is fit for being employed 
rn construction, when from 80 to 100 years of age, at which age thetrunk will 



PART 111« 

be found from 2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter, according to tbe drcumstances under 
which it bas grown ; but it will continue erowing for a rauch longer periot^ 
and tbe timber will increase in value as well as ia bulk, The woo3 varies in 
colour from a yellowish white to a brownish red, tbe latter being produced 
bv the presence of resin. That wood which grows slowest, and in the coldest 
cliroate, is considered the best, and it is generally of the darkest colour, 
That whtch grows with the greatest rapidity is commonly wbite, softy and 
spongy in texture, and without resin, A slow-growing tree will not produce 
layers more tban the tenth of an inch tbickness, while one of rapid growth may 
have the layers from a sixth to a fourth of an inch in tbickness, The red, or 
resinous, wood is abuost exclusively of very slow erowth : it is hard, dry, and 
does not adhere to the saw ; while the more rapidly grown wood, when it is 
resinous, chokes the saw, and bas a clammy unctuous teel. Mlien rapid-grown 
wood is witbout resin, it is white and spongy ; and the surface, after tbe saw, 
has a woolly appearance. It is evident that such wood can neither be strong 
nor durable. Englisb-grown Scotch pinCy wben cut down at 40 or 50 year^ 
growth, bas commonly this appearance; but, as we baveseen, p. 2161., there 
are many exceptions. Some of the Russian and Baltic pine timber is often 
clammy, tbe saw raising up and pushing before it wbat tbe carpenters call 
strings ; wbile tbe pine tunber of Nomt^ay and Riga is generally red and 

Masts of Scotch pine are procured from different ports on the Baltic (see 
p. 2113.), and also from Norway; and not only masts bave been obCained, 
but entire ships bave been built, from the Scotcb pine forests in Aberdeenshire 
(see p. 2161). The most celebrated masts in Europe, however, are those of 

The weight of the wood varies according to its age and other circum- 
stances. A cubic foot, in a green state, weighs from 54 Ib. to 74 Ib.; and, 
in a drv state, from 31 Ib. to 41 Ib. According to the Dictionnaire det Eaux 
et Forets, the average weight of the timber produced by a fulUgrown tree, in 
a green state, will be about 68 Ib., and in a dry state, about 40 Ib. 5oz. or 
6 oz. ; losing about a twelfth part of its bulk in drying : wbile, according to 
Varennes de Fenille, it weighs, green, 74 Ib. 10 oz. ; and dry, 38 Ib. 12 oz.; 
losing only a tentb part of its buUL by dryinff. 

Tbe wood is valued, like that of every ouier pine, in proportion to its free- 
ness from knots ; and it is found that the knots of this speaes are mucb more 
easily worked, and much less liable to drop out of flooring boards, than is the 
case with knotty boards of the spruce or silver fir. The (adlity with which 
the wood of tbe Scotch pine is worked occasions its employment in joinery 
and house carpentiy, almost to the exclusion of every other kind of timber, 
wherever it can be procured. It is at once strai^t, light, and stiff, and, con- 
sequently, peculiarly fitted for raflers, girders, joists, &c., wbich may be made 
of smaller dimensions of tbis timber timn of anv otber. In point of durability, 
if it is kept dry, it equals the oak ; more espedally if it has been of slow growth, 
and is resinous. 

The timber of tbe Scotch pine, when it has grown rapidly, on a good soil, 
and in a favourable climate, such as in most parts of the low country both of 
England and Scotland, is found, when not of more than 20 or 30 years 
growth, to consist ehiefly of sap wood, and, hence, to be of very short duradon 
when employed in buildings, or for any other rural purpose. To render it 
more durable, Mr. Menteath, of Closebum, in Dumfriesshire, has been in the 
practice, for upwards of 40 years, of steeping all his Scotch pine timber in lime 
water, after it bas been cut out, and fitted for the difTerent purposes required. 
It would appear, eitber that the alkali of the lime neutralises, in some degree, 
the albuminous matter of tbe sofl wood ; or that the water acts as a solvent, 
and extracts a part of it ; for, while Scotcb pine of 20 or 30 years' growth sel- 
dom lasts 30 years before it is destroyed by worms, timber of the same age, 
whicb Mr. Menteath has steeped, has already lasted 40 years, and is as sound 
as when first put up. Tbe solution of lime water is formed by a very small 

CHAP. CXIll. CONfFERA* Pl^NUS. 2173 

3iuuitity of quicklime beinff dissolved in it, and the time o eteeping is ten 
ays oT a fortnlght. The deeper the tBnk, and the lower the wood is sunk in 
it, the more effectually will thc lime water penetrate into the wood. Probably 
alum water would be still more effective than lime water, and the corrosive 
sublimate used in Kyanising would, doubtless, be the most effective of all. 

As fuel, the wood of the 8cotch pine liehts easily, and bums with ereat ra- 
pidity ; but it produces a black and very disagreeable smoke. Its vafue as a 
combustible, compared with that of the beech, is as 1536 to 1540. Its char- 
coal is excellent, and is to that of the beech as 1724 is to 1600. The faggot 
wood of the Scotch pine is valued b^ the chalk and lime burners of Eng^d 
more than any other, on account of its rapid buminff and intense heat, and 
consequent savingof time in attending on the kilns. The resinous juice, whe- 
tber exuding naturally, or procured by incision and distillation, produces tar, 
pitchy rosin, turpentine, and the essential oil of turpentine employed in house- 
painting. Lampblack of an inferior quality is made from the smoke of the 
wood ; and the leaves and branches are burned for potasb, though of this salt 
the tree yields only a small quantity. In the north of Russia, and in Lapland, 
the outer bark is used,like that of the birch, for covering huts, for lining them 
inside, and as a substitute for cork for floating the nets of fishermen ; and the 
inner bark is woven into mats, like those made firom the lime tree. Ropes are 
also made from the bark, which are said to be very strong and elastic, and are 
generally used by the fishermen. The Laplanders, and other people of the ex- 
treme north, are said to grind the inner bark of the pine into a coarse flour, for 
the purpose of making bread. This, though not true in the sense in which it is 
generalfy taken, is stiii founded on fact. Mr. Laing, in his Joumal of a Ren^ 
dence in Norway, states that he had been disposed to doubt the use of fir 
bark for bread ; but he found it more extensive tban is generally supposed. In 
Norway, it is the custom to kilndry oats to such a degree, that both. the grain 
and the husks are made into a meal almost as fine as wheaten flour. In bad 
seasons, the inner bark of young Scotch pines is kilndried in a similar manner 
to the oats, and ground along with them, so as to add to the quantity of the 
meaL The present dilapidated state of the forests, in districts which for- 
merly supplied wood for exportation, is ascribed to the great destmction of 
young trees for this purpose in the year 1812. The bread baked of the oat 
and pine meai is said to be very good. It is made in the form of " flat cakes, 
covering the bottom of a gu*dle or frying-pan, and as tbin as a sheet of paper, 
being put on the girdle in nearly a fluid state.*' When used at table, these 
cakes are made crisp by beinff warmed a little. (Lam^iJounialofa Rendencc 
m Korway.) According to Pallas, the young shoots, as well as the inner 
bark, are ground and used as bread in some parts of Siberia. The leaves and 
Inranches are eaten by cattle and sbeep in severe weather ; and they are said, 
by Delamarre and other French authors, to preserve sheep from the rot. 
Evelyn tells us that pine chips are used as a substitute for hops ; and other 
writers inform us that the young shoots, stripped of their leaves just when 
they are beginning to appear, are sought for with avidity by the children of 
tbe peasantry, who eat tbem. The milky juice found on the liber of the 
young trees is also said to be very sweet. The loe houses of Russia, Poland, 
aad Sweden are almost entirely made of the tmnKs of Scotch pine, notchedi 
and let into each otber, as alrmdv described, p. 2123. 

In Russia, roads are formed of the trunks of the Scotch pine. The trees 
selected are such as have tmnks from 6in. to Ift. in diameter at their 
thickest end. The branches of these are lopped off, to the length of 12 ft. 
or 15 ft., according to the width which the road is intended to be, and the 
rest are left on. The ground being marked off for the road, and made sorne* 
what even on the surface, the trees are laid down across it side by side, 
the thick end of one tmnk alternatmg with the narrow part of another, and 
tbe branches at the ends of the trunks forming a sort of hedge on each side 
of the road. The interstices of the tmnks are next filled up with soil, and 
the road is completed. Tbe hedges formed by the branches on the extre* 


mides of tbe tnuiks are fbund extremdy luefiil after snow haa feUeii« and 
before it has becoroe hard with the frost, and alao on the oommencement of 
a thaw, in indicating to the traveller when hifl horses are getting too near 
the edge of the road. Roads of tliiB rude description are peculiarfy suitable 
for marshy ground, and are very comroon in the mterior ot Russia, and also 
in 8ome parts of Poland. Recourse is also had to them in the commence- 
ment of back settlements in North America. In 1814, the greater part of 
the road from Petersburg to Moscow was of this kind ; but it has since, we 
understand, been Macadamised. The practice of paring streets and court- 
yards with blocks, cut from the trunks of 8cotch pines, and set up endwise, 
bas been already mentioned, p. 2193. 

Mode ofprocvtring the rethtotu Prodncti of the Scoieh Pme m tke Nortk of 
Enrope, The turpentine obtained from the Scotch pine is so inferior to tbat 
of the silver fir, that very little is made use of in the way of commeroey 
ezcept for the coarsest kinds of work. To procure it, a narrow piece of bark 
is stripped off the trunk of the tree in spring, whcn the sap is in motion, and 
a notch is cut in the tree, at the bottom of the channel formed by removing 
the bark, to receive the resinous juice» which will run freely down to it As 
it runs down it leaves a white matter ly^e cream, but a little thicker, which is 
very different from all the kinds of resin and turpentine in use, and which is 
generally sold to be used in the makinff of flamb«iuX) instead of white bees' 
wax. The matter that is received in Uie hole at the bottom is taken up with 
ladleSy and put into a large basket ; a great part of this immediately runs 
through, and this is the common turpentine. It is received into stone or 
earthen pots, and is then ready for saie. The tfaicker matter, which remains 
in the basket, is put into a common alembic ; and a large quantity of water 
being added, the liquor is distilled as long as any oil is seen swimming upon 
the water. The oil which is produced in large ^uantities is then separated 
from the water, and is the common oii or spint of turpentine; and the 
remaining matter, at the bottom of the still, is the comraon ^ellow rosin. 

Tar is procured from the Scotch pine in great quantities in the nortb of 
Europe, aad is considered very superior to that produced in the United 
Btates from P, resindsa, iStrobus, austnUis, and other spedes. The process 
foUowed in Sweden, by which both tar and charcoal are obtained, tbough 
the latter is there of little value, is thus described by Dr. darke: — ** The 
inlets of tbe gulf (Bothnia^ every where appeared of the gpmdest charac- 
ter ; surrounded bv noble forests, whose taU trees, flourishing luxuriantly, 
covered the soU quite down to the water^s edge. From the roost southem 
parts of Westro-Bothnia, to the northem extremity of the eulf, the inhabi* 
tants are occupied in the manufacture of tar; proofs of which nre visible in, 
the whole extent of the coast. The process by which tbe tar is obtained* 
is very simple ; and, as we often witnessed it, we sball now describe it, from a 
tar-work we halted to iuspect upon the spot The situation roost favourabie 
to the process is in a forest near to a marsh or bog ; because the roots of the 
Bcotch pine, from which far is prindpallv extracted, are always rooat pTo* 
ductive m such places. A conical cavitv is then roade in the ground (gene- 
raUy in the side of a bank or sloping hill) ; and the roots togetber with logs 
and billets of the wood, bein^ °^^ trussed in a stack of the same oonical 
shape, are let into this cavity. The whole is then covered with turf, to 
prevent the volatile parts from being dbsipated, which, by means of a faefltvy 
wooden roallet, ano a wooden stamper worked separately by two men, is 
beaten down, and rendered as firm as possible above the wood. The stadL 
of billets is then kindled, and a slow combustion of the pine takes place, as in 
making charcoal. During this combustion the tar exudes ; and^ a cast-iron pan 
bdng fixed at the bottom of the funnel, with a spout which projects throu^ 
the side of the bank, barrels are placed beneath this spout to collect the fluid 
as it coroes awav. As fast as these barrds are fitled, they are bunged, aad 
are then ready for imroediete exportation. From this description, it will be 
evident that the mode of obtaining tar is by a kind of dtstiUation per desceit- 


nm ; the turpentinea melted by fire, mixing with the sap and juices of the 
piney while the wood itself, becoming charred, is ccnverted into charcoal. 
(7V09. m Scmid^ &c.) 

Wben pttch is to be made, the tar, without any thing being added to it, 
is put into large copper vessda (fixed in masonry, to prevent any danger of 
the tar taking fire), and la there suffered to boil for some time ; after which 
ic 18 let out, andy when cold, hardens and becomes pitch. 

Tar and charcoal are obtained in Russia much m the same manner as in 
8weden, firom the bottoms of the trunks and the roots of the trees. In 
Gennany, the process is conducted with very great accuracy, and is described 
in detaii by Hartig, in his translation of Du Hamers Traile de$ Arhret^ &c., 
vol. i. p. 15. ; and it is also giyen in the DicHonnaire det Eaux et Forets, arL 
Resine, p. 731. In France, it is conducted in a Bimilar manner; though the 
reainous products of the pine and fir tribe, in that coimtry, are generally 
obtained ht>m the pinaster, as will be described under that tree. In Britain, 
tar vt sometimes extracted from the roots of the Scotch pine in the High- 
lands, in a rudc manner, for local purposes, The country people, having hewn 
the wood into biilets, fill a pit due in the earth with them ; and, setting them 
on fire, there runs from thero, wnile they are buminff, a black thick matter, 
which naturally fiills to the bottom of the pit, and this is tar. The top of 
the pit is covered with tiles to keep in the heat; and there is at the bottom 
a little trou^, out of which the tar runs like oil : if tliis hole be made too 
large, it sets the whole quantity of the tar on fire ; but, if small enough, it runs 
quietly out. In England, a piece of a branch of the tree is sometimes put in 
a smithy fire, at one end, while the sap and resinous matter wbich oozes out 
at tlie other is scraped off from time to time, and mixed with tallow for 
greasing tiie wheels of carts. 

Flambeaux of the roots and trunks of the pine are in use both in Britain 
and in the north of Europe. Hall, in his Trave/i in ScoHand, relates a story 
of a bet made in London by a Highland chief, that some massive silver can- 
dlesticks, on the table at a ffentleman*8 house where he was dinins, were not 
better, or more vaiuable, than those commonly in use in the Hiffhlands. The 
chiefiain won his bet, by sending to his estate for four Hiohutnders of his 
claii, and producing them with torches of blazing fir in their hands, declaring 
that they were the candiesticks to which he tdluded. (vol.ii. p.440.) Dr. 
Howison observes " that the little tallow or oil which the peasantry in 
Russia can procure is entirely consumed at the shrines in the cnurches, and 
before the images in their isbas, or huts." To supply the place of candles, *' they 
take long billets of red Scotch pine, which tney dry carefully near their 
peatches, or stoves, durinj^ the tedious winter, and split, as occasion requires. 
mto long pieces resembling iaths. When a traveller arrives, or a light is 
required for any other purpose, one of these laths is lighted at the peatch, 
and fixed in a wooden frame, which holds it in a horizontai position. It gives 
B bright flame^ but only burns for a short time.*' {For, Treet of Ruts, in Jam, 
Jour^ voL xii. p. 60.) 

As a timber tree, for plantin^ in poor dr^ soils, and in exposed situations, 
none can excel the Scotch pme, and it is only equailed by the larch. . In 
Britain, it surpasses every other species of the pine and fir tribe for shelter- 
ing other trees, with the exception of the spruce fir, which, being of a more 
conical shape, admits more light and air to the heads of the trees which are 
to be drawn up by it. The Scotch pine is, however, altogether unfit for giving 
shelter in single rows, unless the branches are allowed to remain on, from the 
ground upwards, and the roots have free scope on every side. Hence, this pine, 
like everv.other species of the tribe, is altogether unfit for a hedgerow tree. 
When pfanted in narrow belts round fields for shelter, it soon becomes un« 
aigbtiy, unless tlie trees stand so thin as to allow of their being clothed with 
branches from the ground upwards. The true situation for this tree, when 
grown for timber, is in masses over extensive surtaces. 

As an ornamental tree, various opinions are entertained of the Scotch 

7 B 


pine ; the diversity of which may be partly owing to the great extent to wfaich 
the tree has been planted in almost evcry part of the low country of Brjtain ; 
and the great difference between the tree in these plantations, and in its 
native habitats, in hilly or mountainous scencry. Even the difference be- 
tween the tree standing alone or in small groups, and growiug in extensive 
plantationsy is so great, that it can hardly be recognised by a general observer 
to be the same species of tree. In close plantations, which have nerer been 
thinned, the trees assume, after a certain number of yean, a gloomy sameness 
bf appearance ; and, where these are planted in belts, as they ofteh are, along 
a public road, " dayiight may be seen for miles through their naked stems, 
chilled and contracted as they are with the cold." The tiniber, also, of trces 
grown in the fertile soils of the low country, which have been cut down, being 
so much less strong and durable than Highland or foreign wood of the same 
kind^ is another cause of the tree having got into bad repute, though the 
great objection to it is its appearance. Mason says, — 

" The Soottish fir, in murkir file, 
Rears his Ingloriout head, and blots Uie fur borlxcm.** 

The great contempt in which the Scotch fir is commonly held, says 
Gilpin, ** arises, I beiieve, from two caiises. People object, first, to its colour : 
its dark murkv hue is unpleasing. With regard to colour in general, I think 
I speak the larguage of painting, when I assert that the picturesque eye 
maxes little distinction in tnis matter. It has no attachment to one colour 
in preference to another, but considers the beauty of ail colouring as result- 
ing, not from the colours themselves, but almost entirely from the harmony 
with other colours in their neighbourhood. So that, as the fir tree is sup- 
ported, combined, or stationed, it forms a beautiful umbrage, or a murky spot. 
A second source of that contempt in which the Scotch fir is commonly neld 
is, our rarely seeing it in a picturesque state. Scotch firs are seldom planted 
as single trees, or in a judicious group ; but generally in close compact bodies, 
in thick arr^y, which suffocates or cramps them ; and, if they ever get loose 
from this bondage, they are already ruined. Their lateral branches are gone, 
and tbeir stems are drawn into poles, on which their heads appear stuck as 
on a centre. Whereas^ if the tree had grown in its naturai state, all mischief 
had been prevented : its stem would have taken an easy sweep, and its 
lateral branches, which naturally grow with almost as much beautiful irregu* 
larity as those of deciduous trees, would have hung loosely and negligently ; 
and the more so, as there is something peculiarly light and feathery in its 
foliage. I roean not to assert tbat every Scotch fir, though in a natural 
state, would possess these beauties ; but it would at least have the chance 
of other trees ; and I have secn it, though, indeed, but rarely, in such a 
state as to equal in beauty the most elegant stone pine. AU trees, indeed, 
crowded together, naturally rise in perpendicular stems; but the fir has 
this peculiar disadvantage, that its lateral branches, once injured, never 
shoot again. A grove of crowded saplings, elms, beeches, or almost any 
deciduous trees, when thinned, will throw out new lateral branches, and 
in time, recover a state of l)eauty ; but, if the education of the fir has been 
neglected, he is iost for ever." (For, Scen,, i. p. 91.) 

The Scotch fir, in perfection, continues Oilpin, ** I think a very fine tree, 
though we have littie idea of its beauty ; and it is generally treated with great 
contempt. It is a hardy plant, and is therefore put to every servile office. If 
you wish to screen your house frora the south-west wind, plant Scotch firs, 
and plant them close and thick. If vou want to shelter a nursery of young 
trees, piant Scotch firs ; and the phrase is, you may afterwards weed them 
out as you please. This is isnominious. I wish not to rob society of these 
hardy services firom the Scotcn fir ; nor do I mean to set it in competition 
with many trees of the forest, which, in their infant state, it is accustomed to 
shelter : all I mean is, to rescue it from the disgrace of being thought fit for 
nothing else, and to establish its character as a picturesque trec. For 
myself, I admire its foliage, both the colour of the leaf, and its mode of 

CHAK CXllI, CONl^FEIlil!:. PI^NUS. 2177 

growth. Its ramification, too, is irregular and beautiiul, aud not unlike that 
of the stone pine, which it resembles, also, in the easy sweep of its stem, and 
likewise in the colour of the bark, which is comuionly, as it attains age, of a rich 
reddish brown. The Scotch fir, indeed, in its stripling state, is les» mr object 
of beauty. Its pointed and spiry shoots, during tne fo^st year of its growth, 
are formal ; and yet I have sometimes seen a good contrast produced between 
its spiry points and the round-headed oaks and elms in its neighbourhood. 
When I speak, however, of the Scotch iir as a beautiful individual, I conceive 
it when it has outgrown ail the improprieties of its youth; when it has 
completed its full age, and when, like EzekiePs cedar, it has formed its 
head among the thick branches. I may be singular in my attachment to the 
Scotch fir. I know it has many enemies; but my opinion will weigh only 
with the reasons I have given." {Ibid,^ Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, in his 
commentary on this passage, says, '' >Ve agree with Mr. Oilpin to the fullest 
extent in his anprobation of the Scotch fir as a picturesque tree. We, for 
our parts, contess, that, when we have seen it towering in fiill majesty in the 
midst of someappropriate Highland scene, and sending its limbs abroad with ail 
the unconstrained freedom of a hardy mountaineer, as if it claimed dominion 
over the savage reeions around it, we have looked upon it as a very sublime 
object. People who have not seen it in its native climate and soil, and who 
judge of it from the wretched abortions which are swaddled and sufibcated in 
English plantations, in deep, heavy, and eternaliy wet clays, may well call it 
a wretched tree ; but, when its foot is among its own Highland heather, and 
when it stands freely on its nntive knoll of dry gravel, or thinly covered rock, 
over which its roots wander far in the wildest reticulation, whilst its tall, fur- 
rowed, and oflen gracefully sweeping red and grey trunk, of enormous cir^ 
cunaference, rears aioft its high umbrugeous canopy, then would the greatest 
sceptic on this point be compelled to prostrate his mind before it with a ven&f 
ration which, perbaps, was never betbre excited in him by any other tree." 
(Laud. Gilp,y i, p. 174.) To enable the reader to judge of the correctness 
of the opinion of Gilpin and Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, with which we entirely 
agree as to the beauty of this tree, in certain circumstances of age and situa- 
tioD, we have only to refer to fi^. 2051. and 20d2. in p. 2163. and p. 2164>. ; 
to the plates of this tree in our last Volume ; and to the beautiful views of 
scenery in the Highlands, by Robson and Nesfield. 

SoU and Situation. A granitic soil, it is generally allowed both by British 
and Continental writers, is the most congenial to the Scotch pine; and the 
saod and gravel of the Forests of Rastadt and Hagueneau ar6 composed of 
the debris of this rock. J. S. Menteath, Esq., has remarked that the Scotch 
pine does not harden its wood well when growing on the grauwacke ; and 
several others have observed that it is short-lived, and never attains a large 
nie on chalk. The Scotch pine, Sang observes, will grow and flourish in 
any kind of soil, from a sand to a clay, provided the substratum be rubble or 
rock ; ** but in wet tilly soils it ought never to be planted ; because, whenever 
the roots have exhausted the turf, or upper soil, and begin to perforate the sub* 
soil, the tree languishes and dies." It is justly observed by Mathe\^,that the 
natural location of the Scotch pine in poor sandy soils does not result frofn these 
soils being best adapted for it, but from its growing more vigorously in them than 
any other tree. Should any one doubt this, he observes, let him make an excur^ 
sion into Mar Forest, and there he will find the Scotch pine in every description 
of soil and situation, but aiways thriving best in ^ood timber soil ; and, in short, 
not differing vety materially, in respect to soil, from the sycamore, the elm, 
the oflk, or the ash. Mr. Mathews also mentions that, though the Scotch 
pine has a superior adaptation to dry, sharp, and rocky soils, yet there are 
manj situations of poor wet till and clay, and even of peat moss ground, 
where it would be advantageous to plant the Scotch pine; because, from its 
roots running along thc surface, no other timber tree will thrive so well ui 
such soils. The same author observes that nothing conduces so much to the 
quality of Scotch pine wood, as the exposure of the tree while growing, 

7 B 2 


** Under the great shelter of the close-planted woods, the timber is soft aoid 
porouSy without much renn ; but, under great exposure, e^ieciall^ to dry air, 
the timber is hard, close, and resinous. Thia ia, however, comaderably mo- 
difiedbythe.soil." (On NavalTimber^&c.,p,3S9.) According to Dr.Walker, 
the Scotch pine may be planted on the thinnest and driest soils, and also in 
mossy soil, when it is less than 8 ft. in depth, and bottomed witb gra^el 
rather than with day. It may also be planted in sand on the sea shore, and 
on mountains to the height of 1400 feet. (Highlands of ScoHand, iL p. 837.) 
In England, it is found that the Scotch pme wul grow on everv soU ; but that, 
among dry soils» the one on which it tarives the least is chalk. The worse 
the soil, the farther the plants should be placed apart, in order to insure tbeir 
vigorous growth ; but, as this distance wul admit of their becomin^ branchy 
trees, what the tunber gains in strength and durability, it will lose m its fit- 
ness for manv purposes, firom the number of the knots produoed by leaving 
on the branches. 

Propagation and CuUure. The Scotch pine produces oones at tbe age of 
fifteen or twenty years ; and every cone generally contains firom 60 to 100 
s^ds. The cones are ^euiiered in the months of December and January»aiid 
laid in a dry loft, where they will keep good for a year or two, if not wanted 
for sowing ; and wheaoe the^ may be taken in eaiiy spring, and ezposed to tlie 
sun, or at any season and shghtly dried on a kiln» as already directed, p. 2131. 
Bleven imperial gallons, or about a bushel and a half, of cones, wiii afibrd 
1 Ib. of seed with the wings on, or from 13 oz. to 14 oz. without wings. A 
bushel aiid a half of seeds, with the wings on, weigh 12 Ib. ; and without the 
wings, 26 Ib. As mi^ht be expected, the secMl keeps longest when the wingi 
are left on. If kept m a dry plaoe, and tumed over occasionally, to prevent 
it fi>om heating, the seed wiU keep fresh several years ; but its vitality is very 
doubtful after the second year. Old seeds are easily proved by sowmg a few 
in a pot, and placing it in heat in a moist atmosphere; when, if the seras are 
(r&h, they will oome up in a few days. In generai, however, the fi^shness 
of the seeds may be ascertained by openinf them ; and, if the kemel is {^Uunp 
and fingrant, there can be little doubt of their germinadng. In die Uiciiot^ 
nmre des Eomx et Forets^ it ia said that, in France, the seeds of the aprace, 
which are of areddish colour, are sometimes tumed black by means of powdered 
charcoai, and sold for those of the wUd pine; but nothing of this kind takes 
place in Britain, as the seeds of the latter apecies are of all the naost abun- 
dant, and conaequently the cfaeapest. The seeds should be sown in beds in 
light ricfa aoil, and covered very sughtly, perhaps firom a oxteenth to a fi>urth 
of an inch, according to the soil, situation, and dimate. Sai^ directs the 
seeds to be sown so as to rise at the distance of a quarter of an inch from ooe 
another, and the covering to be ^m. thick. lu France and Germany, 
forests of wild pine are frequently raised by sowingthe seed where the plants 
are finally to remain ; in raich case an acre, wfaere tfae soil and situation are 
fiivourabfe, will reauire 14 Ib. of seeds witfa tfae wings on, and 11 Ib. without 
the wings ; and, wnere tfae scmI and situation are unfavourable, 16 Ib. witfa tfae 
wings, an(^ 12 Ib. without them. If the seeds are sown in rows, half die 
quantity wiU suffice in both cases. The time for sowiog, whetfaer in the 
nuraery or in the fi^reat, is ftom the end of March to the b^inning of May ; 
taking the climate of London for one extreme, and that of Aberdeen for tne 

Boutcher, from having obaerved that tfae seeds of tfae Scotcfa mne are often 
injured by iLilndryinjg;, recommends not gathering the cones in tne Deeember 
of tfae aame year in wfaicfa tliey ripen, but d^erring tfais to the Marcfa or 
April foUowing ; and then keeping them in a dry piaoe till June» July, or 
August, sooner or later, accoroing as the weather becomes hot At this 
season, they are to be taken out and exposed to the heat of the sun during 
the day ; but put under cover in the evenings, and kept constantly from rain 
and dew. In a few days the cones wili expand, and the seeds wiil rattle 
within them, when they can be easily taken out by sifiing, &c They are 


then to be kept in begs or boxes in a dry room, till the sowing season in the 
April fbllowing. Boutcher recommends sowing tbe pine seed in shady bor- 
ders of ffenerous loose mould, about the middle of March ; and covering it 
}hi. tfaiiuc, or corerine it at first } in.; and, just as the seed begins to yege. 
tate, raking off one half of the covering with a short-toothed rake. Many 
thousands of plants, in stiff grounds and £y seasons, he saysyfor want of this 
precaution, are smothered ; being unable to struggle with the hard-crusted 
surface. Baudrillart makes the same remark witn reference to the Scotch 
pine raised in nurseries in France. Boutcher's reason for sowine the 8cotch 
pine so early ts, that, when the plants are not well rooted before the hot 
aeasons sets in, they become stunted, and are sometimes killed. It will be 
observed that, by Boutcher^s plan, a year is lost, but in other respects it seems 
nnexceptionable. When the seeds are kilndried with care, and at a low 
temperature, they will not be injured ; and the labour attending this process 
must be less than that of removing them at lest twice a day, for several weeks, 
firom a shed or loft into the open air, and back again. After the plants come 
up, if they can be supplied with water for two or three weeks, it will greatiy 
increaae their vigour. In the foUowing April, they may be transplant^ into 
nursery lines, 1 ft. 3in. asunder; and 6in. or 7in. apart in the row, where 
they may remain two years ; after which they should be removed to their 
final destination : or, should large plants be required, they may be removed 
a aecond time, and planted in the nursery, in rows 3 ft. asunder, and 1 ft. 6 in. 
apart in the row; where, after standing two years, they ** will transplant with 
absolate safety, and grow as fireely as the ^ounger plants ; notwithstanding 
the general prejudice against old scotch pmes, which has only a good foun- 
dadon when they have not been transplanted seasonably, or properly culti- 
yaCed.'* (TVeatite on Fbrett Tree$^ &c., p. 136.) The general nursery practice 
18 to allow seedling Scotch pines to remain two years in the seed-bed ; after 
which they are taken up, and planted in rows 1 ft. 2 in. apart, and 3 in. apart 
in the lines, taking care never to prune the tops, and to ii\jure the roots as 
little as |x>s8ible. ^ If thev remain a third year m the seed-bed," says Sang, 
^ they are good for nothing. Scotch pines, the same author observes, " should 
never stand longer in the tines than one j^ear after planting, unless they are 
to be planted out in very fine soii ; in which case, tney may be allowed two 
years in the linea, but at the distance of 6 in. between plant and plant. Two- 
jreara seediing Scotch pines of good growth,** he says, " one year planted ont 
on good soil, rise with far better roots in proportion to their tops than when of 
any other age, and are therefore more fit tor seneral use." (Pkmt,Kal,f p. 319.^ 
Mr. Farquharson of Marlee, writmff to Dr. Hunter in 1755, gives the foU 
lowing account of hia mode of raising i£e Scotch pine from seeds, and planting 
k out on the Highland mountains. He gathers the cones in February or 
March, ftom thriving youn^ trees ; and sows the seeds in the end of Apnl or 
the beginning of 'N&y, in Iight loamy soil, trenched 1 ft. 6 in. deep, and laid 
oot in beds 5 ft. broad. He sows the seeds very thick, and covers them with 
a " thick siftins of mould," fi^om the alleys. Plants raised in this manner, he 
taya, will rise Iike a brush. No kind of manure shouid be given to the beds, 
aa prodnctive of weeds; the drawing of which not only brincs up many of the 
tender plants, but looseos the ground, and makes blanks that let m the ft^ost in 
winter, and the drought in summer. To give an idea of the sowing^henever 
oonsiders his crop ofplants good uniess he has above 1000 in each foot long 
of die beds, that is, in five square feet, upon their having two seasons' growth. 
** I plant them out," he says, " irregularly firom the seed-bed, about 3 ft. 
«snnder, upon tbe mountainous ground where they are to rise to perfection. 
I beein to plant the driest ground in autumn, 18 monthsafter sowing, and |)er- 
aist m this operation until the fit>st prevents me. I begin again in February, or, 
rather, as tbe weather admits, and continue this worii sometimes tiil the end 
of April, so as to plant out the product of 2-year-old seed-beds. I put theplants 
into the ground with two cuts of a spade, made in the form of theletter V, thus 
•^; I raise the point of the angle with what we call a dibble, or wooden spa- 

7 B 3 


tula, with a handle about 1 ft. 6 in. in len^h ; and^ laying thc plant up to the 
necic, tread down the raised sod with the ioot. In this method, two men roa/ 
plant 1000 plants in a day. When the ground is rocky, or very stony, I use 
a dibble shod with iron, having a cleft at the extremity to lead down the root, 
putting the plants into the ground in the manner that cabbages are planted. 
One man will plant as many in this way as two in the other ; yet the first 
method is preferabie where the ground admits of it, as I have always observed 
fewer plants to fail by it. My reason for planting direct from the seed-bed, 
without transplanting in a nursery, is, that it comes nearest to the operadon 
of nature. Plants that have been removed from the seed-bed, and trans- 
planted in the nursery, must necessarily have their roots pruned considerably 
before they can be planted in pits of the kind above described, which adds 
greatly to the expensc. Besides, nursing causes a luxuriant growth in this 
hardy mouncainous tree, which spoils its nature, and robs it of longevity." 
(HurU, Evel, Syl., i. p. 290.) 

CuUure in PUmtaHons. Little remains to be added to what has been said 
on this Bubject in our general introduction to the i^bi^tinse, p. 2132. The 
Scotch pine, when planted with a view to the production of timber, should 
always be in large masses ; and when with a view to omament, in single trees 
or in sroall groups. It should ncver be planted in belta, or in narrow pian- 
tations, unless tne plants are thinned out, so as to admit of their retaming 
their branches from the eround upwards ; in which case the timber produced 
will be of little use. Wben the plantations are made on a surface that is 
tolerably even and regular, the plants shouid always be inserted in lines, for 
the greater convenience of future culture ; but when the surface is rocky, 
stcep, and in other respects irregular, the plants can only be put in accord- 
ingly. The nice points in the management of Scotch pme plantations are, 
the thinning and pruning ; both of which should be performed very sparingly, 
where tall clean tunber is the object in view. Both operations must beguided, 
in a great measure, by the quantity of timber which the soil is estimated to 
produce on a given space. 

The CuUure of the Scotch Pine m tlie North ofScotland has been thns 
detailed to us by Macpherson Qrant, Esq. of BallindaUoch, in Invemess-«hire, 
a successful and very extensive planter : — '* In the northera counties of 
Scotland, the Pinus sylv^tris has for a lon^ time been pretty extensiveiy 
planted ; and, although this is the native locahty of the tree, it lias been very 
generally remarked that the artificial are very inferior to the natural woods. 
Much discussion had arisen, and many theories had been broached, to 
explain this inferiority, tiU it was at length suggested that it mig^t very 
probably be caused by the circumstance of the seed, from which the plants 
were produced, being collected from unhealthy and stunted trees, in districts 
more accessible than those in which the tree attains its greatest perfection. 
Premiums for the greatest quantity of plants grown from seed gatliered in the 
natural forests have for some years been offered by the Highland and Agri- 
cultural Sodety of Scotland ; and have been awarded to Mr. Origor, nursery- 
man at Elgin, who has taken great pains to further this object, and who last 
year likewise obtained a premium for the best Report on the Natural Forests of 
Scotland. (See p.2165.) Until within the last20years, plantations, in this part of 
the country,were formed of Scotch pine alone ; but it is now usuai to mix them 
with larch in nearly equal proportions; and here we plant about two larches 
to one pine. The Scotch pines are procured frora the nurserymen two-years- 
old seedlings ; and they are placed at once on the hilly ground, where they are 
finally to remain. A workman, with a common spade, makes a double cut at 
right aneles, like the letter T,thus H ; raising the turf slightly with the spade, so 
as to admit the insertion of the plant at the point where the two cuts meet : 
a woman or boy foUows with the plants; and, having placed one in the open- 
ing, compresses the turf by stampm^ on it with the foot. In this manner, a 
man and boy will plantabout 1000 m a winter day (six hours). The number 
of planta is about 5000 to the imperial acre. The larches are of the saroe 


age> and are planted in the same way, as the pines. The seasons of planting 
are autumn and spring ; but the former is preferred, from the uncertainty of 
getting the work accomplished in spring, on account of snow and frost. The 
men are paid \s,, and the women and boys 6d. , per day, of six hours. The 
Scotch pnie plants of the tnie kind (from Highland seed) cost 2s. per thou- 
sand of 1200, and the two-years' seedling larches 3s. per thousand. To 
these expenses must be added that of fencing, which varies accordine to 
the situation of the plantation. 1£ near farms, stone walls or turf dikes 
faced with stone are required ; if further removed from the approaches of 
cattle, turf fences are sumcient ; whilst in the most remote parts, where occa- 
sional iuronds from sbeep are alone to be apprehended, fences are sometimes 
dbpensed with, and a person resident on the spot Ls employed, at asmall salary, 
(say 5L per annum) to protcct the plantation by driving away any sheep 
or cattle that may encroach on it. A nealthy plantation should be safe from 
injury from sheep in 8 years, and in 12 years from cattle. In wet portions of 
tbe hilly ground, narrow surface drains are of great advantage, and may be 
made at a smaU expense. 

** In the natural forests of Scotch pine, the plants spring up of different 
ages ; and, being consequently of various sizes, the stronger ^adually destroy 
tfie weaker, uutil the wood is reduced to the distances at which the trees can 
ultimately stand ; whilst the lateral branches gradually decay and fall off, so 
that thinning and pruning are quite unnecessary. In short, a natural, or 
aelAfiown, forest ot Scotch fir is lefl eptirely to nature. Nature sows the 
seed, rears the tree, prunes and thins the wood ; and the hand of man is 
applied ouly to cut it down when fit for timber. In this manner, the exten- 
Bive forests of Glenfeshie, Rothiemurchus, Dulnain, Glenmore, and Abernethy, 
on the Spey, and those of Braemar and Invercauld on the Dee, were pro- 
duced. The high price of timber durtng the war induced the proprietors of 
tbose fine woods to cut them down. Most of them are now exnausted ; and 
the few trees which remain of the others scarcely sufiice to convey an idea 
of thoae that are gone. For several years, 18,000/. per annum was produced 
from the Rothiemurchus wood, aflerdeductmff all expenses of felling, sawing, 
and floBtine to the mouth of the Spey ; and a sum not less than 250,000/. 
has probablv been obtained from that forest alone. Tbe ground wliich has 
been cleared is rapidly regaming its covering of wood : wherever the heath is 
abort, and especiaily where the surface is broken so as readily to admit the 
aeed, thouaanda of plants spring up ; nor do I know a more interesting sight, 
than this gnidual Drocress of nature to repair the destruction caused by the 
hand of man. — Macpherson Grant, BalUndalhch, August 26. 1837.** 

Tkitmmg and Prunmg, as at preseni pracHsed m the Scotch Pme PianttUions in 
the North ofScotland, Aiier perusing Mr. Grigor'fl Report on the native pine 
fbreata of Scotland, of which an abstract is given in p. 2 165., we wrote to him 
for information on the subjects of thinning and pruning, as actually practised in 
these forests, and also in artifidal plantations ; and as to the enects of the 
neglect of either or both of these operations. To our api)lication Mr. Grigor 
kindly and promptW sent us the following answer : — " The old trces of the 
nativeScotch pine forests have trunks quite clean and free from old stumps, so 
that the side branches must have rotted ofi* when the trees were young, and 
of a small size. Some of the pines, grown on exposed situations, have strong 
side branches, but not very near the ground : such brancbes are commonly 
found above large clean trunks of from 15 f^. to 30 f^. in length. When the 
timber of these forests is cut up, loose knots are rarely met with : indeed, 
knots of any importance are seldom seen, except where such were attached to 
live branchea at the time the trees were felled. The wood of the old trees 
appears so clean and equal when sawn up, that, in many, only very slight 
marks of lateral branches are visible. Ihe young trees, of from 25 to 40 
years' crowth, present regular tiers of decayed branches near the ground, 
which tall away in course of time. The proprietors of the native forests 
sometimes pnine and tliin the woods, but not often : they thin when the 

7b 4 


trees are much crowded, and of nearly an equal size, especially when ritunted 
near a road or river, where timber is of most yalue; but this is not attended 
to in the more remote parts of the forests. I have only seen the treea 
pruned when they stand quite thin, or, from having lost th^ leading shoots, 
by sbeep pasturing the ground, or other casualty, have become bushy. In 
this case, I haye seen a considerable extent gone over in January and Fe> 
bruary, and pruned to the height of from 8 ft. to 4 ft. with the axe ; the whole 
height of the trees being irom 5 ft. to 10 ft. In the Highland natural forests, 
the young planu do not often rise of equal strength and size. There is 
commonly a portion of them (a sufiicient crop) stout enough to overtop the 
smaller ones; and the latter are of much benefit in preventing the side 
branches of the former from advancing to a large size. The side branches 
of the true Highlttid pine naturally take a wide or horixontal direction, 
whereby they are more subject to decay by the cloeeness of the trees, than 
if they inclined to a more perpendicukir figure, as do our Low Country pines. 
In planted woodn, the [Mne trees are commonly of the aame aizeand age ; and 
then it is absoluteiy necessary to thin them, as their tops ti»e eqiud, and 
form a suriace parallel to that of the ground on which tney stand ; there> 
fore, without relief by thinning, the whole are, to a certain extent, injured ; 
whereas, in natural forests, the difierence of dzes and ages u great, and 
the Btrongest prevail unhurt. I am ac^juainted with many artificial planta* 
tions of pine ; and the comroon method is, to thin the trees gradually as they 
get too close or too high for thdr girt. Planted pines are not commonly pruned, 
that being considered the worst mode of treatment. Many proprietors, of 
iate, have given over tbinning ; but tbe woods are mucfa hurt by being too 
much confined. A good tree can scarcely be seen, except near the outaide, 
or where a road opens up and admits air. I am dearly of opinion that we 
sball not have good pine plantations until they are produced flrom the seeds 
of the nadve Highlatid forests, which are more bealthy and perroanent than 
the kind commonly cultivated. — John Grigor, Farres, Sept. 9. 1837.*' 

The Eari of Aberdeen ; Macpherson Orant, Esq., ot Ballindfdloch ; Mr. 
Oeorge Saunders, gardener and forester to the Duke of Richmond at 
Oordon Castle ; Mr. Rov, nurseryman, Aberdeen ; and other proprieUNns and 
gardeners of the north, have sent us answers to all our queries on the auLkject 
of thinning and prunine, which correspond with those given above by Mr. 
Origor. From the Earlof Aberdeen'8 letter, we give the foUowing extract : 
-— ** I received your letter during an excursion in the upper part of tbis 
county, precisely in the neighbourhood of those naturai fir forests respectine 
which you had written to me. From the information I have received, I 
think I may venture to assure you that these fbrests are never thinned, 
at least witn the view of promoting the growth of the trees ; nor, in fact, 
with the exception, perhaps, of c&aioing to a iimited extent, in particular 
situations, does tbere appear to be any care taken, or any management 
whatever to exist. This, indeed, is suffidently obvious from the very ap- 
pearanoe of the forest ; on iarge portions of which the trees are thiniy 
scattered, and at considerable mtervals ; in other parts, they are crowded 
together, and stand more densely than they could ever have been plaoed by 
the band of the planter. Tfais appearance, however, is not so much the con* 
sequence of neglect, as the result of an opinion that it is best not to meddle 
with the trees at all. They are left to thin themselves, aa it is calied, by 
which the weak plants are overpowered, and destroyed by the stron^. 1 
have also been assured that, in cases where the most judicious thinumg has 
been attempted, the admission of tbe wind has proved much more injurious 
to the remaining trees, than is experienced in young woods of the planted 
fir under simiiar treatnient. I imagine that the finest nr forests now existing 
in Scotiand are those to which I have referred, in the upper pert of the 
valley of the Dee, and in the district of Braemar. Many of the trees are of 
great size and beauty. I have seen none, however, at all to compare with a 
tree cut in the Duke of Oordon's forest of Olenmore, and of which a plank is 
preserved at Oordon Castle, measuring 5 ft. 8 in. in diameter, of perfectly 

CHAI*. CXIll. CONl^FElliK. PI^NUS. dl83 

aouDd wood (aee p. 2161.). This, I presume, is by far the largest specimen of 
P. s^-lTestris on reoord ; at leaBt, I have never seen or heard of any at all Hke 
k.— J^>erdeen. Haddo Hoiue, September 4. 1837." 

TAimttng aand prmang m England, We have already noticed (p. 2134).) the 
practice of Mr. Saknon and Mr. Pontey in EngUindy both strong advocates 
tt>r thinning and pruning. On applying to the Duke of Bedford, to know the 
resnhs of tbe |.ractice carried on under the direction of these arboriculturists 
in tfae woods at Wobum» His Grace^s foreater, Mr. IrelaDd» informB ns that 
Bfir. Scdmon, by cutting off laige branches rather carried the practice too iar; 
but that the trees pruned under the direction of Mr. Pontey, about the jrears 
1808 and 1803, were not in the slishtest depree injured, as onlv a few of the 
smaller branches were taken off. On examming tne timber of such trees as 
were cut down, Mr. Ireland found the plaoes where the branchea had been 
cnt off quite sound, with new wood formed over them ; but this new wood, 
thoueh cluitely covenng the part cut off, yet did not incorporate itself with it. 
On n»e other hand, he found the timber of some trees, where the branches 
had died off naturaliy, in whicfa the wood was unaound, though the wound 
Ibmied by the decayed branches was closely covered over with new and 
soond wood ; tbus, as Mr. Irdand remarks, sbowing the advantage of 
eutting off tfae branches close to the bole when they are quite small, and 
before they b^gin to decay. His Grace the Duke of Bedford, after informing 
ns that Mr. Ireiand's statement as to the efiect of pruning the Scotch pine is 
correct, adds : *' From pruning to thinning, the transition is obvious and 
natural ; and I must confess myself a decided advocate of bold but judidous 
thinning, in opposition to the practice of the Duke of Portland, at Welbeck. 
Poiiaps I may inherit this from my grandfather, John Duke of Bedford, 
who was, even in those early days, a decided friend to thinning plantations 
when young. I will state an anecdote on this subject, which is much at your 
service, and may posaibly amuse tbe readers of your Arboretum, In the 

Jrear 1743, my graud&ther planted the large plantation in Wobum Pftrk, now 
EDowD by the name of the ' Evergreens' ( to commeinorate the birth of his 
dau|!hter» aAerwards Caroline Duchess of Marlborou^) ; being something 
more than 100 acres, and having been before that time a rabbit warren, 
without a single tree upon it. In the course of a few years, the duke per- 
ceived that the plantation required thinnine, in order to admit a free circula«- 
tion of air, and give health and vigour to tbe young trees. Ile accordingiy 
gave instructions to his gardener, and directed him as to the mode and 
extent of the thinninf required. The gardener paused and hesitated, and at 
lengtfa said : ' Your Grace must pardon me if I humbly remonstrate against 
yoor ordera, but I cannot possibly do what you desire : it would at once 
destroy the young plantation; and, moreover, it would be seriously injurious to 
my reputation as a planter.' My ^rand&ther, wbo was of an impetuous and 
decid«d character, but always just, mstantly replied : * Do as I desire you, and 
1 wili take care of your reputation.' The plantation, which ran for nearly a 
mile along the road leading from the market town of Woburo to that of 
Amptfaill, was consequently thinned accordinff to the instructions of the 
duke, who caused a board to bc iixed in the plantation, facing the wood, on 
which was inscribed, ' This plantation has been thinned by Jobn Duke of 
Bedford, contrary to the advice and opinion of his gardener.' — Bedjord, 
The Doune of Rothietnurc/iiu, September 2, 1837." 

Fe/Sng. The age at wfaich the Scotch pine should be felled depends on 
the d^ee of perfection whicb the tree wiU attain in the particular iocality. 
On thin poor soils, where the trees are planted thick, it may be most profit- 
able to cut the whole pkmtation down, like a crop of corn, as Mr. Main re- 
commends (p. 2132.), at 20 or 30 years' j^wth ; wbile, on deeper and more 
substantial soils, tbe trees will eain in dmiensions for double or treble that 
number of years ; and they ougnt to be left accordingly. 

Accidents, Diseases, ^c, We are not aware of the Scotcb pine being more 
tiable to accidents, diseases, or insects, than any other species of ilbietinse, 
or that it has any which are peculiar to it. Mathews states that the red- 


wooded Scotcb pine, when come to some age, is, in wet ground, attacked by 
the rot ; which commences in the collar» and spreads to the adjacent roots 
and up tbe 8tem,in a manner very similar to the rot in the Jarch. The red wood 
approaches nearer to the outside of tbe trunk, in trees where the rot exbts, 
than in others, and ib nearest that side of the tree where the rot is the greatest. 
This disease is found in trees growing in poor wet tills, and in fiat, sandy, 
moorish soils, with a retentive subsoil. ^ Tne fact that the red pine in Scot- 
land has fewer sap wood layers tban tbe red pine of Memel or of North 
America, and also the fact that, in most situations in Scotland, the red pine 
soon decays, and soonest in the places wbere the trees bave fewest sap wood 
layers, and wbere tbe timber bas been planted, tbat is, where tbe cones have 
been kilndried, are worthy of notice. Scotch red pine bas generally from 
14 to 40 layers; Memel, fi*om 40 to 50 ; Canadian, otten 100. We consider 
the long, moist, open winter, and cold ungeniai spring in Scotland, and tbe 
till bottoms soakmg with water, perbaps aided by tbe transplanting, and the 
kilndrying of the cones, to be tbe causes of tbis earlv loss of vitality or cbange 
of sap wood into matured wood. In Poland and Prussia, tbe earth does 
not remain so long cold and moist as in Scotland, but is either frozen, or 
sufficiently warm and dry : this occurs even to a greater degree in Canada ; 
and neitber tbe Memel nor Ganadian trees llave any chance of being planted, or 
the seeds kilndried." (On Naval T^mber, p. 75.) In mountainous countries, 
and in countries subject to heavy falls of snow, the Scotch pine is liable to 
the accidents whicb we have meutioned (p. 2136.^ as common to the order 
ffenerally ; and not only forests take fire, but also smgle trees. A remarkable 
mstance of this last kind of acddent is noticed by Dr. Howison, wbo visited 
the nortli of Russia in 1818 ; and who, baving observed many large treea of tbe 
i^inns sylvestris standing erect in tbe forest, in a withered, and freauently in 
a dead state, was led to examine into the reason. He was not a little sur- 
prised to find that, in many cases, altbough the bark was entire, tbe interior 
part or wood of the tree was in a great measure cbarred. On enquiry, he 
found that this was occasioned by tbe travelling boors, in tbe sultnr dry wea- 
tber of summer, seeking the sbade of large trees, and making fires for dressing 
tbdr victuals about the roots of the trees. Many of tbese roots lie near the 
surface ; and, as tbey abound very much with resinous matter, they readily 
catch fire. The fire seems to be propagated slowly, as in matcb paper ; a 
gradual and stifled combustion creeps onwards, encouraged by the drougbt, 
and constantly fed by the empyreumatic oil of turpentine (or tar), which is 
produced by tbe heat, until the interior of the trunk itself be destroyed. 
(Jameson't Joumal, iv. p. 207.) — We bave given tbese ample details on the 
subject of the Scotch pine, considering it by fi^ir tbe most valuable timber 
tree of the genus in Bntain, and even in Europe. 

StaiitHcs. Recorded Trees. Oilpin menUons BasUaleigh, In Berlublr%a8 contidning Mxmc oT 
the mo«t pictureaque species of tbe Scotdi pSne in Engluid In hl« time. He «lao meDtions waaut 
fine trees at Thirklebj, near Thirsk, in Yorkshire, a few of which still exist In Scotland, at In- 
verary, a tree mentioned in the ArguUMre Rejaort has a trunk 10 (t in circumTerence at 4 ft tnm. 
Cheground; oneat Castie HunUey, tn Perthshire, measured in 1796. was 13 ft 6in. in circumfe. 
renoe at 3 ft. from the ground ; and, dose by tbe ground, 19 ft in ctrcumference. lliis trec 
was oonsidered at tbc time the iargest in the coanty. At Cameron, in Dumbartonshire, oii 
the shores of Loch Lomond, a tree, in 1784, measured 7 ft 2in in drcumference at 4(t tnm the 
ground ; one at Bargally, in 1780, measured 9 ft. 3 in. iu drcumferenoe, and 90 ft higfa, with SS ft 
of clear sfcera. It was planted In 1697, and, oonsequently, was nearly 100 years old. According to 
Dr. Walker, in the year 1740, the late Sir J. Nasmyth, formed at Mew Posso, in Tweeddale, a very 
cxtensive Sootch pine plantation on the north side of a barren hill of cousldcrable height In the 
year 1791, many of the trees In theplantation measured 4 ft in girt, and cootained fVom 4 in. to 6in. 
of red wood. In Ireland, in 1794^ Hayes menUons some Sootch pines, at Ballybeg and at HiUbrook, 
which measured 7ft in girt at £ ft tttna, the ground, and 5 ft at 50 ft high. One felled in its 70tfa 
year was 77| ft. in lengtn of clear timber, and measured 61 ft in girt at 50 ft ttom the graund. 
\Pract. Treat., &c., p. 11&} At Tlny Park, Slr & Smyth, Bart, was one 10 ft. rour.d, containing 
nearly tbe same bulk for 2o ft At JLuttreUtown, Earl of Carfaampton, one of 85 years* growtb ttam. 
tlie sced was 11 ft In girt{ and another, of very great height, was 11 ft 10 in., or nearly 4ft tn 
diameter, which Hayes beheTed to exceed the dimencions of tbe largest foreign deal ever imported. 
Tbcse trees stood among oaks and other trees, on very high ground, thmigfa flat at top for a con- 
siderable extent, and much exposed. At Eroo Park, Earl of Portarlington, were sereral Scotch 
irfnes, with trunks flrom 8 ft to 9 ft In girt, clear to the faeight of SO ft. or 90 ft, and lacge wild 
branching heads, richly clothed with leaves. (Ibid.) 

SgMing Tree$. In the Environs of London. At Muswdl Hill, it is 60 ft high ; at Ham House, 
near Richmond, it is 70ft high, the dlameter of thc tnink 4ft., and of the hoad 80 ft ; at Whitton 
therc are many speclmens, lOOyears planted, from 70 ft. to 80 ft bigh, with trunks from 2 ft. to 3ft in 


■Uuaeur. _ Soutb of London. In CoTnwill,u Forl ElMoU, 70 Toan 

jAVtn. 1n HftinnhiTO, it ATriAhiI, sl jtan pteiite 
let HiU, It k 60 n. Mgli, wlth • tiunk 3 ft. In JumH 
ikaft, 4111. Indiunttcr. InSumj. ■! Bmgihat Par 

I, 80 TH» iiUntal, il U 

n.,ftndorth»hw]-IOIt ibi iuvikj njm 

Dnpdcnc, S lan pUninl, 11 li SO ft. hlgh. Id 
; ■! Kiilbniokc^t» thh flmui, II ItH) ft. h'-" 


EuH«.>tWcMd«n.70)wnpUi>ud,ltliiSft. high;>lKiilbniokc,<»THnp|*nl« 
lhciluinMirortta>tnink4R.,uiilofthehMil30ft. ImWVUhlrr, M WudDui tMle, 

. hlih. rn 

■I Aihlcr Pnrk 
"' "■jh. ID 

!• lU ft. h1|hi il LonEAinlCull^lllimR.hMi.wllha InnkSl 

—'— '- &dftonlihlrr, U WoSuni AMw]>,lt EiTSft. hith, lho~.— .~. ... ~.i^.....~........ 

•d40ft.;atSoulhhlll,llli3(lft.h^wllhitniBkSft.e<n.lndlu>elcT. In Bcrkahl 

Wood. 14 Twn plinlcd. it li 40 R hlih. Id BucklnihuHhirc, ■! lluUntftinl, 100 nwi o 

- ..,_.. .... ., ........ ... J _.. _. ..._ ..__. ... tiietruni bcftif clnrla t 

tdn In the kingdoD, uui i 



'U hnie heen laken, but, u will bc leen, llUei 
«Inbulk. HerenrcSMlitcTcrillneplniiswithl 
■t Ounllnm, II li eo ft, hlfh, wtlh 1 tnink tft. in 
n, It !• 97 n. M|b, the diimelcr of Ihe trunk 3ft. Oli 
Uuibcde HUI, 70 Tcnn pluiMI, it ii SS ft. hlf h. 
L hlfh, dluiMCcT of Oie inmk Sft. uid aTthe lieul 5G 
)elnink,4lt !ln.,end or the he«l 4TR.61D. 1% 
Durbam, at Slumlck ruk, li au wUh ■ tnuiK Slt Ib dlmeler. In Eu«, al Audlet Bid, 00 
nuapluled, Uli MR. hl|h,lhe dMncterartheliunkeR.Sin.,ind ofthebcedSTft, tn Hcnlbcd- 
•hli^uHUIIrid,l^);eanoiit. II ii lOOft. hlili, IhediiiiiielcTor thc Inink 3R., ■Ddot Ihchce* 
Wft. [iiHcrtAiidahlr>,itBn>dultH^ll.llli£0ft.hiih,wlthiimnk3ft. in dluDHfr. In Hon. 
Ift.jwiMhei^odhcHnieiac, U85ft.hlgh,tEcdlj 
loTfolk, it Nenoii Kill. It b te ft. hlgh, witb ■ tr 
|1l CbMIc, It !■ SO R. high, wlth ■ tiunk^ft. iDdlAauiM.. .h ..uuwu, ■ 

Klcd. ItlilOOft. hlih, Ihe dluniler ef Ihe Iruiik Sft., eDd oT Ihc I 
lani», iioat SOft. hlfh. wiih "- "~ "- "- ' '- 

Abb«, luo Hui pluiud, Itli TO ft. - 
ft. fn WoTccUcnhlr^ (1 Hegiej. Ii 

iink sn,. (Ddo/ Ihe head GOR. In Vorkiliire, ■! Cutle Howmrd. il ii IWR. hlgh, Ihe 
ror the tnink 3tt. ■ndwllh ■bole luOft. In [englh ; at Sludlei, one lJ99n. hlih, iritha 
ihe^hndSlft (fceta SUSli.inftilSS.)' ' "' . »™' " ' " . d.,ui 

rmmiirimirUtiSailUmd. In Ihc £n>iiou or Edlnbuigh.' At Dilmeny Puk, It It GD ft hlib, 
■he di^iHler or Ihc tiunk 3 R.. ind oT the hwl m ft _SouUi oT Edlnbuigh. tn Arnhlie, u jS£ 

"* — * lerorthetrvnkSft.Bln.iMnolhM,8Tiee»p]uited,l«4Sft.highi 

11. hlfh, Ibe dluaetcr or Ihc trunk S R. | u Newuk,ll li 60ft. 

hlih. Wilh ■ irunk »R. Sln. in dlameler. In HaddlngltiD- 

•hlre, u Traingbuae. 110 )mn ^)^ " U 40ft. hlgh, th« 

Nnrth or Edlnhurgh. In AbRdccBihire, it Thiiniloii, li li 

SSit. blgh, witb ■ IniDk Bln. hi diuKier ; In OIcd Dca, la 

the tioup i(r. SOSS, (to ■ •olc ar M R. lo 1 ln.| it li TS ft. hli^ 

.. . In BuilKliTre.^t aardiinC>Ttl&,ihedluDileT, 

S\ or thc tnink jn. ein.iadartheheullWft. bi ForftnhliK 

^ .. it KinniiTd Cutle.IEO TCUi oM. 11 U 7S ft. bleh, ihe dlc- 

':--w taetet or ihe head 30 R. Sln. [d IhTeinceuhlre. Kt CouL 

1.'^ tn ri-in niuiIKl. 11 U Wft. hllh, U» di ' ■ "■ ■- 

— Ar),ltl>SOft.hi|ih, 
Tarmouth, lliiODR. 
Miire, U AidrnH, II U Wft. high, Ibe 
ink S ft. 9 in., Biid oT Ibe hcad 15 R. ; it 

ircSlenlm Puk, il U eSk. Ti'iBh, tb> dlimHcr o"lhe lAink 1 1»! 
- ind ot the hvmi foft. ; In Bnnnockbum Wnoil, ii u T4 ft. htgh j 
j&'>''"'. . - ■ "% ;f^"»"""""«"«J%SO»^''" •«»le.«f«)n.lonn.),67ft'. 

'SS«^>-j^'>v-'''' -^ tlmut nMMriiinlTrlinmi. Mw DuUiD, ■! Cipnu Orore, U U 
S£gy--^'aff Ji,.^ e ' TSR.hlEiiVlh>dlanicteroriholiunk3ft.nin.(iKrDflbehnd50ft. 
^^ ilr?^ -^ InKln|i'.CounlT,UCh«l.rilleKoie«,4Sreu.|*u.led,ilUT«ft. 

iyjl^ '^~ itUOoluiiih thedl*mcterorihelninkJlt%ro.j»tc2ue(5ole, 

Hikree Coitic, it ii Tl R. high. In Kilk^nT, u ML JuHet, it <• 
7Eft. hlgh. InTippciuT, M Ihetcalor— Willi,Kiq.,n«i Cir- 
. lick 011 Suir, ihere U ■ 6calrh plne wUh •Inink SOft. in hd^t, 

cleii or bnnche^. ind ■ circuDirnenee oT 15 ft., Ihe wholc trce U 
86 ft. high, The Scalch piDC it IhU plice giawi ipoatDneaiiilT 
Itamieedihcd b* theolil tiesi aDd ihe limhei, whlen li •uppaaed 
equKl ID llint ot Nmway, lelli i^n lhr'<pat « 3i. Brf. ptr cvUc Ibot. 





Mfli. At Colaaibey, near MeCs, 70 yean pluited, it b 99 ft. high, the dlametef oT the trunli 8 ft. filn. 
the BoUnic Oarden u Avrancbes, 40 yean pUnted, it ia 40 ft. hlgh. In the Parlc of Clervattz, m 
Chit Meraut, S3 years pianted, It is 69 ft. hich. 

Pimv aifbfiatrU m otker CimiUrie$. In Bavaria, In the BoCanlc Oarden at Munich, Styean planted, 
it i« Mft. high. In Auctria, near Vienna, at Briick on the Leytha, 60 yean planted. It to goft. 
blgh. In Sweden, in tbe Botanic Oarden at Lund, It ia 54 ft. high. In RuMia, near St PeCenbuigh, 
on ttac anaU lalaad of Sofliory Roriia, it to 77 ft. high, tbe dianwter of tbe tnink S ft., and of tbe beBd 
16ft. lBltaly,aCMonu,6SyeanpIaiited,itiae0ftbigb. 

Cvmmeraal StaHtticM, In the London nuraeries, one yeu^s seedling planCs 
of the common YarieCy are 1«. 6d. a thousand ; two years' seedlings, 3f. 6d. 
a tbousand ; plants one year transplantedy 10«. a thousand ; and two years 
trsnsplanted, 20f . a thousand. At BoUwyHer, single plants transplanted are 
3 cents each ; and at New York, 50 cents. Plants of the Highland red pine 
are, in London, 1«. 9d. a thoiisand ; and at Origor^s NtirserVy Forres, N. B., 
1«. 6</. a thousand; and of the pin de Hagueneau, at BoUwyUer, 8 cents each. 
Seeds of the common Scotch pine are, in London, 2v. per Ib; of the Hifh- 
land pine, 2«. 6d,p&r\b,; and seeds of the pin de Hagueneau, at BoUwyUery 
are 1 franc 50 cents per Ib. 

* i 2. P. (s.) PUMi^Lio H<gnke, The dwarf, cr Mouniamf Pine. 

Uemilficmikm. H»nke Beobi, 68. : WlUd. Sp. PL, 4. & 4«5. j Laubi Fta, ed. 9., 1. 1 8. j Cam. Hoit., 

1517.; Oui. Pan., 15.: HalL HelT., Vo. !& x; Alt. Hod Kew.. ed. 8., 5. pi 314. ; Lodd. Cat, ed. 

1890 s Baum. Cat, ed. 1835. 
agmtmtfmes. P. sylTtatito monttoa > AU. Bort. Kem., ed. 1., a p.366. : P. s. bikmtlls v SieaL Ctd. 

Hari. AocM.. B>.j F. o6nls ertetis Tcmm. ItuL 5B&. SekeuekM. iL, 4G0l. Du Ham. Arh., S. pi I2&; 

P. b&mitliL Ac., Towm. buL.SflO ; P. sued^ticua teu canAticus UmgarUek Mag.^ 3tcr band^ 3BL ; 

Ai&ater conlf er6ctia Bauk. M., 49S. ; P. tatirica WO. ui Herb. &mk». ; P. p. montioua Pm*., 

1537. f. & } P. quirtui auatrlacus Ctmt. HieLt l. p^ 32. ; Fin nain, F^. ; Krumboli, Ger 
EmgrtmimsB. Lambi Fln., cd. S., L t 2. ; omjlg. 8061., to our usual scale^ aod /gt. 8057. and 80581, 

ortbe natnral slae. 

Spec, Char., 4rc. Branches generaUy recumbent. Leaves short, stiil^ some- 
what twisted ; thickly distributed over the branches, with long, lacerated, 

wooUy,white sheaths. Ckines, 

when younjg, erect; when ma- 

ture, pointing outwards. Buds 

(^. 2057.) ovate, Uunt, resi- 

nous. Leaves (^JSg. 2058.) from 

2in. to 2)in. long; sheaths, 

at first, from ^in. to 1} in- long, 

white and lacerated ; iifkerwar£ 

falUng off or shrinking to f^ in. 
^^ or ^in. long, and becoming 

dark brown or black. Cones 
(d) from l^ in. to 2 in. long, and 
irom } ui. to 1 in. broad ; reddish or 
dark purplish brown when young, and 
of a duU brown when mature. ocales 
(b) and seeds (a) resembling those 
of P. sylv^tris, but smaller. Cotyledons 5 to 7. A laige spreading 
bush, or low tree ; a native of Europe, on mountains. Litroduced in 
1779; floweringand ripenin^ its cones at the same time as the Scotch 
pine. Fig. 2063. in p. 2190. is a portrait of a bush at Dropmore, which» 
in 1837, was 12 ft. high and 25 ft. in diameter. 


* £ P. («.) p. 2 mbrntfiora has red flowers, but does not difier in any other 

respect from P. (s.) pumilio. There is a bush of it at Dropmore 
above 12 h. high, and covering a space 21 ft. in diameter. 

* 1 P. {9.)p. 3 Fkchen Booth, Lodd. Cat,^ ed. 1836, Lawton^t Man., 

p. 333. — Only small grafted plants of this variety are in the country, 
it not having been introduced tiU about 1832. In the shoots and 
foUage, it b^s so strong a resemblance to P. (s.) pumilio, that we 
doubt very much if it even merits to be considmid as a variety of 




that tpeciea ; nerertbelesa w« give it m such, till it Bhall be farther 
known. In the Hordcultunil Societj*! Oarden, it «u, in Auguit, 
1837, 4ft. 6 io. bigfa, and produced two cooea, which, howerer, did 
t maturitf . The scalea were uot faooked, Eu)d they did 
lo difler from tbote of P. (».) pumilio. Mr. Bootfa ef 


Kin of Philai 

; iram which it roight be preaunied that 

■ 1 P. («.)». 4 Mi^iwj „ 

" ■ ; P. Mi^ Jaeq., Poir, and N. Du Ham. 

Mi^ Matt. Camer ; P. montim Bam». 
... . „ .. ir, •ndM.DuHain.,T.p. 233.1.68.: P. 

echiniu Hort. ; P. undnita Dec, Lod. Cal., 
ed. 1S36; and our>;gi.«)M. andS060.t tbe 
latter showing tbe cone, «eed, tcale, and 
thealh of leaTeB, of the Datural fiie. Tbe 
Mugho wild I^ne; Pia Mugho, Torcbefttn, 
Kn suffis, Pin crin, Pin du Brian^onnaia, 
Pin de HoDU^pe, I¥, ; Bee^cbte, Otr, — 
Thia Tarietytn ioeluded bj Aiton and othera . 
in tbe precedin^ oue ; but, haTing «een \ 
both •orta beonn^ conea, we are tatifified - 
that thef are distinet, though they bear to 
close • reaemblaiice to eacb other in fb- 
Ibge and habit, that, wheu the couet are ab- 
soit, Ibey midit be auppoeed to be identicaL 
It 18 remariEed in tbe tfmiueau Du Hamel, Ihat 
■II the publiabed Bgurea of tfaia Tariet; are 
bad, witb ihe exccptwn of tbe ooe given 
in tbat worfc, Irom wbich ours i« o^ed. On compariiuj^t. 8056. 
and 8060.. it will be found that the conei of P. (i.) p. JfngAtw, indft- 
pendentl; of the p^ 
culiar protubenuit 
appewance of the 
Bcalca^re largw than 
Ihoee of P (■) 
piunflio Thia and 
otber diSereDcee in 
the conea are quite 
■ufficient m a tecb- 

p Mufhut and F , 

pumlUo dutmct ape 

aea but notwith 

■tandmg thu, tbey 

bear gucfa obTioua 

marks of belongiug 

to P sylTfBtru m 

tbeir fbluige babit, 

and locality that we 

cannot for a moment 

heaitate about uolt , -, t~- ■ 

mg tfaem to tfaat ipe- t^ •^060 

cies The only plaata which we feel quite eertain are the P 

Mugbo of the Navveau Du Hamel are at Syon at Dropmore, aod 

m tlie Horticultural Society s Oarden becauae the conea on the 

plants m all tfaese places eiactlj resemble that in our M- B060., 

whicb aa before atated ii copied frora the Keaeeau Iht Hamel. 

F^ 2061 u a portnut of the tree or rather buah,at Dropmore, 


toBtcftle of 6ft. to lin.; and > 

whicb was, id 1637, 14 ft. high. 

ThiB varieiy is described, io tbe 

Nouv. l)u Hamel, B« havbg tbe 

leavea rigtd.andorBdeepgreeni 

the cone conical, often two to- 

gether, shorter fian the leavu, 

nith their sciJes ending in a 

pyramidiil quadrancular point, 

which is turaed back. The cat- 

kins uf the male flowen are 

moiit te&sile, aod the anthera ^ 

have a round membranaceous 

crest. It forms b bush in lonie 

cases, Bcd b tree in others, ac-. 

cording to the wiil and situstion 

in which it ^rings up or is plaated. Tbe cones readily disdoguiiih 

itfrom P, (s.) puinilio. It is fouud on the CBmiolan Mountains, the 

Pjrenees, ou Mount Ventoui, and in other ptaces. M. VUIara 

observes that, wbeu it grows on the summita of mountains, it is u 

mere busb ; but that, as it descends to the plains, it becomes 

The P. s. uncinataorCaptain S. E. Cook {Skeldui, ii. p. 830.), we 
belicve, judging from the young jilants in tbe Horticultural Societj'* 
Garden, and froni conet sent to Cautain Cook from AL P. Boileau, 
thrauch M. Vilmorin, to be either identicBt with, or a subTariecy of, 
P. (s.) Mughut. The fuUowing oote has been seut to ua by Captain 
CooL: — " P. uncinaia ts fbuaJ on tbe upper zone, or line, of the 
forest vegetation of the Pyrenees, on both aides the cbain. At tbe 
Lac de Oaube, and in a few other localities where the foresta 
bave beea allowed to attsin tbeir natural state, it ia miied, at first, 
wttb Plcea pectin&ta and Pinus sylvfatria; but, aa you ascend, 
it eradually leavea these species below, and occupies eiclu- 
siveiy ihe Siberian regiou ofthe high or centraJ Pyreneea. Other 
loc^ities in which iC is believed to occur are, on some elevated 
detached masses of mountain between ihe Pyrenees and the Atpa 
□r Mount Cenia, where, no doubt, it lies over the great fbreita 
of the Maurienne, which are of P. aylv£scris. This pine is ei- 
tremely valuable trom its hardiness, as well as for tne resinona 
quelity and great durability of its tiinber. In the Spanish pro- 
vinccB, it is used for torches; and its timber is considered to be 
superior in quality to that of the P. sylvcstris ; it is also used 
for making cliBrcoaL As an omameutBl tree, it will be hiehly 
desirable, from the intensely dark green of its foliage, as well as 
the close and solid mass it forms, and the halut of the tree, wbere 
left at liberty lo throw out mBBSy arms, trailing ou the ground, a 
qualit^ so unusual in its class. There are now very scan^ remains 
of tliis noble tree in the French Pjrenees, where they have been 
almost whotly eredicated by the barbarous improvidence of the 
people : tbere are a few leit at tbe Lac de Gaube, at Gavamie, at 
the Lac d'Oo, and on the Airiege; but in Aragon and Catalonia 
there are forests still remaioing of vast extent. They citend firom 
the region of Munt Perdu and the Maledetta, to the Valley of 
Andorre on the S^e ; the most considerable forests bdng tiiose 
oppoaite to the Valley of Arreau, within the Spanish territory, those 
to the north-east of Benarque, and those of the republic of Andorre, 
It nust be grouped with P. eylvestris, to whicb it is nearly re- 
lated; but the port, colour, and slrength of the leaves, and tho 

cHAP. cxiii' com'rERJE. Pi^itVB. 2189 

ronn of the cooes, enablc the pracliBcd eye to ilistingLush it in a 

moment rrom tbot Bpenes. — S. E. Coak. Carlton, near Dar&igton, 

May, 1837.- 

■ 1 P. (i.) p. 5 M. noBa, the Koee Koe of the Styrian Alps, never 

STOws above 3 l^. high. A ptant haa been in the Trinity College 

Botonic GerJen, Dublin, sinue 1817 ; and, in 20 years, it baa not 

Bttained a grcater height than an ordinary-slzed man^a knee. 

Olicr Varietiei. P. {«.') pumdio and P. (s.) p. Mu^hjuytity 60 much 

Bccording to the localities in wliich they are foumf, that, it* it were desirable 

to increeee the number of EubTurieties, there might be a dwaTf, a tall, and a 

medium fonn given to each. In the Horticultural Sorie[y'a Uarden, there ia 

a handsome, erect-growing, Bmall trec of P. («.) p. Migliu$, under the Danie 

of i'. uncinata, and also adwarfplantiUnder Che same name; both prodndnK 

hooked cones. At White Knights, where there area0or30pUint»ofi^ 

(s.^puniflioithey varyia siiefrom a recumbent bush, 5 il.or 6 tt. high, anJ 

SO ft. or 30 ft. in diameCer, to treea of between 30ft. and40ft. inhei^t } 

someof them with trunke clenrof branchesto 3ft. or 4ft. from thcground. 

Some of these trees have been drawn up in this form in consequence of 

bdng crowded among othcrs. 

Dacription, ^c. The common character belonging to all the varieties of 
P. (s.) pumilio is, that of bring BmatleT in all their parts, and lesa glaucous in 
the geueral appearance of their folisge, thao P. syW^stris. The leaves ere 
alao much more thickly set on the branchea ; and tne sbeaths 
on thclesven of thecurrent yeararemuch longer and whiiir. 
especially towards the eitremities of the shooCs. In thc 
dwarf varietiea, the cones are smalli and those of P. (a.) y. 
Mughta have often a detbrmed stunted appearance ; buE, 
some of the tall rarieties of P- (s.) pumflio, the cones : 
exactly like those of the Scotch pine, as are also the biiil 
Tbe rate of erowth is siow in all the varietieB, iu the til 
est not exceedlng 4in, or5in., or at most 6 in., in the yLEii 
All the varietiea are nativea of the mountaina of most p.iris 
of Burope, raore especially in France and Qerman^; iini! 
they have been recognised by botanisca from thc timt nf 
Mathiotus. i*. (s.) jiumflio appears [o have been first ciilii- 
vated in England m 1779, liy John Blackbum, Esq., n( 
Orford Eall, near Warringlon, in Lancaahire, where thcori- 
^hial plant stilt exisis, formins a Urge recumbent bush, but 
in a ahattered condition. AlT the varieties have a powerful terebinthinate 
odour; and produce ahundantly, when the branches are broken, afragrantand 
fluid resin, which ia sold, in Hungary, Cainiola, &c., aa a balsam (br curing u1- 
cera, contusions, and rheuniatism. Tbe krumholz oil, whicb ia producedby 
diatillation from the burned branches, is of a gotden colour, agreeable odour, 
and acrid oilyflavour; and it is used for sunilar diseases, particularly ia 
veterinaiy surgery. In Britain, P. (a.) pumdio and its varieties are curious 
or omamental busbes or trees, and, as such, are valuable objects in small 
gardens, and in miniature pinetnma. Tfae vicour of the fbh^e, and the in- 
tenaity of ita colour, vai^ exceedingly, eccordmg to the soil and aituation in 
which any of the varieties of tbis plant and P. (s.) p. Mi^hui are placed. 
The different varietiea come tolerably true Irom seed, by which meana they 
are genereUy propagated ; but P. (s) p. FiBchen has hitiierto been inorched, 
not baving yet ripened conea, either on the Continent or jn Britain. 

Stalttaa. The lirMl nlnnU Df P. (>.) wimllLii in 

wh*TeUiciEnri<iin ift. Ufift. high. Th« 
eaet niuiiber orutet upwiird. of 30 n. hi|h , 
!tR, ud IDtl. « I9ft. hiah. AtDiD^on, 

lanst iii BiiUiid vi! u WhiM Knlghu, «hnf Ihc 

ibcbuihiifKhlcb JV.BJ63. iiipartimli.tDiKiiK 

rsK. tn 1 in., U >bnT. tl fLhigh. and coven • 

ui t^, rt^ '"■'L* ^'pi^"'.'"^"?' ■S?". "' f- 

■Ifl •tveril hlDdXHIM conicil plinti in pott 
1.) iiuiBllio m 1 nuc m cenu, «nd of I: iij 


I 3. P. BAnKSIA^NA Lamb Bank»'a, ur Ihe Lairador, Pint. 

ib Ptn.*] 1,1 tS., SiollhlDll«iiCp:lo,No.v. N Du Hiiia..& p-SM 
«L, 1 p. 6« , Lodd. Cll, IM6, Boo Jud.. hL 1W7, n 974. 

J|!%6k. u our u^ lala of f ln.' to H 11. 

udA' ID^, ■>f <>' 


-^ifc. CAoT., r$'f. LeBTU u) puiri, diTuricated, obl!que. Cones 
recurved, twuted. Crcat of the BHtherB dikted. (Smith.) Bud 
^ in. long, uid ^ iii. broad ; cylindrical, blunt at the point, whitish, 
■nd covered with reiin in large piuticlea ; central butl surrouDdcd 
byfrom three loliTesinaUer sbown iuj^, 2064. Lesves 
(sec^. 8065.) from 1 in. to l^ io. in len^h, including the sheath, 
which is ihort. aud bas three or rour nngs. Conei &oin l|iD. 
lo 2 in. long. Leaves snd cones retainetf on the tree three or 
fbur years. Scales tenniaatinB in ■ roundish protubenuica, with 
a blunt poinL Seeds eitrenjely smoll. 

Deicriplinn. A low, scrubhy, streggling tree, not rising hi^er in 
country, whece it grows ftmoog barren rocki, than Ironi 5 ft. to 8 ft. ; b 
British coUecriMU, in 
soil, Utaining more ihan tl 
tiines that hei((ht. OccMion- 
ally, MDong the rocks of L*- 
hridor, Michaui obaefves, thk 
pine produces cones, and even 
eihibits the ■ppearaace of de- 
crepid old ^e, at theheiebt of 
3 (t. ; and in do pwt of North 
AiHNicit did he Gnd it more 
tban 10 ft. high, Dr. Riebanl- 
son, bowever, in FrMdtlin*! 
Narralive of a Jomnuy to rte 
and 18SS, describea P. Bank- 
^ina aa B " handsome tree, with long, spreading, flexible branches. generaUy 
fiimirfiedwithwhorledcurTedcones,ofinanyyeaM'growtb. It attaiM, he 
adds,"theheight of 40ft. wul upwards in lavourable s.tuabonB: but tbe 
diameter of it» tnink is greater. in nroportion W ils heighl, than m tbe wher 
pine. of Ihe country. In its natfve situations it «udes much Iws rtwn 
tbaa J^bie. illba." (App. No. 7. p. 758.) Dougl^ found K on the h^her 
bankaoftheColombia and m the valley- of the Kocky Mouotains, aiid bis 
spedntens have nmch longer leaves than are proUuced by the treei in Bnuan, 


Tlie tpedet u roKlil]' knowii bv the leavei 
beiDg regulari; distributed over Uie biwcbea, 
ioMead of bong collected in tufts alternating 
with luked apacea, as they sppear to be in 
moetother piDcs. Iq Ainerica,thc leavesare 
aboat 1 in. Loag; but at Dropmore they are 

»: il 1 1 :_ Tt *LI e 

I l|in 


both eesea are expaniled in May, before those 
of P. aflv^atrii; but, as in that speciea, the 
eonea Jo not attain their tiill size aml matu- 
rily tillthe November orthegecoad vear, and 
do not open to shed th^ seeds tilt the spring 
of the third year. ' Tbe conet are coiniuanly 
in purs, of a grey or ash colour (whence the 
American name of grey pine); tbt^ are 
above 8in. long, and have the peculiarity of 
always pointing in the same direction aa the 
brauchei. They are remaritable for curving i 

appearance of small hornH. 
the trees several years. 

one side, which gii 

They are extremely haaii, and often remaut on 

Geogn^u, HiitoTy, ^c. P. Banksiarut, accordins to Hichauz, is found 
&rther northward tban any other American pine. In Nova Scotia and the 
district of Hmne, where it ia rare, it is called the scrub pine; and, in Canada, 
ihe grey pine. According to Titus Srailh (Mag. Nat. Hitt., viii. p. 655.). 
it b Cfllled, m tbe ndghbourhood of Halifax, the long-limbed Hudson^B Bay 
pne. " In the environs of Hudgon'B Bay, and -of the Oreat MiBtaasin Lakes, 
tbe trees, which compose the foreats a few degrees farther soutb, disappear 
almost entirely, in conseouence of tbe severity of the climate and the 
ttMilit; of the soil. The tace of the country ia elmost everywbere broken 
by innumaaUe lakea, aod covered with large rocl» piled upon one an- 
ouer, and uaually ovefgrown ^g^ 

with black licheiu, wbich deep- 
en (he ^OMny a^wct of theae 
desolate and almoet uniuhabit> 
ed r^oDB." (3fie&r.) Here 
and taere, in the intervalB of 
the rocka, Hidtaux adds, are 
aeen a few individuals of the 

scnib ptne ; but they aeldom 
crow higber than 3ft. Dr. 
Hicbardaoa, in Fraaklin'a Itar. 

cupying d^aaudy Boits. Iti 
curredas nr lo tne northward 
aa lat. M° ; but it waa aaid to 
attajn bigher laritudes on the \ 
■aody banks of the Mackeniie 
Kver. At wbat time, and by 
wbon), thia pine was intro- 
doced into Britain, is uncer< 
tain : it wtts in cultivatioD by 
Foraydi, in the Chelaea Bo- 
taiiieaarden,before 1785; but, 
aa Hr. Lambert, in 1804, found 
a remarkably fine tree growing 
at pBiD'B Hill, it was in an 
probaUlt^ plaoted there by 
tbe loDnder of the place, the 
Hon. Charles Hamuton, pre< 


yiously to 1735 (Bee p. 70.). Mr. Lambert, wntingin IdCVI^ lays that he then 

onlyknew of three trees or P. Banksfana in England that were of any axe; 

yiz., the one at Pain's Hill we have just mentioned, one at Kew, and another 

at Croome. The first is probabiy no ionger in existence, because a party 

of four, of which we were one, searched a whole day for it in vain, in tbe 

grounds at Pmn's Hill, on July 22. 1637 ; that at Kew is no more ; and that at 

Croome, if it still exists, is not known to the gardener there. The handsomest 

tree that we know of P. Bankstana in England is that at Dropmore, of which 

Jig, 2067. is a portrait to a scale of 1 in. to 8 flt. ; and which was, in August, 

1837, 27 fL high, the diameter of the trunk 18 in., and that of the space 

covered by the branches 24 d. It is a most el^ant tree, well characterised 

by Dr. Richardson as having long, spreading, lexible brancbes. It bears 

abundance of cones, which remain on the trees for several years, and give the 

branches a singular appearance. There is a tree of this species 30 ft. high at 

White Knights, but it has not assumed so elegant a shape as that at Drop^ 

more. There is a plant of it at Messrs. Loddiges^s, 3 ft. 6 in. high ; and one 

in the Horticultural 8ociety's Oarden, 3 h. high. The only one that we have 

heard of in France is in the Jardin dea Plantes, where, in 1837, it was 4 ft. 

higfa. Tbe species is rather scarce in Bridsh nurseries. 

Properties and Utes. Dr. Richardson mentions that the Canada porcu- 
pine (eeds on the bark of thia tree, and that the wood, from its lightness, and 
the straightness and toughneas of its fibres, is much prized for canoe timbers. 
Titus Smith says that, on the shallow soils in the neighbourhood of Halifax, 
if not consumed by fires, it produces timber of a usefiil size. Michaux 
infbrms us that the Canadians find a speedy cure for obsdnate colda, firom a 
diet drink made by boiiing the oones of P. iBankstana in water ; and this is afl, 
he says, that the tree is good for. As an om&mental tree, we think it one 
of the most interesting of the genus, from the graceful manner in which it 
throws about its long, flexible, twisted branches, which are generally covered 
throughout their whole length with twisted glaucous green leaves, with here 
and there a whorl of curiously hooked hom-like cones. It is one of tfae 
hardiest of the i^tbi^tmae ; enduring, in the Floetbeck Nurseries, 12° of Reau^ 
mur (5°Fahr.}; and, therefore, it may be safely planted in pinetums in the 
extreme north, not only of Britain, but of Europe. 

SoU, PropagaHon, Ctdture, ^c. (See p. 2127.) Plants are raiaed from 
imported seeds, when these can be procured; but the speciea may be 
inarched, or grafted in the herbaceous manner, on P. sylvestris. (See 
p. 2129.) In Uie herbarium of the Horticultural Society, there are specimena 
of P. Banksiana sent home by Douglas, infested with a parasitic plant, ro- 
sembling, in its ramifications, foliage, and colour, a mistletoe in miniature. It ia 
the Arceuthobium Ox^cedri Hook., and wiil be found fignred in a fiiture page. 
CommerckU StaHstici, Price, in the London nurseries, Is. 6d. eaoi ; at 
Bollwyller, 2 finncs. 

B. Conei large, hauing tke Scales fttmithed wtth Prickles* 

4. P. i^NOPS Ait. The Jerteyy or poor, Pine. 

IdenMettHom. AML Hort. Kew., ed. 1.. S. p. a67., ed. £., 5. p. S1& ; SmiUi in Ree«*f Cydo., Ko. 10. -, 
WUkL api PI..4. p^ 496. } Baums., 908. ; Mait MilL, No. 3. : Lamb. Pin., ed. S., 1. 1. 12. ; N. Du 
Ham., 1 5. p. 23& ; Michx. N. Amer. Svl., & p. 1S9. ; Hayne Dend., No. 4. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1896 ; 
Bon Jardk, 1837, p^ 91%. \ L«wion*c Manual, p. 3461 

Synonyme». P. TlrKiniilna Du Boi Hmrbk., cd. Pott.,2. p. 47., UiU. DiU, No. a, Wongk. Beit., 
p. TiT; Pin ch*tif, A-. r t , -» 

Engravingi. Lamb. Pia,ed. 8., 1. t 12. ; N. Du Ham., t69. f. 1. ; Midix. N. Amer. SyL, 3. 
1 187. ( our Jlg. 9fflO.. to our usual scale ; tindjig». S06& and 2u69., of the natural siw ; all 
from Uf opmore fpecimenak 

Spec. Char.f Sfc. Leaves in pairs. Cones drooping oblong-conica], loi^er 
tban the leaves. The scales awl-«haped, with prominent prickles. Crest 
of the anthers short, broad, jagged. (SfiM.) Bud ( j^. 8068.^ from 
fin. to i in. long, and ym. broad; cylindrical, blunt at the point, re- 
Btnous, brown, and surrounded by three small buds. Cone (^. 2069.) 
fromSfin. to S^in. long, and from l in. to Ifin. broad. Some of 
those at Dropmore are of the last dimensions. Scalesof a hard woody 
texture, of a yellowish brown colour, with a sharp woody prickle pro- ^Set 





iecting rrom ettch, which ia generally Btmight. Leaves rrom 1} 
\i»tg. Sheaths wtth 3 or 4 ringa. Seeds small, cotyledo 
Yoiing Bhooti covered with a fiiie purptish glaucoua bloom. 
Detcriplhn. A tortuouB^iraBched 

)ow tree, haviDg, at a distance, the 

general eppearanceori'. Banksiafui; 

but di^nng rroni that Bpecies in 

hBTiog many of the more slender 

brancbes penduloua, and the wood 

of the BhootB of the cuirent jeu 

conBpicuoualj glaucouB and tinged 

with violet; a character which, es 

Iffichaux obserrea, ia peculiar to 

diia apecie* and to P, mitis; and 

the trunk and lai^er branches pro> 

duaag small tuds of leaves, or abor- 

tive BDoots. Accordiog to Michaux, 

it erows, in North America, from 

SOlt. to 40 ft in height, with a dark- 

coloured trunk, end the branches 

proceeding from it, not in whorla, 

but irregularly, more in the menner 

<tt I»t>ad4eaved treea tban is usual 

with the Ab\€tias. The barb, in old 

treea^iadeeplycmcked; andthrougb 

tbe fiuures resin exudea in such 

■buodance, as to give the trunk 

and branches the appearance of be- 

iog candied over with sugaE. The 

learea are of a dark ereen, and scat- 

lered equsllf over the branches, in the 

■re not soperBistent.narso glaucoua, aa 

describes as about Sin. long, and I in. 

attached by short thick pedunctes, and 

B(»nes; thej are usually single, and tumed c 

Eound. In the neighbourhood of New York, in 
L 41", tbe flowers appear in the beginning oF 
Haj ; the cones are mature in the If ovember of 
the secoDd year; and the seed drops out the fol- 
lowiog sprintN The trecs of tiiis species in the 
phiettuD ot Dropmore i^ee very well with Mi- 
chMu's descriptran ; but they are not yet auffi- 
tiendjf old, or, perhaps, our summerB are not 
suffiaentlj warm, to cause an exudation of resin 
to the extent meDdoned by that suthor. The 
buds, however, are resinons ; and this matter very 
readily exudes, and bcrusta thc surfHce of the sec- 
lions wherever a branch is cut off: At Dropinore, 
in wann weather during fiuushine, the fr^rance 
of the air in the neighbourhood of this tree is de* 
%htlulty bakamic. 

Geographtf, Huiory, l^c. The Jeraey pine in- 
latHta tlte interior otNorth America, chielly south 
if tatitude 45°; and, accordinB to Pursn, it is 
buud from New Jersey to Carolina, on dry 

Brreii soils. BCchaux states that it abouncls in *"'" 

lie lower parts of New Jerscy, where the soil is 'mcagre and sandy, and 
here it is often accompanied by the yel!ow pine (P.miliB); and that 
ig also found in Marytand, Virginia, and Kentucky ; iu Fennsylvania, 

of P. BankEuina ; but they 

that ^)ecieB. The cones, Michaux 

I diameter at the base: th^ are 

anncd with tong fine awl-shaped 

' or lcBS towards the 


befond Chambereburg, near the Juniata, and on the acrubb^ ridees bcTond 
Bedford, at th'c distsnce ofabout £00 miiea froin Philadelphia. ln thb part 
of Pei)asylvania,it is called tbe scrub pioei and it is seen vherever the soilis 
composed of argillaceous Bchistus, aod is coDBequenCl)' poor. The poomeM 
t^the soil oD which it ^ws is Btteeted b; the decrepid appearance of the 
HCBrlet, red, black, white, ond rock-chestnut oaks, among which it grows. 
Micbauz oeversawit nortbwardof the riverHudsoni andneither tn tbeCaro- 
linaa, nor in Ueorna, According to tbe Hortut KnBetua, it waa cultivated in 
1739, bj' Miller; but, though itis a sinKulor-lookiDg, and in our ojunion moat 
interesling, Iree, it ia not common in Britiih collectioni. Tbe fineat treea tl( 
it which we have aeen are at Fain'a Hill, where it is 40 ft. liig^, with a trunk 
\il. 6 in. in diBUieter; and at Dropmore and Wbite Knights, at bolh which 
places, it bears abundance of conea, F^, 2071. is a portrait of one of the 
dir«e Dropmore trees, which, aOer being ITyears planted, was, in 1837, 
25 ft. high, with a head covering a space 24 ft. in diameter. There are three 
fine trecB at White Knights, from 25 fl. to 30 it. higfa, whicb have retuiied 
thdr conea ten or Iwelve yeara ; antl many of the shoots of which appear to be 
os amply fiimished with cones as Jeaves. A tree at Syon is 14 ft. higb. Tliere 
il a low, crooked, peudulouB^iranched tree of thig species in thearboretum at 
Kew, aboQt 10 ft. nigh ; one at Messrs. Loddiges'i 5 ft. hi^ ; aud one of the 
same hei^t, wbich has been 7 jeara planted, in the Horticultural 8ociety's 
Oartlen. In France, acconllne to tbe Nouveau Du Htanel, there is a tree 90 ft. 
higk in the gardena of tbe 'nunon ; and M^ H£ricaut de Thuiy has sevEral 
trees which produoed cones at tfae age of 20 yeara, and bave since continucd 
to do so ever; year. 

ProperHei and Utei. The wood of tfae Jerse^ jnne, according to Micbaui, 
ia of little use, except for fuel, on account of its Emali dimensions, atid the 
Isrge propoition of sap wood which it contdns ; but, as it abounda in resin, 
tar ia obtMaed (rom it. Kalm mentions, in his Trmeb tn Ntirth Aiwrica, 
that, in the heat of Bummer, cattle resort ht shade to thia tree, iu preference 
to any other, even though thdr foliace were much diicker. He sav cattle 
stndiousty ungltng out P. inops in order to get under its branches ; probably 

CHAP. CXril. COMl'FERA. Pl^NUS. 2195 

finond the gratefulneBs of its fragrance ; for it is bighly probable tbat the brute 
animalsy especially in a wild state, are even more sensible of the odour of 
trees than the human specieB. Midiaux condudes his observations on this 
tree by remariung that, nezt to the grey pine (P. Bankfiieiiui), it is the most 
omnterestin^ spedes in the United States ; but as, in Europe, almost all the 
American pmes can onfy be oonsidered in the li^t of omamental trees, this 
spedee, aa such, wdl desenres a p^ace in oollectionB» from the singularity of 
ita form, its ddightful fragrance, and its hardiness. 

Soil^ Propagation, 4rc, Plants are sometimes raised from imported aeeds ; 
or they may l^ inaidied, or grafted in the herbaceoua raanner,,on P, sylr^tris. 
(See p. il27, and p. 2129.) 

t 5, P, Mi^TM Michx. The soft-/lrtitwrf, oryellow, Pine. 

UemH/lemUm. Ifichx. Fl. Bor. Aner., M. Amer. SyL, & p. m; Lodd. Cat., cd. 1836 ; Bon Janf., 

cdL 1857. 
Si fm aimm a. P. Taittliilia Pmtk FL Amer. 8aai. p. 642., V. Dm Bam, & ^ 8M.| ?P. ccfaloUa 

MML, Did, Mo. ISL ; New Tork Ptne, Spruce Plne, Short-leared Flne, Amer. 
Emigr aHmg» . Mlehz. N. Amer. SyL, & 1. 137 ; ouri^ 2Cfl6. from Dropmore^ and 9076. AromMichauz, 

to oar utual acale ; andXra. S072, 907^ aod S074., of tbe oatural liie. 

Spec, Char, Leaves long, slender; hoUowed on the upper suriace. Conet 
small, ovate^onicBl. Scales with their outer surface slightly prominent» and 

terminatin^ in a very small alender 

mucro, pomting outwards. (Mickaux,) 

Budsy on a young tree (Jig, 2072.), 

-f^ in. long, and •Ari^- broad; on an 

ofd tree, lamr (Jlg, 2073.) ; scarcely 

resinous. Leaves (JSg, 2074. from 

Bfichaux), from 2)in. to 4in. long, 

with sheaths ^in. long; wbite» la- 

cerated, afterwards becoming dark. 

8%htly ringed. Gone, 2 in. long, and 

S079 1 in. hroad in the widest part. 

Seeds smali ; with the wing» f in. long. 
Young shoots covered with a violet-co- 
loured gUiucous bloom» like those of P, 
inopsy by which it is readily distinguished 
iroro the P, variftbilis of LamberL 

JDticriptioH, A beautiful tree; according 
to Micbaux, 50 ft. or 60 ft. hi^h, with a trunk 
of 8 uniform diameter of 15 in. or 18 in. fbr 
nearly two thirds of its length. The branches are spreading on the lower 
partjof the trunk, but become less divergent as they approach the headof the 
tree, where they are bent towards the body so as to torm a summit regularly 
pyramidal ; but not ^Muaous in propordon to the dimensions of the 
tnink. This narrow conical appearance. of the head, as compared with 
tfae spreading cbaracter of those of other species, seems to have nven rise 
to the name of spruce pine in America. The leaves, according to Michiuiz, 
are 4 in. or 5 in. long, fine and flexible (whence tbe specific name of 
mitis, soft), hoUowed on the upper surface, of a dark green, and united in 
patra. Somedmes, from luxunancy of vegetation, three leaves are found in 
the same sheath on young shoots, but never on old branches. The cones 
are oral, armed with nne spines, and smaUer than those of any other American 
pine ; scarcely exceediitt 1 ^ in. in length, even upon old trees. The concentric 
circles of the wood of the yeUow pine, Michaux states, are six times as nu- 
meronsy in a siven n)ace, as those of the pitch pine (P, Hgida) and the 
lobloD^ pine (P, TVe da). ** la trunks 15 in. or 18 in. in diameter, there are 
Mily 2 in. or 2) in. of sap wood,and stiU less in such as exceed this size. The 
beart wood b fine grained, and moderately resinous, which renders it com- 
pact, withoot its bems of great weight. Long experience has proved its 
vcdlence, and duralnBty.'* (Mickx,) 

7c 3 



Geograp^. The yellow -pine b found u 
moft pine foreBts, from New Engluid to 
Geoi^a- Towarda the noTth, it doea not ei- 
tend beTond lome diatricts orConDccticut and 
HasBBchuaetts. It b abundant ia tbe lown- 
pnrt of New Jersey, and still more so on th« 
eMtem «hore of Maryland, mA in thc lower 
puis of Vinrini», where it i* soen only on tbe 
raoit nrid soils. BCchauX " «Im met with it 
on the risht bank of the rirer Hudson, n » 
littledistancefrom Albanyj at Chwnberrtiurg, 
in PennsylTania i near Mudlick,m Kentuekvj 
on the Cumberland Mountaks, aod in tbe 
vicinity of Knox- 
I iiessee ; at Edge- 
I fietdCourtHoune, 
I in the upper part 
I of Soutb Cbto- 
I Itna; and on tbe 
I river Oconee, i 
I the upper part of j 
I Oeorgia. In all "^ 
I these iila 
) ia founa ETowing 
aJong witn other 
in agreater or lesB proportion, 
n of the indijenous fureatB, 
according to the nature of the boiI. It ahoundB . 

on the poorcBt lands ; but on those of a certain degree of fertihtj, which is 
indicated hy liie flouriiihing Bppearance of the oaks and wakut». it i« more 
rare, thougfi it still surposse» the surroundinB treee in hulk u)d elevation. 
The yellow pine is also occasionBllj seen in the lower part of the CaroUms, 
in the FloridBS, and probahly in Louisiana ; but in these regionait 
in spots conaisting of beds of red clay n 

e compositio 

„ „ «oniy 

1 with gravd, wtuch here and 
of the country 

there pierce the Dght covering of sand which forms the si 
to the diatance of 180 miles from the Bea." 

Hiilory, When P. mitis was introduced into England 
ia uncertajn ; unless we conclude that it was the P. echi- 
natu of MiJl. DidioTiary, in which case it was in cultivB- 
tion in 1789. The P. TariibiJis 6f Lambert^a Piau is 
unqueationably a totally diflerent plant from the P. 
mttis of Micnaux; being without tbe violet-coloured 
elaucous hloom on the young ahoots; having rigid 
feaves, gcnerally in tfarees ; and a cone witb very ttrong 

Crickles, like that of P. 3^'dB, la which species we 
ave reTerred it. The only plants that we know which 
answer to Micbaux's descriijtion of P. mitis are ot 
- Dropmore, where they are readilj known bv the 
violet-coloured glaucous bloom on the young anoots, 
and by the leavee bcing abnoet all in twos ; «t the sauie 
time, it ia proper Ut aiention, that the leaves there, 
thoueh Hoil and aLender, are much shorter than thoae 
in Michaux'sfigure. The name applied to thia tpecies at 
Dropmore ia P. variAbilts. Tha^e JB also a plant at 
Dropniore muned P. mliii; but it is whoUy with '""• 
three lcaves ; and, as far as we can ascertain (tlie tree 

not having yet borne concs), it belongs either to P. sertStina, or to borm 
variety of it. The descripfion given hy Miller of P. echinkta, as having finriy 
elongaled leavcs, and a cone wilh very slight alender prickles, agreet perfcctly 


well with this species, as described by Michaux ; and not at all with Mr. Lam- 
bert'8 P. vari&bilisy which he describes as having leaves only 2 in. long, and 
cones with scales having '' thorny points of a strong woody texture projecting 
firom them." 

Properiiea and Uses, In the northem and middle states, and in Virginia, 
Michaux tells us that, in his time, to the distance of 159 miles from the sea, nine 
tenths of the houses were built entirely of wood.; and the floors, the casinjra of 
the doors and wainscots, the sashes of the windows, &c., were all made of the 
wood of the yellow pine, as being more solid and lasting than that of any 
other kind of mdifienous tree. *' In the upper part of the CaroliDas, where 
the cypress (Taxodium dlstichum) and the white cedar {Cupr^asu» ^hyoides) 
do not grow, the housea are constructed wholly of the yellow pine, and are 
even covered with it." (Michx.) It is necessary, however, wbenever the 
wood of this tree is used for building purposes, that it should be completely 
freed from its sap wood, which spe^ily decays. This precaution, Micbaux 
tells us, ** 18 sometimes neglected, in order to procure wider boards, especially 
pear the sea-ports, where, from the constant consumption, the tree is oecom- 
ine rare. Immense quantities are used inthe dockyards of New York, 
Fhiladelphia, Baltimore, &c., for the decks, masts, yaras, beams, and cabins 
of vessels ; and it is considered to be next in durability to the long-leaved 
pine (P. austrklis). The wood from New Jersey and Maryland is finer grained, 
inore compact, and stronger than that from the river Delaware» which ^rows 
opoa richer lands." (Michx.) The yellow pine, in boards (irom 1 m. to 
2^ in. thick, forms a considerable article of commerce between tbe United 
States, and Oreat Britain and the West Indies. At Liverpool, it is called the 
New York pine, while at Jamaica it is called the yellow pine ; aad, in both 
places, it sells at a much higher price than the wood of tne white pine (P. 
iStrobus), though it is considered inferior to that of P. austriUis. In the 
Mmutea of Emdence taken before a select committee appointed to conaider of 
the means of maintaining and improving the foretgn trade of the country» and 
pnrinted bv order of the House of Commons, in March, 1821, John White, 
Bsq., of Westboume Green, an extensive timber merchant, was examined. 
Id answer to the question, " Can you speak at all to the durability of different 
khnds of wood?" he says, " In general, Norway timber is the most durable 
of tbe fir timbers of Europe ; because, after many years, it does not part with 
its resinous particles ; but I consider," he adds, ** that the Aroerican soft, 
or yellow, pine (P. mhis Mkhx,) is the most durable of the American firs. 
I have known it last, when exposed to the action of the sun and weather, for 
8 long period, by tbe side of Norway timber, with equal eifect, fiillv exposed 
to wind and rain ; but, if painted, it does not stand at all so well. (Repori^ 
&C., 1821, p. 23.) '* Though this spedes,*' Blichaux observes, «^jrields tur- 
pentine ana tar, their extraction demands too much labour, as this pine is 
always mingled in the forests with other trees." This is anotber point in which 
Michaux'8 acoount difiers from that of Mr. Lambert ; as the latter informs 
us that *' the wood has a sponginess and lightness which deprive it of durabi- 
lity, and render it useless in building, or, indeed, fbr any purposes of a 
similar kind ; but it is tolerably fuU of resin, so that the Americans employ it 
for its tar and pitch." (^Lamb, Pin,, ed. 2., i. t. U.) The tree of P. mitis at 
Dropmore (there named P. vari4bilis, and easily known firom others having the 
safne nanie, by the characteristics alr^tdy mentioned) wass in 1837, after being 
41 years planted, 29 ft. high. 

Commercial Statistict, Uones, in London, are 1«. per quart, and plants 5f. 
each ; at BoUwyller, plants are 2 francs each ; and at New Yorjt, 50 cents. 

1 0. P. pu'nobns MichXf The pnddy-coned, or Table Mountain, Pine. 

UemHfieatkm. Micbz. Aib., 1. p. 61, ; VvaOi FL Amer. 9ept., 8. p. GiS. t Lunb. Fln., ed. £., 1. 1. 17. : 

N. Du Hmm., & u S36. ; Lswion*» Manual, n. 36S., Lodd. Cat, ed. 1936. 
Ei^anngs. Lanb. Pln., ed. 2., 1. 1. 17. ; N. Ou Ilam.. 1 67. f. 4 ; Michx. N. Amcr. Syl., lik 1 110. ; 

majlg.lsn9., to our usual sQOe ; and >%«. 9077. and 9078., of tbe natural tiae } all firom Dropmoce 

7c 4 


Char^^c. LnTes shoK and thickly sel. Canes tcxyehaped, very 
large, ydlow. Scalea with hard incurved prickles, thici, uid brbad at 
thebaee. {Midix.) Bu(l(j^. S0T8.) ih>m)in. totiu Iong,andliii. 
Sbraad ; cylindrical,bluntat thepoint; brown- 
Biab,aiid coTcred with white resiD ; generally 
B without small buds. LeaTea ( j^. 2077.) 
F SJ b. long, includiug ihe Bheatfa, whicb bas 4 
[ OT 5 rings; the leaves are much broader, 
I and rather ahorter and lighter, than thoae of 

P. (a.) pumilio, and tipped with a sharp 

Ct. Cone 3iin, loi^ and about 8iin. 
d. Scale woody, and fumished with a 
strong awl-sbaped hook, eiceeding lin. in lengtfa. 
Seedanearly aalargeasthoBeorP. BylT^Etria, rough 
aod bUick. Cotyledoog trom 6 lo 8. 

Deteription,^. A treeWftorSOrt. higb.with 
tbe habit of P. sylrfalria, but with a niuch more 
branchy head ; and readily distinguiahed Irom that 
species bv tbe young leaves not bdng glaucous, 
and b^ the leaves genoallv beiiw more strai^t 
and ndd, slightly serrateo st the margins, and 
with diorter sheathB. The leaves' are also of a 
paler green, both when youug aud fuU grown, so 
that ue tree, when of iarge size, haa notbing 
ofthe gloomy appearance attributed to the Scotch 
piiM. The coues are of a light yellowiBh browa 
colour, without footBtalks ; and tney are senerally 
in whorls of 3 or 4 together, pointing liorizon- 


IFER*. P1MU8. 

toll)', and renuuiiing on the tree for manv yaaa. At Dropmore, there mte 
coaesadbetiDgto thetrunkandlargerbrancnea of more thaa80years'growth, 
«Tiiig the tree a rery uogular appearance ; and rendering ita trunk eaaQy 
aiBti^uiihBble, even at a distance, from those of all others of the pine 
tiibe. The geograohical ronge of tbis tree, accordin^ to Micbaui, i« very 
limited, it beins cniefl;^ found on the Table Mountain in North CarolinB, 
one of the highest pointa of the AlleghBniea, at nearly 300 milea from the 
aea, which •ummit it covers almost exclusivelr, being rare on the attjoin- 
ing ones. Punh only mentions the Grandfather and Table Mountaias bi ita 
habitata; but Mr, Wuliam StricldBnd, who introduced tbe Bpedes into Eng- 
land, Btated to Mr. Lambert that he observed iBrse foreati of it on tbe Blue 
Hountiuna, ob tbe irantierB of Vupnia. Of all tne fbrest treet of America, 
Mii-hainr observes, thia ia the only apeciea reslricted to Buch narraw limita; 
Bnd it will, probabiy, be Bmoog tne fir«t to become extinct, aa the mountains 
whicfa produce it are eaay of acceas, are bvoured with a salubrioua air and a fer- 
tile Boil, and are rapidty peopling; be^des whicfa, their foreata are irequentljr 
rav^ed by fire. P. pijngens waa ioiroduced mto Eogland in ]801; and, as 
conea are frequently imported, it ia occasionally to be found in collectiona, 
The lat^t tree ne know of ia at Dropmore ; where, in 1837, it was 34 tt. 
high; tbe diameter of tbe trunk 1 fl. 9in.,Bnd of the head asft. I^g. 2080. 
iB 8 portrait of thia tree. There is a tree in the Hordcultural 8eciety's 
Garde», S ft. lugh; and a smBll plant at Messrs. Loddiges's. '- * '— 


the timber ia applied to ao pBTticular use ; but ita turpentiDe i* preTerred to 
that o( every oiher kind of pine fbr dresuiig wounda. Michaux could not 
discover thc slightest diflbrence, however, between tfaii turpentine and 
that of Ehe nitch pine (P. rigida); aiidf indeed, he my» tbu tfae resin of 
all the pines 13 so anatoKouj in properticB, as oflen to be iindistinguisbBble by 
the taste and «mell. fn Britain, P. piiDgeoa can onlji be considered as an 
omamental tree ; but, (rom the singularity of its cones, it well deserres a place 
in every pioetum. Another inducement is -the probability of its beconiiiig 
extinct in North America. Price of cones, in LoodoD, Hi. per quart ; plants 
7f. 6d. each ; sDd at BoUwyller, 3 &ano eacfa. 

j ii. iMricia. 
Srct. Char. Oooe* witb tbe outer surface of tbe acales tDcMT or ksi ellip- 
tical in shape, wilh a horiiontal rib or line from each Htrmity, ter- 
miitating in a blunt slightl; protruding point in tfae centre ; generally 
much shorter than tbe leaves. Buds iarge, oTM&«cuminate, concsTe on 
tbe ndes, and termuiBting in au eloii^atcd point, like a csntd-bair pencil. 
The Bcales of the buds adpreased, incnisEed witb white resin. LeaTes 
twice tbe lengtb of the cones; in no ttage of thrir growth glauroui, 
biit of B darker green than thase of any otber gection of dtfaer Euro- 
pean or Ainerican pinesj remaining on the tree four years. Nativesof 

S 7. F. Laki'cio Pob-. The Corncon, or Larch, Rne. 

MnWcMlOl.' Polr. In '■"■ Esctc, S, p. S39. ; Idm. ct Dec. Fr. Fl., 3l pL ITt. I N. Du Hhii., & 

p.^ j LinliPLn,, olS., D™ hiNem'iHoit.Tour,p.i6g., Lr " ■ — 

Boii Jinl.ed It07,p. 974. j Lodd. C»l.,«l, 1636 j Hiinn Z>nKl, n. ITt 


liptic in their general form, 

scarcely angular, and very 

sligbtly pointed. Male flow- 

ers almost seasite, elon^Bted, 


■ by a soiall round crest. (N, 

f Da Hmt., and obs.) Bud 

'f fsee M 208L) from } in. lo 

* 1 iD.loDg; and from { in. to 

J\ va, broad ; ovate, witb a 
ong narrow point, and con- 
cave Bt the sides, resembling 
a camel-hair pencil. Scales 
ssed, Bnd incrusted with 
rhe centre bud gene- 
rally surrounded by^ three or more small 
buds. Cones varying from 2 in. to 3in. 
OT more in lengtb; and from Jin. to 
IJin. in bresdth. The poials of the 
Ecales tumed over like an under lip, 
and terminating in a point which has 
a VC17 Bmall pnckle, oflen ecarcely per- 
ceptible The colour of the cone tawny, 
aiid the tntcrior part of the scales purple. 
Leaves varying in length from 4 in. to 
(i in. and upwardB; generally two in a 
shcath on the side brauibes, but occaGiooally tbrec 

rltUllLrd.8., i.p.Jll 
i .A^%»L U> 0183., If Um 

CHAP. CXIIl. CONl FEK£. Pl^NUS. 2^01 

Seeds greyish or black, twice as large as those of P. sylv^slris. Cotyle- 
dons (see Jig. 2083.) 6 to a 
Vanetie». Jud^e from the names in Continental catalogues, tfaese are nume- 
roos ; but, as these names are chiefly expressive of ^fiferent localities, we 
are ignorant faow far the plants are reaily distinct. In the Nauveau Dh 
Hamel, only one variety is given, which is characterised by tiie cones being 
greenishy those of the species beinff detcribed as of a tawny of fawn 
colour. Delamarre, ia his TVtdU PraHgue, &c.) enumerates five 
varietiea, some of which, however, are considered by M. Vilmorin 
as bdng probably species ; the cones not baving yet been seen. 

2 T.LAcorsicdna} Laricio del'Iie de Corse, D^Amanv.— Cones 
of a tawny or fallow colour. 

1 P. L. S subMdit Nouveau Du Hamel. — Cones of a greenxsh 

1 P. Xr. 3 caramdnica ; P, caram&nica Boic ; P, caramani^nsis 
Bon Jard., ed. 1837, p. 974.; Laricio de Caramanie, ou de 
rAsia Mineure, Delamarre;? P, rom^a Lojid, Hort, Soc, 
Gard, — P, L. caramdnica seldom grows to above half the 
heigtit of P, L. corsic^a : it has a much rounder and 
more bushy head, with straight, or nearly straight, leavea, 
slender branches, reddish-coloured bark, and reddish buds, 
which are wholly, or in part, covered with white resin. The 
scales of the cones, which are larger than those of P, 
L. corsic^na, are tipped with a harder and more homy 
point. This pine was introduced into France by Olivier, 
the author ot Tranelt in the Levanty in the year 1798 ; 
and there were trees of it, producin^ cones with fertile 
seeds, in the grounds of Malmaison, m 1836. There is 
also a tree in tne garden of M. Perignon, at Auteuil ; one 
in the nurser^ of M. Koisette ; and another in that of M. 
Cels, fils, which has ripened seeds. Delamarre remarks that wss 
this variety is, in the French nurseries, erroneously called P. romana ; 
and, as the tree bearing this name in the garden of theLondon Hor- 
ticultural Sodety, now 20 ft. high, was received from Godefroy 
of Ville d* Avray, near Paris, in 1825 or beibre, it is most probably 
this variety. Seeds of this variety were sent to us from Germany 
in 1829, under the name of P, resinosa, and the plants which have 
been raised from them are found, at Methven Castle, to produce 
annual shoots surpassing in length those of the common Scotch 
pine, near to which they are planted. Mr. Bishop states that 
tbis variety bids fair to become available for the poorer soils of 
Scotland. (See High, Soc, 7Vaff«., vol. xi. p. 124.) 

1 P. L,4!ca!abrica ; Laricio de Mont Sila en Calabre, Dehmarre, — This 
pine, Michaux and Vilmorin remark, in a note tD Delamarre's woric, 
resembles the pine of Caramania ; but, as there are only young 
plants of it in rrance, which have not yet fruited, very little can be 
said about it. It was introduced into France by VL Vilmorin in 
]8r9, 1820, and 1821 ; and 100 Ib^ of seeds, containing about three 
miilions, distributed. 

1 P. L, 5 auttriaca; Laricio d'Autriche, ou de l&llongnefDelamarre, — 
Noisette is said to have (bund this variety in Hungary ; but, accord- 
ing to Michaux and Vilmorin, in their notes to Delamarre's TVnd^, 
&c,, it scarcely differs from P, caram&nica, whidi they say grows 
also in Romania, and in the Crimea. The P, austriaca of Hoss 
(Anteit, dhe Bdume und Strduche Oetterreichs, &c., p. 6.), judffing 
from the author^s description, and firom comparing the buds ot the 
young plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, received from 
Mr. Lawson'6, with plants of the same age of P, L. corsickna, 
appeifrs to be a variety of that species, and is probably identical 
with the Laricio d'Autriche of Delamarre; but, as we have not 


tem tbc coaea, and u tfae pUot b now beiiig extendrd^ di8> 
tributed, throu^ the nctivitf of Mr. I«waan, we h«Te couaidered 

in the meantime, to gne it io ttae fbna of a Bpede*. 

I, 6 pyren^ica ; P, hiip4nics Cook ; ? P. pjreniica Lop. — Prom the 

dE <a the young plwttt oT tltia piDe, in the Horticultural Soci^s 

GsrdeD, and more eipeciaUy fn>m the txmes, aome of wfaich « 

recMTed from Captain Co<dc, we are induced to refer it alao to H 

I«ricio; but, aa it aeems a very distioct and beautifiil Tariety, «nd 

aa it hoa been lately exteniiTelj' diitributed b; Captain Coolc, iriio 

introduced it, we ahaU alao give it in the rorm ofa ipeciee. 

I P.Zf, 7 laHrica. — There ia atreebearingtbia name in Loddigea'H ailxve- 

tum, which ia not introduced into thdr catalogue fbr 1836, and 

which appean, from its buda, to be identicBl with P. talirica {Lodi. 

aa^tA. 1836.) of the same collection; and of which name P. 

PallaaiiiMi ia a aynonyrae : but, aa thia variety of Larlcio ia Tery 

diBtiDCt, particulorly in the grrater length of the conea and leftTca, 

we faave given it aa a spedes. 

Otha- Varietiei, F. o&iuina and probebly aome otha nainei «re ap- 

plied to P. Larido, or some of its Tarieties, but not in eu(^ a manner 

aa |4> enable uB to atate anytbin^ aaiiafactoiy respecting them. The 

only truly distinct forms of thia species, in our opinion, are, P. L. coTNcioB, 

P. L. canuuinica (of which tbere is a hsndsome tree in the HorticultuTal 

8odety's GsrdeD, under the oarae of P. rominii), P. L. Pallasidu (of 

which there are treea at White Knigbls and Boyton), and peHi^w P. L, 

Deicription. A tree, attaining the height of from 80 ft. to ]00ft.,with ■ 
r^ular pyromidal head, and tbe brancbea 
disposed m whorla, of fire or sixin h wfaorl ; 
wfaicb are distinguished from the branches 
of P. Pinister, by being often twisted and 
turaed in ■ lateral direcdon at thetr extre* 
mtties, especiaUy in lull grown trees. In the 
Island of Corsica, it is said that there are 150ftin 
bdght. llie trunk and brancfaes of fulU 
grown trecE have a reddish grev-coloured 
bitrii, not unlike that of P. sylT&tris; and 
the bark of the tnink crackB, and partially 
aeparates in the tbrm of large plHUs,aa in 
that tree. The leaves vary mucB in lengtb, 
according lotheage ofthe tree, and the smI 
on which it grows. The sh(H-test are se- 
nerally 4 in. or 5 in., end the longest 7 is 
8ia. long. They are slendainot aeni 
roueh, and much dailer-coloured than tEose of dtber P. sylT^stria or P. 
PiiMster. In young planta, and on the extremities of the Ehoots of the lower 
horizontal branchcs of old trees,theyBre frequently much waved and twisted; 
faut near ifae top of the tree they are straiabt; snd on the lesding shoot of 
young trees, three lesves are ocoAioiiBlly found in a shcath. The shealfas of 
the leaves vary from 1 in. to 1 in. in length, and have generally 4 or S ringa. 
Atfirst,tbeBheathis wniteandmembranaceouB; but it b«:omestomBndshort- 
ened as the lcaves BdvHnce iu age, and ultimately becomes black. The male 
catkina, which are produced at the eitremities of the shoots, are from 6 tn 15 
b number, snd they are aurrounded by numeiouB Ecales. They are from 1 in. 
to l^io. in length, and from VV'"- '° \^- '" breadlh; yellowiah before the 
bunlingof theantha^, wbicb are temuneted by a round crest, and which 
contain sbundance of pollen, of a besutiful sulphur colour. After the male 
catkiuH drop off, thepart of tbeyoungshootwhicn they occupiedisleft naked; 
and hence the branches of old treea, porticularly at their extremities, hsTe 
those tufts of leaves, altemately with naked placea, which are so conqiicuous 


in P. nAstee, aod dl tlie pines wfaich bave eitfaer laree and ¥617 scaly buds, 

or which produce a great number of male catkins. The. female catkms are 

egg-ahaped, reddiahy Decoming straight after flowering, and thej are bome on 

pedunctes, from ^in. to |in. in length, surrounded at the base with scarioua 

scalea ; the flesfay scalea wfaich form the femaie catkin are terroinated by a 

blunt triangular point, whicfa ia often peraistent, and which, when the cone is 

mature^ renders it yery sii^tly prickly. The oones are commonly in pairs, 

but aomedmes three and sometimes four occur together: thev point hori- 

xontally and alightly downwardsy and sometimes they are slightiv cunred, so 

as to be concaye at the extremity of the side next the ground. They are 

from 2 in. to 3 in., or more, in len^h ; of a ruddy vellow or tawny oolour» or 

greenish. They attain tfaeir full sute in tfae November of the second year, and 

ahed their seeds in the April of the third year. The scales of the cones are 

remarkably distinct ftom those of P. sylv^tris, and the prickly cones of 

rnoos, and TteVla, on the one hand, and from tfae hard, angular, r^gular* 

sidea scales of the cones of the sections of Pin&ster and Halep^nses, on the 

other. Tfae seeds of P. Larfdo are greyisfa» and marked with black spots : 

deprived of tfaeir winp, tfaev are scarcely 4 in. in lensthy but witfa the winj^ 

they are more tfaan 1 m. The tree is rauuiv known nrom P. sylv^tris by its 

more comcal form» and crowded, longer, and darker foliage ; and firom P. Pi. 

nftster, from many of its brancfaes being twbted, as it were, round the tree, 

and irom its folia^ bemg shorter, more slender, aind much darker. The rate 

of growth» even m Britain» is more lapid than that of P. sylv^tris in a 

simuar soil and situation ; bemg^ in young trees, in the dimate of London« 

ftom 2ft. to Sft. in a vear. A tree in me Horticultural Sodety's Oardea 

(see the portndt of this tree in our last VolumeX havin^ been 18 yeara 

planted, was, in 1834, 20 ft. higfa ; and is now ( 1837) 25 ft. faigfa. A sfaoot of 

tfae year 1829, witfa part of 1828» cut from a tree 5 years old^on M. Vilmorin'a 

estate at Barres, and sent to Mr. Law8on's museum, measured 3ft. in length, 

and 3^ in. in drcumference at the thickest end. The leading annual sfaoot of 

a tree m the Horticultural Sodet/s Garden, wfaicfa was blown off on August 20, 

1837, measured 2 ft. 6 in. in lengtfa, and } in. in diameter at tfae lower end, 

where it faad been pierced by an insect; and, tfaougfa not arrived at their full 

growth, its leaves, which are in part in tlirees, were 4 in. in lengtfa ; whilst tfaose 

of tfae last vear's sfaoot, from wnicfa it sprang, were 8} in« Li the Gardener^i 

Mag€ame (vol. i. p. 79.), it is stated, tfaat, a young plant of P. Laricio bdng 

planted in 1817, at the same time with a young plant of P. sylv^tris, on a 

sandy hill in one of tfae coldest counties of the eastem part of England, in 

1 825 the Scotch pine was only 6 ft. or 7 ft. higfa, while P. Larido had attained 

a heisht of upwards of 12 ft. La tfae arboretum of Messrs.^ Loddiges, this 

pine nas attained a larger size tfaan any other spedes» and thrives better than 

any other, with the exception of P. Pin&ster and P. Pfnea, there bdng four 

trees, under the names 01 P. Laricio^ P. L. taurica, P. ta(irica, and P. romlUia» 

from 20 ft. to 30 ft. high ; while the Scotch pine and its varieties are not 

above 12 ft. high, and the American pines not above half that hdght. In 

Fhmce, according to Thouin, P. Larido grows two thirds faster tlian the 

Scotch pin^ placed in a similar soil and situation. The duration of the tree 

in Corsica is from 70 to 80 years, and its average heigbt about 130 ft. (40 

mtoes) ; and the diameter of the tnink from 23 in. to 27 in. (6 to 7 d^cim^ 

tres). The finest young trees in the neighbourhood of London are in the 

Horticultural Sodety^s Garden; and the finest old tree at Kew, where it is 

named P. marftima,^d of which a portrait is given in our last Volume. 

Geography, The Plnus Larido is a native of Cornca, and of various other 
parts of Europe P. B. Webb, Esq., cfiscovered it on Mount Ua, in Phrygia, 
and Mr. Havi^ins found in Oreece, on Cyllene^ Tay^us, and the moun- 
tains of Thasos, a sort of pine which, from the descripdon given in Walpole's 
Memoin rdative to Turkey, is conddered by Mr. Lambert to be this spedes. 
According to Baudrillfurt, it jgrows equally well on mountains of tfae second 
order in Uie interior of Spain, on the sandy plains along the shores of the 
Mediterranean, and in a j^eat part of the north of France. It is said to be 


fiHUid In Hungiiry, in the Hartwold in Leiraerslacble» in Cbermany ; and it 
abounds on Omeasus, and in the loutfa of Russia, and probably genendly 
tbroughout the aouth of Europe, and great part of the weet and north of Asia. 
It does not appear to grow on the very poorest aoils, or at very great eleva- 
tions ; and to require a deeper aoii than P. aylv^stris. 

HUiary, Tbe Corsican pine was scarcely known in France, as a distinct 
species, m the time of Du Hamel ; and was subsequentl j, according to Bose, 
conlbunded by authors with the JPtnus sylvMris, under tbe name of P. s. altis- 
■ima ; and with the JPinus maHtima (our P, Pin4ster), under the name of P. 
ra. Pinaster; from its,in fact, hoidingamiddleplace between these two species, 
The name of P. LaHdo was first given to it bj Poiret, in the IHetiomudrt Ene^ 
ehpSdiqtie f and it was subsequently adopted by De Candolle, in the Fiore 
Frtmgmte, P. LaHcio was introduced into England under the name of P. syl- « 
v^tris q maHtima in 1759; and that name was adopted by Aiton, in tbe first 
edition of tlie Hortus Kewenm ; and afterwards ehaii^ed, in the ^econd edition, 
to P. maHtima. The name of P. Laricio was first adopted in Britain in 1829, 
in conseauence of the description, by Professor Don, of a tree in tbe Paris 
Garden, oeing published under that name in an Appendix to Neill'8 Horti- 
euitunU Tour tnrough Franoe and tke NetherlandM, Seeds were soon after 
imported by Mr. Malcolm, firom M. Vilmorin, and a number of plants raised, 
which have been distributed throufihout the country, though we are not aware 
that thev have been pianted any wnere in large masses. In France, acoording 
to Morcumt de Launay, as quoted by Delamarre, P. Laricio firet attraoted the 
notice ci ^vemment under the ministry of Tuigot, in the time of Louis X VL ; 
and the fine tree in the Paris Garden was planted where it now stands iu the 
year 1774, being tben several years old. The government had great diffi- 
cultyinprocuringseeds from its agents in Corsica : the cones beingproduced 
only in small quantities, and at the summits of the trees, it was dimcult, and 
even dangerous, to gather them ; and this circumstance tempted the deilers 
ki tbese seeds to mix them with tbose of P. Pin4ster, which tliey could pro- 
cure with fiicility. In 1788, the Corsican pines be^n to be employed for 
Biasts for the French navy ; and, wben the trees were cut down, the cones 
were easily gathered. The hite Andr6 Thouin was employed by the Frcnch 
government, about the year 1814, to draw up directions for cultivating this tree, 
which were printed and puUished, together with an account of its prm)erties 
and uses in Corsica, and a strong recomraendation for its culture in France. 
Nevertheleas, the seed not having been procured in sufficient quantities, grafBne 
was resorted to, in the vear 1822 ; and M. Larminat (as we have seen, p. 2130./ 
grafted many thoosands of P. LaHcio on P. sylv^stris in the Forest of Fon- 
tainebleau. Sinoe that time, this pine has been strongly recommended for cuU 
ture by M. Vilmorin, wbo has planted all the varieties of it extensively on his 
estate at Barres, and supptied all the principal seedsmen of Europe with 
seeds. It succeeds well in Scotland, even in tbe Hiehhmds. 

Propertiet and Utei, Acoordinff to M. Thouin, the timber of P. LaHcio 
is somewhat heavier than that of the P. sylv^tris brought from Riga; but, 
being more reainous, it is less brittle and more elastic. Other authors assure 
us, on the contrary, says Baudrillart, that the wood of P. LaHdo has neither 
the Mrength nor tbe ebsticity of tliat of P. sylv^stris. Previously to the 
year 1788, the wood was only used b^ the French govemment for tliebeams, 
the floorin^, and the side planks of ships ; but, in that year, the administration 
of the manne sent two engineers to examine the forests of Lonca and Rospa 
in Corsica, in which abundance of trees were found fit for masts. After tbis, 
entire vessels wejre built with it : only it was found neoessary to give greater 
thickness to the raasts, in order to supply its waat of strength and elasticity. 
The thickness of the sap wood in P. LaHcio is greater t£in in most other 
species of pine; but the heart wood is found to be of very great duration. 
In Corsica, it is employed for all the purposes for which it is used, when of 
36 or 40 years' growth. It is easily worked, and is used both by cabinet- 
makers and sctilptors in wood ; the figures which omament the heads of ves« 
sels being generally made of it. In Britain, the tree hitherto can only be 

CHAP. cxiii. coniVera. prNus. 2205 

eonddered as being one of omament; and, as mich, it deserves to be planted 
eKtensiTel^ for tts very regulw and handsome form, and the intenseiv dark 
green of its abundant foliage. It alao deservea planting on a large scale as a 
useful tree, on account of the great rapidity of its growth. In the low 
districts of Britain, it roight probably be a good substitute for P.sylv^tris, 

SftiHWftt. In the EnTirom of London. In th« Horticulturat Sodvty^ Oardent Ifi jman planted, It 
U 85 ft. blgh ; «t MiuwcU Hill, 8 Tean plaatod, it i« 16 ft. bieh ; in die Hackncy avboretum, flrom 
fiS ft. to 30 ft. high ; at Syou, 40 ft. nigh ; at Kew, the tree iigured in our last Volume, wbich It 
bfl tw e en 80 ft. and 90 ft. bigh. — Nortn of London. In Bedfordrfiire, at Wobam Abbc^y, 7 years 
plantad, it it 10 ft. high. In Berbbire, afc Wbite Knighls, 37 yean pUnted, it is 60ft. hlgb ; at 
I>ropoiore, SO ft. high. In Enex, at Audley End, 7 years planted, it i« 9ft. 6in. high. 1n Hert- 
ftNTdiUre, at Cbesbunt, 4 jcan pUnted, it i« 8 ft. bigb. In Staffbrdsbire, at Trentbam, 6 ycan 
plantfld, It U 16 ft. bigb. In Suflblk, at Amplon Hail, IS yean old, it is 10 ft. bigh. 

Im Forefgn CoutUnes. In France, In the Jardin des Plantcfl, 55 yean planted, it ii 80 ft. high, the 

m roretgn vamtunes. m r rance, in tne Jardin aes nantefl, 55 yean pianted, it u 8U tt. nign, tne 
dHameter of the tnink 3ft. 6hi., and of tbe head 40ft. : at iVomont, intbe garden of M. le Gbe- 
Talier Soulange-Bodin, it 1« 4£ft. higb, the dlameter of the trunk, at 6 ft. ftom thc ground, Ift. 
4 In. ; in Brittany, at Barret, 19 yean planted, it U 84 ft. hieh ; at Nantct, in the nuriery of M. 
Nerrieres, 15 yeanj^anted, It la 85ft. high ; in the Botanic Garden at Mets, 18 yean graftcd, it M 
94 ft. bigh ; at M. Brunel'*, at Avrancbe», 00 yean planted, it i* 40ft. bigb ; in (be Park at Cler. 
rauz. 48 yean plantcd, it U78 ft. high, tbe diamcter of the trunk 1 ft. 6in., and of thc hcad 32 ft. 
In IlanoTflr, at Harbedce, 10 yean planted, It b 16ft. high. 

Cammercial SiaHHicf. Plants, 1n the London nurseries, are U, 6d, each ; 
and at BoUwyller, 1 franc ; but, if there were a demand for them, they would 
doubtless be procured at 30». or 40«. per thousand. 

f 8. P. (L.) AUSTRi^ACA Hoss. Thc Austrian, or hlach, Pine. 

IdaU^lietUiam. Hte Anlelt , pi &; LaWaon^s Manual, p. SSa 
^/wmifme*, F. nigrican* Hort. ; P. nigrfiflcena Hort. ; «chwarti Fb^hre, Ger. 
JSmgraomgt. Flg. 8085., ihowing the bud of a plant of two yean' growUi in tbe Horticultural 
8odeCy*c Oarden. 

Spec» Char,, ^c. Sheath with irom 3 to 5 rings, at first of a cleor ash grey, 
then becoming reddish, afterwards darker, and at last black. Leaves 
from 2 in. to 5 in. long ; seldom, and but little, twisted ; when young, 
erect; when older, standing out,and curved towards thetwig; outer 
surface half round, dark green, glossy, and with a sharply serrated 
margin ; ihiier surface nearly even, but slightlv dotted along the 
ridge ; points prickly, of a yellowish brown or rawn colour. Buds 
laree, the leader ofben from 1 in. to 1 J in. long, ovate, with a long 
pomt Scales dark brown, thinner at the margin and point, and fur- 
nished with whitish fringe ; the lower ones curvinfi; back frore the bud; 
the inner ones collapsed, and incrusted with white resin. Flowers 
produced about the end of May. Male catkins on short pedun- 
cles, oblong, cylindrical, round, or blunily pointed, becoming conical ^^ 
after arriving at maturity, placed many together in verticillate bundles round 
the bottom of the young shoets. The female catkins two or three, or occa- 
sionally more, tog^er, with rather long pediincles from the extremity of the 
youne branches ; round-obion^, erect, and dark red; becoming, in July, about 
Im. long, and } in. broad ; eUiptical, and assuming a reddish brown colour. 
The cone does not arrive at maturity till October in its second year ; it is 
conical, rounded at the base, 2 in. or 3 in. lone, pointing horizontally, or 
nearly so; of a light yellow brown, polished, and shining. Seeds very closely 
resembUng those of P. Larfcio; ana the cotyledons 6 or 8, as in that species. 
Trunk c^indrical. Bark very thick, of a blackish ash-green, marked with 
reddish brown spots. Scales deeply and longitudinall^ deh; the fissures of a 
uniform reddish brick-colour, lin^ter than that ofPicesL pectiukta. The 
branches are produced in regular whorls, at first inclined upwards towards 
the irunk, then spreading horizontally, and finally drooping at theextremity. 
In fuH-grown trees, the top becomes flat and spreading to a great extent. 
The bark of the shoots of the current year is of a greenish yellow, regu- 
larly and deeply raised by the insertions of the leaves, furrowed, and 
shining. (^Hoss*s GememfassUche AnleUung, &c., p. 8.; and Lawsou^s Manual, 

Geograpky and History, P, austrkca grows naturally in Austria, in the 
Breima Forest (Wienerwald), the Banate, upon the Demoglet, near Me- 
hadia ; and, in the ndghbourhood of the Snowy Mountains, it grows at higher 
altitudes Uian Pfcea pectinata. It prefers a deep, dry, calcareous sand ; 



bot it «ill aucMcd in my ■cnl, prorided it ii looee; aod it even lovea k 
moiat Mnl, if not too wet. It thriw beit in aituBtioiu lunng b Miiitlian 
aapect. Tliis pine was first introduced into Britaio hy Hr. LawKm of 
Bdinbui^, in 1835. Tbe teedi «ere m>wo iu that jear, on li^t aandj 
aoij ; and, at the end of thc firet season, the planti were twice m Urge 
aa those of P. avlv&tria w>wn at the some tiae in the Bame *oil ; and 
tlief hHd remarkably lai^ deqt-penetratinK roots. (Mdn., p. 339.) 

Pmpertiei a»d Tjtet, The lap wood of P. austriaca is said b; Host to 
be of a whitish yellow, and thc heart wood of a nistj y^ow ; tlie lattcr 
bdng very reainoui, ttrong, and tough. It is mucb *alued iii Austria, when 
kq>tdryi aod ii said to Eurposs evcn the larch in resisting the ii^urious 
efiects of water, or of alternate moisture and dryness. It ib used by joinm, 
cooDera, &c and oiakes exceltent fuei. Whea burned, the flanies, on account 
of tlte reun contained in the wood, prodiice s very dense blaclc smofce; and, 
where lampblack is thc object, it is very productive of that subMance. 
The wood is preferred to that of tbebeech forcharcoal ; and the roots a0bFd 
spJinten for torches. Among all the native pioea of Auslria, this one is said 
to afibrd tbe greatest qumntity of turpentine. 

Commerdal Statutia. Pnce of plsiiU, in Lawion'8 Nursery, Edinbnrgh, 
10«. a tboutand for ane-year's seedungi, aiid SOi. for two-ycars' seedling*, 

I 9.P.(L.>PALLis/j'N.4l.Bnib. Pallas's, DT Ur rintartaii, Roe. 

. _4i1a:iDth>Huiim<nmiltNiin 

ir. (uianUni u i ipKliiHn b Ni. iJmbal-i hntMiliuii; -, r. Plam UaU. Tur., p. «1, ; 
iuU £li6. A Jirwr. Caae.. 3. p. «X. jadiulTa oT On lyiiaayma, attvt Uhh li Pill, 

andiers rouudish, 

roiand. Cone ovate-oblong 

oltencurved- Bcalea slight 

ly tuberculate, and tenni- 

nated by a very sDiali. 

prickle. (Lamb.) Bud (fy, 

8086.) } l^in.lone, 

audCrani|in to Im.broad; 

ovate, and pointed, with 

theddes concBve,like those 

of P. Larfcio, but much 

laiger. Leaves (see fy. 
B088.) from + in. to 7 in. or S in. in 
length ; sheath (toni 4 in. to } in. in lengtb. 
Cones from 4in. to 5in. in leiwth, and 
from IJin. lo IJin. in breadth at the 
wideat part ; ovate-OTal, acuminate, hori- 
xontal m tbcir dircction, and slightly in- 
curred at the extrcmities, which point 
downwards. Scales as tn thoseof P. La- 
rtc30, but laiver. (From spedmens re- 
ceived ftom A&. Lambert, White Knights, 
and the Olasnevin Qarden, in August, 1837.) 
Fitrielkt, Wecan readily conceive that J>. L.Pallasi^, like erer; othern- 
riety of P. Lericio, ii li^le to Boort ; and, accordingly, of the trees poa- 
sessed by Hr, Lauibert, ooe has the cones straieht and Bhort, aod aoother 
long and crooked. In the OlaBnevin Boianic Oarden, there are two 
tre^a of P. PallasKnui, which were planted in the year 1797, and are now 

CHAP. exiii. 



about 50fi. high. Tbey were 
received irooi tlie Hammer- 
unith Nursery, and marked in 
the gardcD with tlie iiaiiie of P. 
uncinitta; but, ia 1834, cones 
»ereproduced;when thevwere 

foundto be those of P, Pellaa- 

idMi. Both these treei, Mr. 
Nevin informs ui, are equally 

robust and vigoroua ; but the 

one throwB out its brancbes in 

tbe mo»t groteiq^tie and luxu- 

riant manner, with a knotCy 

stem, while the other has an 

elegant cypreM-like form. Mr. 

Niven haa sent U9 specimens 

with cones of both varietiea j 

but the concs of theee sneci- 

mena do uot Bppesr to ai&r 

in the least. Tnere ii a tree 

in the Horticultural.Sociely'» / 

Oariien, considered there ae the . 

true P. PaUaiuna, which ba« ,' 

borne conei, and ofwbicbj^. i 

8069. ia ii portrait, to our usual 

■cale ,' but it is evidently [ 

tbe P. Pallastana of Lambert, 

but rather some other variety 

of i*. Laric^olessdiSerentfrom 

the Bpecies. There is anotber 

tree in the same garden, mark- 

ed P. taurica, which has not I 

bome cones; and, though it 1 

diAera somewhet in habit froro 

tbe tree marked there P. Pal- 

laMona, being more liuicieate, ' 

we have no doubt it wtil be j 

found, wben it comes to pro- Ki 

duce conea, to t>e some other Wj^ 

sligbt variation of P, Laricio ; 

Iq rare species, of every khid, 

it ia very natural to take ad- 

TBHtage of slight shades of 

difierence, and to hold them out as v 

common, would be Blt<wether n^lected. For example, there might be 

many very disdnct varieties selected from Scotcb pine woods. quite as dif. 

fereitf from one snotbcr as the diflerent varieties and subvarieties of P. La- 

" ■ ris is H very common tree, no cultivator thinks it 

9 T&rietiea or variations into notice. 

cc, about the size of P. s^ Ivestris, but mucli niore 

lerori large, deciiniiig, and horizontal branches 

. . . _ . _it to the base ; the lower brancheB alinast equalling the trunk 

:lf in size. Bark crackcd, rugged, brown, scaling oS. Wood compuct, 

lite, brownisb red iu the centre, rcsinoua, very knotty. Lcaves in tnos, 

iwded, erect, rigid, semi-cylindHcBl, glsbroua, somewhat shining, light grcen; 

n. lonsj roughlyserrulatedon tbe margin,canaliculate above, furniBned atthe 

IX with asharp cartilaginouE mucro; abeaths short, about iin. 1ong,round, 
"ered exiernally witb loose scales, membraneous, and torn on the margin; 

which, in specics that are 

o ; but, Hs P, syh 
worth his while to bring 
Detcr^tion. " A large I 
■nreadin^, sending 


its gcncral appearence. He tilYerwariie called it F. penlGSIiiH, but, i» his 
Suppl. he naines ic P. pyrenajcn, which nanie Captain Cook pmposes to 
change to P-. hispanica, as the tree i» chiefly foiinJ m Spain ; and a French 
writer in Annalei ifHorl. to P. hHlepeiisis nigor. Captain Cook statei that 
this species is " quite hardy, orquicb growth, ond will, frani its noble ap- 
pearance,thsbeButy of its rorin, antl the ctear transparcntcolourorboth tne 
bark and folioge, be a vast Bcquisitian to our park scenery. The limber i» 
white and dry, being nearly without turpcniine ; but the cones exude a 
moaC delicious balsamic odour. Thc wood was fonneriy used by the 
SpaniBh governnienC, in Che araenala of Carthegena and Cadiz, for cbe decks 
oi ships ; for which purpose regulsr depots were kepC in the Sierra de 
S^ura; and it waa floated down to the respcctive porcs by the rirers Se- 
gura and Guadalquiver. It is one of che species describea in the book of 
Arab agriculcure written by a Moor of Seville, in 1800, and translated by 
Banqueri." Beaides the planta sent by CapCain Cook to Woodade, the 
Horticulturel SocieCy'» Garden, and Syon, thcrc are also speciinens aC 
Newton and Bclsay, in Norchumberland ; at Dropmore ; aC Carlcon, near 
Darlington,in Durham; aC Cnrclcw, iu Cornvoll; and some other places. 
I II. P. RBsiNo'sA A/. The resinous, or r«f, Pine. 



UJItaHn. Alt. Hotl. K 

VL,*.p.496.i Mnn. M _. . , . 

' MaDual.p.M7.L Bon Jtn).. le 

LmiiIi. Hn.' cd. 4, 1. tlJi Michi. N. Anwr. Srt.s t ISV; ourjlf. «Bfi., 
10 out uiiul K«le, wKh II isilf cukiii Im) of Ih» nalunt nit i majltM. :W4. ud 
tMW..or(hcnUuril>iHi ill IWim DtopniDrcuHl Whiu KnlihaipeclmniT. ^ 

Siiec. Char., i^c. Bark red. Leaves in pairs, 4 in. or i in. iong. Cones 
of a reddish brown, ovate-conicBt, rounded at the base, and bnlf j 
the length of the leaves ; scales dilated in the niiddle, und unamied. 
(jMicAj.) Buds (jiff. 2094^), in the White Knights speciincn, 
lif \n. long, and -^ iu broad ; ovate, acuminate, concave on the sides, 
wilh a long point, as in P. Lariciu ; but reddish brown, and very l 
resinous. Leaves (fig. S0d5.) from 5 in. to 6 in. long, straight, f 
Htifl*, and yellow at the tip ; sheatli from J in. to 1 in. long, white, L„ 
laceratcd, and becoming short and dark with age. Cone 3 in. long, LjW 
and l|in. broad, ovate-conicnl, browniiih red, se^hile, or wltii very ^"^ 


CON)'fER«, prNUS. 
1. \one, and 

sholt foolstalki ; scales { in. \one, i 
}in. broad. Seeds small; witn 
winn )>n. loD^. The leaTCS are 
thidily set, and inclined towords the 
shool, uid much lighter and more 
glaucouB thsn in P. Laricio and its 
viuieties, in )*hich tbe foliage ih of a 
darker green than it is in any other 
■pedes of J^nus. The shooCs are 
much more aaked, and the whole 


dittont thut in P. Larlcio : 
the plant is also of much lesa vi- 

¥iroui growth in BriEish gardens. 
he cones, ia Michaux's figure, and 

also on Ihe trees at White Koighta, 

beftT a good deal of reaemblance to 

those of P. Laricio ; wbich induced 

Loiiieleur Deslongchampa to considw 

Hichaux'» plant aa idendcal with that 

species; but, we think, if he faad seen 

the cones and trees acWhhe Knighta, 

fae would have been of a diSerent 

opinioQ. We have aent him a speci- 

men. We acknowledge, however, 

thatboth the foliageand theconeB.and 

even the tree altogether, bear a clo«e 

cene»! reaemblance to /*. Laricio; 

but the diQereot form and eolour of thescalea, the lighter tinge of the fo- 

liagc, and, above all, the much more delicate conatitution oflhe tree, appeuj- 

sufiideDt to justily ui ia retaining it as a 

dininct speciea. Wearccertain thatthe 

trees at White Knigbts are the true P. 

rubra of Micbaux; because they were 

nised by Hessra. Loddiges from seeds 

of P. ribn, sent to them by Bartram of 

Pbiladelphia. We have also, since the 

above was written, received cones and 

lenTesfrom Mr. M'Nab,jun., which were 

gatbered by him in Upper Canada, ia 

Aufust, 1834, froni treet which had l>een 

Uowo down, and which measured up- 

Kffdsof 70ft in length. 

Oeteription. A tree, accordin^ to Mi- 
cbatix, which, in Aoierica, rises frora 70 ft. 
to 80 !t., with a trunk about 2 fl. in dia- 
meter, and retsining Dearly the sarae bulk 
toT two thirds of its height. The bark is 
of aclesrer red than that of any other pine 
in the United SWtea; and by tbis the tree 
may always readily be distinKuished. The 
leaves are 5 in. ar 6 in. long, oTa dark green, 
two ia 8 abeath, and collected in buncbes 
at the eitremity of the branches, like those 
of the pinaster; insteadof beingdiatributed 
r^larly over thera, like those of P. Jnops 
■nd P. sylvtoris. The female catkins nre 
ef a dark bltie, when they first appear; 



t bolh irhich 

«nd the coDes, which are qiule destUute of prickles, bk about Sin. loi^, 
rounJed at the base, and abniptljr poiDted. The concenUTc drdea of the 
iTood are very close; aod the vood, when wrou^t, exhibita a fine compact 
gniin. It i» very hea»y ; and this, according to Michaux, ariaea froin the quan- 
tity of resinous mattcr with which it is impref^ated. The fineit treei of 
this ipccies in Enriand «re at Whitc Knighta and Dropmi 

Etaces they are froni 20 fl. to 25 ft. in 
eight, and produce.i cones, in eeneral, 

cvery other yesr. The habit of tne tree, 

Ht both places, is very well represeoted by 

fig. S097,, which is tne portrait of a tree 

Bt Dropmore (to a scele of lin.toSfi.), 

taken in Auguit, 1H37. The tree in the 

Hackney arboreturo, which was raised 

at the game time bb tfaose at White 

Rnights, and of the identity of which, 

rrom the buds and leaves, tliere can be no 

doubt, not thriving in the London amoke, 

ia only ^ft. 3in. high. 

Geographff, Hulory, i^c. Tlie elder 

MichauK first observeil tbe red piue near 

Leke St. John, tn Canada, in n. lat. ^S? ; 

and his son did not find it eiiend farther 

south than Wilkesborough, in Pennsyl- 

vania, in lat. 41° 30'. It is rare, the 

latter observea, in all the country aouth 

of the river Hudion ; but it obounds in 

Nova Scotis i and Maekenzie atates that 

he saw it bcjond Idke Buperior. It is 

not found in immense fbreata, but occu- 

piea amall tracta of a few hundred acrei in extent, alone or min^led 
with the white pine; growing only in dry sandy soils. Mr. M'Nab only 
found this specteii in the neighbourhood of Kingston, and on the banks 
of the Genessee in tbe stale of New York. He was informcd, howcver, tbat 
it waa abundant in the interior of the couDtry, at b diatauce from the rivert 
and lakea. This species is mentioncd, in the Traite dei Arbrei, Su., of 
Du Hamel, ^ublished in 1755, as tbe pin rouge de Canada; but, as he 
saya he received the description of it trom M. Oaultier, who was con- 
aeitler au conseil aup^eur, et m^ecin du roi, at Quebec, it ia probable 
that living snecimens were not seat to France. It was introduced into 
Britain by ilugh Duke of NorthtunberlBnd, in 1756; and Mr. Lambert, 
writing in 1804, mentions thal the grealest number of trees in Englaod 
were then et Syon Houae. Ile alao found one at Pain^a HilU and meDtJoos 
others at Kenwood. The whole of these treea seem to be dead, or cut 
down ; for we could nol iind one at Pain's Hill, and there are none at Syon or 
Kenwood. About the end of the laat century, Mcssra. Loddiges raised nearly 
100 plants of P. reMnisa, from seeds received from Bartram of Phila- 
delphia; and nearly the whole of theae ncre planted bv ibe ihen Marquess 
of Blandford (the presenl Dukeof Marlborough) at White Knights, wbere a 
number of them still exiit, though they have been much ii^ured by other 
troes; and ihey have borne cones for several years past. 

Fropertiet and Uiei. Tbe concentric circles of the wood of this tree, 
Michauxobaenres,areBmalt,anditconBequenllyexhibitgBfinegrain ; and,beiqg 
rendered henvy by the reainoiia matter with which it is iinpregnated, it b 
highly esteemed in Canada for its alrenglh and dunibility. It is emploved to 
fumish planks for the decks of sbips, which are ofren 40 ft. long, witboul a 
singleknol; and, slripped of its sap wood, it makes eicellent pumps. It 
has aiso liecn used for the masts of shipa ; and Du Hamel (TVoife det 
ArbTei), end efter him Michoux, ineiition tuat tbe mainoiaatof ihe St. Law- 



reDCC, B ihip ot50 or 60 gtini, biiilt by the French ot Quebec, wu made of 
it. The ttmber of tliia piaeiBBent ta EnglHnd, from thedistrictof MaiDeand 
tbe shorei of Lake Chemplain. As an ornamental Iree, this apedee vi well 
deserving of cultivation. The price of plants, at Ncw York, is 50 cenls eacb. 

App. i. Doubtfid Species, apparentltf belonging lo $ Laricio. 

M ttan I^rlL 1 

he had loian Air non UuiD K iwnL i 
BU»lluiiltn.l>i|h. TlwlniBk !•£>)_. 

thrH brfc Umht, whkh rlH aUlquriT, uc 

liiie rouml buih. 

Bule calkla; bol die fnult 

rcddijh, ud dkipoud In Rflupi 
or cliiit«n,4f rramfioTSlo tlai 
ia.ortnDmarcta«Ui«r. Thi 
Imtii» atkltHituid itnlilil oui 

ne ^Keti«'>btD Id ftuii 
TlMT rlpn the pocoad jeir, bul 
roBDlB OB tlw tiM f)»t leen « 
more. ThaiucihDHttiD.laai. 
■Dd Itla. iTdlueterel tbe tS. 
temlitttla* 1d e thm potr' - '' 

a brt^ir&DuoD-ierfR) . 

»*n«lle»iDneriheKalei !• 
eaanoi d ttUt «i(ulir, ud dv- 
wnedlD thectaEi" -'---.-■ 


■rv uta.i\j «hlte, lad muoh 
)ais*r thw thon oT P. Lnttcio. 
Tbe vhkf , whioh It of thc — ^ 

Hw «bIt qwclmm of thta pfne 

ptiMiL (hoiuh it dir - 
lUlrnDm thatipeei .—.- 

^^■1^ ud partloukilvlD hai.LDA 
eoDH polDllDf liailnDtill 
It, InMHl Dt davnvanli. Du 
HiBiel,lnhh TTalU iha Arirti, 
a^. Hiidiqhed Id 1^-ts *i*m * 

Hie trunh and Umbt aro covered vllb a rouih cruked barh of a 

nddWibmni wblletheTauDi«rbruicbuliaTei|neTiihhoTfc, 

talcnhtf BDHoih. 'n* l«B¥*i art lu pain or thma i tbvr ate iIodi 

— ..I . _ ...». - .. _... gi ,hj bir~>~ ■■■- - 


Gaoltier ar QucbM. He cilli it P. uouUntiibitblla, (billi brVTl6rlbg* al teDuiOrihui, la pelit 
pin iDueede ODtita; in onwiltlon toF. cinidtniliblfAlii.chnliinhdliivUii, lepiDieuH deCii- 

§ iK. Viti&ster. 

Seef. Char. Leares long, «traight, and stifr, comparativelf broad. Conei 

large, irith rhomboidal, pjremidal terminationa, poiiited. Buds blunt- 

pointed, imbricated, with the acales tunied back, woolly, nnd whotly 

witbout reain. 

I \2. P. Pina'steb Ail. The Pinaater, or Cliuffr, Pine. 
/AwMntiM. Ait. B<i«.Kew.,ed.1,.3.p.3ei-;Linib.Pin.,I. I.9., Hitt. Mlll,, No. 2. j Lowkhi'1 
■luiuil.pL Hl.; Ladd. t:il.,al.ia36i ifafneDtnd,, p, 171. 


Sjfnonjftnet. P. frlTiitris y Un. Skfst. RekdL,^ p. 172. ; P. marftlma (Itera Du Ham, Jrb.t No. 4. 

t. 29.. Du Roi HarM., cd. PoCt, 1 p. 59. ; F. marltima N. Du Uam.jS. n. 940. ; P. ifrtica Tkort 

Prom. $ur le$ C6U» 4t Oa$eorne. p. 161. ; Pio de Bordeftux, Pin det Landet. 
Engraping». Du Ham. Arb., No. 4. t sa ; Lamb. Pin., ed. S., 1. 1. 9. ; N. Du Ham., 5. t.78. and 

72. bis €\.\ our/f. 8105., to our usual tcale ; ftg». diOO. and 2101., of tbe natural ciae, from Drop. 

more and raio** Hlll ■pedment ; and tbe pUte» of this tree In our last Volume. 

Spec. Char,, ^c, Leaves in pairs, rigid, very long. Cones conical, placed in 
wborls of 3, 4, or even as niany as 8, together ; rarely solitary, much shorter 
than the leaves ; the backs of the scales forming each a rhomboidal pyramid, 
with two lateral angles, from which proceed ribs, terminating at the sum- 
mit of the pyramid in a smaller rnTamid, which has a hard point, more or less 
sharp, and of a grey colour. Crest of the anthers rounded. 
(M Du Ham,, and obs.) Bud (Jig, 2100.) from f in. to ^ in. 
long; and from }in. to ^in. broad ; straight-sided, cylindncal, 
pointed, imbricated, with the scales turned back ; white and 
wooUy, but never resinous; surrounding buds few and small. 
Leaves (see Jig, 2101.) from 6in. or 8 in. to 1 ft. in length, 
slightly soirrated on the margins; sheaths from ^ in. to f in. in 
length; imbricated, scarcelv rigid; pale green or whitish at 
first, and becoming at last biack. Cones from 4 in. to 6 in. in 
length, and firom l^ in. to 24 in. wide at the broadest part; 
light brown, and shining; scales from 1 in. to l^ in. in length, 
and from ^ in. to } in. in breadth at the widest part ; ter- 
minaiing in a repiular pyramid; rhomboidal at the base. The ^^ 
suramit consistmff of a smaller rhomboidal pyramid, of an ash-grey colour, 
very hard, and with a small sharp point, more particularly in the upper part 
of the cone. Seeds oblong, and measuring, without the wing, upwards of 
fin. in length, and nearly ^in. in breadth ; with the wing above l|in. in 
fength ; wing nearly ^ in. in breadth. Cotyledons 7 or 8. The tree nowers, 
near London, in the beginning of June ; in the north and west of France, in 
May; and on the Landes of Bordeaux,in April. 

Varicties, The extensive geographical range of this tree has given rise to 
many varieties, though we have seen but very few that can be considered 
truly distinct. In the Nouveau Du Hamel, only one is mentioned ; but 
it is added, that, in the Landes of Bordeaux, in the sandy downs along 
the sea coast, where the trees send down their taproots to a great depth, 
some are to be found which produce clusters of cones from 30 or 40 to 80, 
or even 100, in a ciuster. This is stated by Loiseieur Deslongchamps, on 
the authority of Dr. Thore of Dax, who adds that this luxuriance of vege- 
tation is not constant ; for the same trees which have bome so many cones 
in one year, are found, in other years, with very few, or none; it cannot,. 
therefore, be considered as a variety. The pinaster appears also to be indi- 
genous to, or to have been introduced into, several ultra-European countries; 
and plants raised from seeds received from these countries tiave had nanies 
given to them in British gardens, though hardly, as we think, meriting that 
distinc^on. We shall, however, give all the varieties of which we have 
seen plants, and leave the reader to judge for himself. 

t P, P. 2 escarenut, P, escar^na Risso, — The leaves are of a paler green 
than those ofthe species, but they are equaliy long and strong. The 
cones ure shorter, and more ovate. This is the most distinct and 
handsome variety of pinaster that we have seen : it was first intro- 
duced into Britain by the Earl of Aberdeen, in 1825 ; the tree 
having been pointed out to His Lordship in that year, by M. Risso» 
at Nice, as growing, though rather sparingly, in the mountains, 
about 12 or 15 miles from that city. From seeds brought to Eng- 
land by Lord Aberdeen, plants were raised ; and one presented by 
him to Lord Grenviile bore cones in 1836, and is now (1837) 
17 ft. hi^h : one presented to the London Horticultural Society, 
afler bemg 8 years planted, is now 1 1 fl. high, but has not yet 
borne cones. 



(erred to, he 
it «a foUows : 
— "Infoliagc, 
it lE similar to 

ihe pinaster; but it differs in the genera) habtt of the tree, and 
in the fbrm and poBition of the conet. In the common pinaBter, 
the cone», ofwhich there are generally 3 or 4 together, are aituated 
behind the ahooti of the whorl, and, in the mature state, point back- 
vrords. In thii obBcure species the cone is siiigle, and it univerBally 
occupie» the ploce of the leading shoot, the side Bhoot* being be- 
hind it. The necessary consequence of this mode of growth is, 
that the tree can have no regular leader, but ench year one of the 
■ide shoot* ytrengthens, and continues the growth for the ensning 
seoson ; the year following, the same proceaa is repeated in another 
direction, gtvuig tbe stem of the tree a tigzag appearance, which it 
nerer entirely loaea." The genersl Bppearance of the tree is that of 
a short buahy pimuter ; though there is nothing dwarhsh or dis- 



MKd in its apprarance, nor does it 

exhibit any peculiariticB of constitu- 

tion, to which other pineE are not 

aubject. OccuionHli)', likelhe piiuu- 

ter and Scotch pines, it killt itself by 

an exuberant braring of conea ; and it 

then usuDies a Tery extraordinarj 

aspcct, reminding one, Sir Chariea 

Lemon obterves, of the groups of . 

little wooden birdn, or popiiHi^B, > 

percbed on the eAd» of sdcks, at which 

the people of Holland and Betgtum 

ahoot for priiefl with boirs and ar. 

rowa. The foliage, when thiv takes 

ploce, drops off.and the tree ia reduced 

to s coUection of dry sticka, each 

teminBted by a cone. The largest 

tree that Sir Charles Lemoa hBil Heen, meaaured, in 1S33, 44 in. 

in girtat 4ft. Irom the ground, afler being pltuited 35 years. Mr. 

Booth, in 1837, informed us that the two largest trees of thii 

Tariety that he knew of, grew in rather nn exposed eitu- 

ation between Carclew and Hylor Bridge, luitf llmt they , ' 

were about 30 ft. high, diameter of the tnink about 15 in., 

and of the head from 15 ft. to 16 ft, Wlien of this Htc, 

Mr. Booth conBiders this Tariety to bc n very graceful Cree 

" the hcad being round, compact and hiishy, nnd pre- 

senting an agreeable contrait to tbe pjraiiiidal head of the 

Scotchpine,orthepinaater." There 

are many uoatler trees at CBrcIew, 

Sir Charles Leinon's [seat in Corn- 

wall, which, at S or 9 years' crowth, 

assume all the characters tnat be- 

long to the varieCy ; and even sced- 

lings <if 3 jears old show Eymp- 

loms of the same peculiBritiea. It 

is not uncommon in the woods of 

Carclew, and those of Lady Basset 

B^joining. Mr. Boocfa has also ol>> 

served it in other parts of the county, 

but not out of it, There is b plant 
in the pinetum at Carclew which, 
in 1837, afterbeingeyewsplanted, 
waa 6ft. Ain. hi^h. 
I P. P. 4 minor/ P. maricuna minor 
JV. Du Ham., T. p. 248 t. 78. bl», 
f. l.,Bndour_/%. 8104.; PinPinsot, 
Pin de Mans, I^n k TrocheL — 
Thia variety, which ii chieAy distin- 
guished by cfae Bomewbat smBlIer siie of 
nrom 3Jin. to 4in.long,and l}in. broaki, is Bnid by Bosc 
to be produced by a colder dimate, aml to :iliiiuiii! uii tlic 
west coast ofFrance.especially on the lurrL'ii .-llikI-' ui thc 
neighbourhood of Mans ; and to be hardier than the species. 
Ic is found in tbe Landes of Bordeaux, growing along witfa P. Pi. 
nAster. There is a specimen of this variety in the Jardin des PlanCes, 
as well aa af P. Piakater, known there as P. marttima major ; and a 
considerable quantity oF P. marltima minor has been sown io the 
Forest af FontBinebleen. Judging from the «peciniens with cones 
which have been sent us from different parts of Ihe country, this 


«p. cxiii. co[ji'feb«. pi'ki:8. 2217 

varietj Bppears to be rrequent 

in England. Frain White , 

Knights, we have received ' 

■pecimens with cones not ' 

3iD. ia length. It \m said in 

the NauBeaa Couri d'Agri- 

cuUure, 8«^ that five fag^ts 

of the wood of this nnety ^J- 

will burn aa mucb lime e ~ 

eight fiiegots of oak. 
I P. P. 5 Jolat variegdtu. — Thia 

vBriety woa Uiscovered by Mr. 

Crce, the foiinder of the Ad> 

dlestone Nuraery, towBrds , 

the end ofthe la«t centiiry; 

and the ori^nal plant ia Uill 

in the grounds occupied by 

his son, the euthor oF Hot' / 

lut Addleilonmi*. Thero ia 

a tree in the Horticulturat 

Society'B Onrden, 12 yeara < 

planted, which is 12 (t. bi^h. ,. 

It is propagBtad by inarching "- 

on the species. 
1 P. P. 6 murWiKiu,— There ii 

tree, 25 ft. high, bearine tfais 

name, in the Horticultural 

Society'sOnrdeni but,thougfa 


some other pinastera tfaere, it 

may be a mcre TBriBtion, not 

worth recording aa a variety. 
J P. P. 7 cUneiuu. — The tree 

bearing :bi» name in the Hor- 

ticultural Society's (iarden is Hfl. high, afler being 10 yuars plunted. 
It was raifted from seeds imported from China by Mr. Reeves. The 
tree ii erect, and not so spreadina as the species is in general ; but 
it can scerccly be worth while tolieep it diatinct aa a vBnety. 
X P. P. S nepaihuii. — The tree bearing this namc in the Horticultural 
Society's Oarden was, in 1B37, Uft. higfa, al\er being 12 years 
ptanted. It waa raiiied trom aecds sent home by Dr. Wallich, and 
)• B branchy spreading tree, with narrowcr cones than the species. 
S F.P.»tidpiaiolldndicut;P. Novs Holl^ndis Lodd. Cat.,ed. 183G; P. 
riva HeUndica, No. 28. in the arboretum at Kew. — The trec in the 
Hackney arboretiim is 10 fl. high, and has borne cones for several 
years. It was rused from seeds received, in 1B16, from agende> 
man who said he faad them from New ZealBnd, though in this 
there is, doubtleas, Boine mistake. 
X P. P. 10 tl, heleramu. — A plnnt with this namc, imported from St. 
Hetena, andwhicfa, in 1837, in the collection at Hendon Kectory, 
wBi 6 ft. high In a pot, had leaves full 7 in. long, and \'w. broad, and 
remarkably slrong and thick, with the leaTes of the preceding year 
pointing dowQwards, likc those of P. Sabiniano. If this variety 
■houldbe the same as the St. Helcna pinaster in Loddiges's Brb<>- 
retum, the luxuriauce ofits foliage will be greatly diminisfaed when 
the tree grows old; for the luit tree in the hne of pines in the 
Hackney arboretum, which was imported from 8t. Helena in IBIO, 
is now (1837) 25 h. high, and not distinguishable eitber in leaves 
or cones from the conimon pinaster. 


r P. P. 11. MattoiAnua,P.^Um»OTuaiuthamb.,Sed., 1. 1. 8.,to benotked 

hereafter, ProfeMor Don consideri as only P. PinisteT, which we 

tbink very probable. 

The only varieties of pinaster which we thiiifa worth cultivHting are 

P. P. etcarenua ; and F. P. Lemonioitu, and, for thote who Like varieeated 

planta, P. P. f6liiB vari^tii. ^ 

DeicT^litm. A large, bsndeome, pjTamidal tree, varyine from 40ft. to 

eoft. in height, according to soil and sitLtBtion; readiJy disCinguiihed Iroiii 

kU other pines bj the large clustered masses of foliage, of a much li^ter 

green than that of P. Laricio, which attemate with nakcd spaces, oa tbe 

eitremities of its brancbes. The 

trunk, even of voung trees, is 

clolhed with a deeply furrowed 

coarse bark, especially towards 

the base, where il generally in- 

clinesto one aiile, from theweight 

of the top, when the tree is quite 

young. The branche» are in re- 

gular whorls, and invariebly tum 

upwards. The groupa of conea 

point outwarda in Gt«r-1ike clus' 

ten; whence the name of pin 

aster, or star pine. The male 

catkins, which are, on drv soils, 

produccd when the tree is only 

6 or 8 years old, are of a yellow 

or fawn colour, aouietimes slight- 

ly tinged with red ; tbey are mote 

nuiuerous, genemlly occup^ing a 

space of from 4in. to 6 in. or s 

more in lengtb, round tbe base 

of the shoot of the current year. ^ 

Wben theae male catkins drop 

off, the a|>ace they occupied is 

left bare ; and hence the alter- 

natton already mentioned, of tufts 

of folisge and bare placea, on 

the extremities of the branches; 

and which are so much more conspicuoua on thb pine t 

European species, rrom the greater number of catkins produced, and che 

rter len^h of Che leavea. The fcmalc catkins appear in wborla on 
extremities of the ahoota of the current year; and are at first purple, 
but afterwarda cbange to green, and, when tbey attain maturity, in the 
aulumn of the secood year, become of a rich shining brown. The pyra- 
niidal termination to the acales of the rones is always much lar^, and 
more prominent, on the upper side of the cone than on the under side, and 
on tbat side of the tree which is exposed to thc sun, than on tbet whicb is in 
the shade. Tbere \% a more dedded taproot in this pine than in any ocher 
European speciea; end, where the soil is dry and sandy, it descends pcrpen- 
dicularly into it, like tbe root of a broad-Ieaved tree. In proportion aa the 
perpendiculer roots are stronger than tbose of other pines, tbc horixontal 
roots are weaker ; and heuce, in the casc of Iranaplanted treea, from tfae 
weight of the head, produced by the dense mass of lon^ foliage, the stem 
is generally inclined to one side; and when, afler two or three year^ it b^ns 
to grow erect, a curvature appears close above the root, which remains visible 
even in old crees. Thc ratc of growth ta very rapid j plants, in 10 years from 
the aeed, attaining the height of lOfl. or 12 h., and, in twenty years, theheight 
of 30fC,, in thechmateof London. The woodiEin thick layera, sofC, and not 
of great duretion. The finest pinaster in the neighbourbood of Loodon ii 


in the ffardens of Fulham Palace; and the next lar^est are at 8yon, Pain'8 Hill, 
and Whitton. The tree at Fulham is above 80 ft. high ; one of tnose at Whitton 
is 60 ft high, with a trunk 4 ft. in diameter, ciear of brancfaes to the height of 
40 ft. Several at Pain'8 Hill, and some at Syon, are above 60 fl. hieh. The 
lai^est pinasters which we have heard of in Kngland are at Westwich House, 
Norfolk, the seat of J. Peters, Esq. They were planted in 1703, and in 1809 
several of them were measured by N. Kent, £sq., and found to be upwards 
of 80 ft. high, and to contain about eight loads of timber each. (See Trans, 
Soc. ArUf vol. xxviii. p. 4>2.) 

Geography, Histary, j-c. The pinaster is indigenous to the south of 
Europe, and to both shores of the Mediterraiiean ; to Greece, the west of 
Asia, the Himalayas, and, as it would appear, even to China. It may be 
doubted, however, whether it has not oeen carried from Europe to the 
latter country. It is not indigenous to the north of France or Germany, 
and is, perhaps, most abundant in Spain, and on the shores of the Mediterra- 
neao. It never thrives, e&cept in deep sand or sandy loam ; and it is said 
to perish when planted in oilcareous soiJ. The pinaster was introduced 
into Engiand in 1596, by Gerard; and one of the olaest trees still existing is 
in the gardens of the episcopal palace at Fuiham, where, as we have seen 
above and in p. 43., it was, m 1835, 80 ft. high. The pinaster has since been 
verj extensively planted in Britain, as an omamental tree; and, in some 
parts of Hampshire and Norfolk, plantations of it liave been formed on a 
laige scale for useful purposes. In Hampshire, it has generaliy failed, 
from the soii l)eing peaty, wet at bottom, sliallow, and hard, or the subsoil 
being chaik. In Norfolk, on the other hand, where it has been pianted 
in deep sand, the success has been very different. At Westwich House, in 
tliat county, aiready mentioned, the pinaster began to be pianted in 1702 ; and 
manv trees, stiil existing there, are from 70 ft. to 80 ft. high, with trunks pro- 
portJonately thick. An account of tt)e pinaster piantations at this piace, taken 
m 1809, is ffiven in the Trantactioru ofthe Sodety of Artt, vol. xxviii., by which 
it appears that J. B. Peters, Esq., the ifother of the present proprietor, had 
raised above 200,000 plants firom seeds gathered from his own trees. He 
had planted alto^ether upwards of 500 acres, through which he had formed a 
drive of five miies in iength. The situation is bieak, and the soii sand, 
covered with heath, on a subsoil of coarse hard gravei, or dead yeliow sand. 
Nevertheless, on this soii the plants grow so rapidiy, that, in 8 or 9 years 
after iilanting, their trunks are from 10 in. to 20 in. round, and some have 
occasionally made shoots of 5 fb. in iength in 2 years. They are pianted at 
7 ft, apart every way, and remain unthinned and unpruned tiii tbey attain a 
circumference of 2fl. or 3f^. Such is the vigour with which these trees 
grow, that, on the steep side of a hiil, the roots have been observed to emerge 
Irom the soii, creep aiong its surface for 2 ft. or 3 flt., and then strike into the 
soil again. (Trant. Soc. Artt^ vol. xxviii. p. 42.) In Scotland and Ireland, the 
pinaster has oniy been planted as an omamentai tree ; and it thrives, in these 
countries, in iow situations, and near the sea. In France, it cannot be cuiti- 
▼ated with a view to profit, to the north of Paris ; and, even in that iatitude, 
it is sometimes destroyed by severe winters : for example, in 1788, when a 
severe frost killed some iarge trees on the estate of Maiesherbes. It abounds 
in Switzerland, where its timber is said to be used in forming shingies ; and it 
is pianted as an ornamental tree in Germany, but scarceiy thrives north of 

The most remarkabie fact in thethistory of this tree is, the great use which 
has been made of it in France, in covering immense tracts of barren sand. 
This mode of improvement was first commenced in 1789, by M. Bremontier, 
of the Administration of Forests, who pubiished a memoir on the subject in 
the year 1800, of which we shali make a very brief abridgement. There are 
very extensive downs in several counxries of Europe ; and the most remarkable 
in France are those between Dunkirk and Nieuport, k>etween Caiais and 
Bouiogne, and between the rivcrs Adour and Gironde. Brcmontier co.n- 


meoced hii operadons in the Gulf of Gascony, in 1789. The dowi» there are 
composet. of driding sands, covering 300 square miles. Bremontier comparei 
the surface of this immense tract to a sea, which, when agitated to fury by a 
tempest, had been suddenly fixed, and chaneed to sand. It oflered nothing to 
the eye, bat a monotonous repetition of wnite wavy mountains, perfectly de- 
stitute of vegetation. In times of violent storms of wind, the surfaceof these 
downs was entirely changed ; what were hiUs of sand often becoming valleys, 
and the contrary. The sand, on these occasions, waa often carried up into 
the interior of the country, covering cuUivated fields, viUages,aDd evenentire 
forests. This takes place so gradualiy (by the sand sweeping along the sur- 
face, and thus raising it, or falung from uie air in a shower of particles, so 
fine as to be scarcely perceptible), that nothing is destroyed. The sand gradualiy 
rises among crops, as if they were inundated with water ; and the herbnee and 
the tops of trees appear qwte green and healthy, even to the moment of their 
being overwhelmed with the sand, which is so very fine as to resemble that 
used in England in hour-glaases. After three chapters of preliminary matter 
of intense interest, M. Bremontier, in his fourth cnapter, gives an account of 
the manner in which he proc^ded, not only to fix this sea of sand, but to 
render it productive of timber, resin, and other artides. This process is as 
remarkable for its simplicity as for its complete success. It consists in sowing 
on the surface seeds of the common broom, mixed with those of Pinus Fi- 
n4ster ; commencing on the side next the sea, or on that from which the 
wind generally prevails, and sowing in narrow zones, in a direction at rigbt 
augles to that of the wind ; the first-sown zone being protected by a iine of 
hurdles, this zone protecting the second, the second the third, and so on, tilj 
the whole breadth of the downs in that locality is covered with plantation. 
From 4 Ib. to 5 ib. of broom seed, and from 1 Ib. to 2 Ib. of pinaster seed, 
are sown per acre, and immediately covered with branches of pines, or of 
other trees, wiih the leaves on, brought from the nearest woods, in order to 
shelter and protect the seed, and, by the help of the hurdle fence, to retain 
the sand. These branches are laid down in a regular manner in the direction 
of the wind, and overlapping one another, so as to produce a sort of thatching 
to the surface ; and, in places very much exposed, rods are laid across them, 
and firmly booked down. In a word, wherever seeds are sown, the surface of 
the downs, as far as the sowing extends, may be said to be carefully tbatched ; 
branches of evergreen trees being used instead of straw. In six weeks or two 
months, the broom seeds have produced plants 6 in. in height, and which 
attain three or four times that height in the course of thc first season. The 
pines do not rise above 3in. or 4 in. the first year ; and it is 7 or 8 years before 
they completel^ overtop the broom, which often attains, in these downs, from 
12 ft. to 15 ft. m height. At the age of 10 or 12 years, the pines have, in a 
great measure, suffocated the broom, and they are then thinned, the branches 
cut off being used for the purpose of thatching downs not yet recovered, and 
the trunks and roots cut into pieces and bumed, to make tar and charcoal. 
In about 20 years, the trees are from 20 ft. to 30 ft. in height ; and they are 
now prepared for producing resin, which process is carried on, iu the manner 
hereafter described,for 10 or 12 years ; when the trees are cut down, and their 
branches applied,as before,for thatching, and their trunks and roots for making 
tar and charcoal; the self-sown seeds havin^ fumished the surface with a pro- 
geny to succeed tbem. In 181 1, a commission appointed bv the French goo 
vemment made a rcport on the downs, and announced that about 12,500 
acres of downs had been covered with thriving plantations, and that it was 
found a thatching or covering of any kind of vegetable herbage, such as straw, 
rushes, reeds, sea^weed, &c., might be used instead of branches, and was even 
preferable. Another improvement which had been tried, and found very suc- 
cessful, was the substitution of a ience of boards for that of wattled hurdles, as 
more completely excluding the wind. (See Dict, det Eavx et ForeU^ tom. i. 
p.8I6.) These plantations, and others in the Landes of Bordeaux, and be* 

./ ...* 

CHAP. CXIII. CONl F£R.«. Pl NUS. 2221 

tween that city and Bayonne, which are there called pignadasy constitute 
the principal riches of the inhabitants, who are almost entirely supported by 
the preparation of resin and tar from the pinaster forests. 

Praperties and Utet, Thou^h the wooid of the pinaster is sofl, and not of 
iong duration, it is employed, m the marine arsenal at Toulon, for the outer 
cases of ail the packages which are put on board vessels, and principally for 
the piles and props which are used for sustainin^ the frames of vessels while 
they are being constructed. In Bordeaux and m Provence, it is employed 
for the common kinds of carpentry, for packing-boxes, and for fuel; but 
the roost valuable purposes to which the tree is applied in tbese countries is 
the production of resin, tar, and lampblack. 

ikode ofprocurmg the retinous Productt ofthe Pinatter, Theseare obtained 
chiefly in the province of Guienne, from the trees which grow on the immense 
tract of sandy soil extending along the sea coast from Bayonne to M^oc in 
one direction, and froro the sea to the borders of the river Garonne in the 
other. When t|}e trees have attained the age of firom 25 to 30 years, with 
trunks about 4 fl. in circumference, thev are thought to have acquired suifi- 
cient strength to bear the extraction of their sap. The resmier (which is the 
name given to the person who coUects the resin) usually tests the tree, by 
putting his arm round it, and if the trmik is so thick that he cannot see his 
fingers on the other side, he considers the tree of sufficient size for him to com- 
nience his operations. This he does b^ first stripping oiTa piece of the outer 
bark from a space of about 4>in. or 6m. wide, and from 12 in. to 18 in. long. 
A hollow is tnen cut in the lower part of tbe trunk, with a hatchet slightly 
curved like a bill-hook, in such a manner as to retain the fiuid resin to the 
extent of about half a pint ; or a small trough is attached to the bottom of the 
channel formed by the removal of the bark. From this reservoir, in a direction 
upwards, and over the space from which the outer bark was removed, the wood 
18 laid bare to the length of 6 in., and to the width of 4 in., and the resin 
oozes out firom between the bark and the wood, and runs into the reser- 
voir, from which it is taken with wooden or iron ladles, or is conducted by the 
trough to a vessel proper to receive it. Every week, the person employed to 
perform the operation has occasion to reopen the wound, and slightly in- 
crease its height and breadth, without, however, ever exceeding 18 in. in 
length in the course of the season. These successive cuts are requisite, 
because the resinous matter flows more freely from new wounds than 
old ones ; but, as thc slightest touch is found sufficient, the operator shoulii 
be careful not to injure the tree more than is necessar}^ This work re- 

Jtuires activity, as one man is eenerally expected to be able to manage 
rom 1500 to 2000 trees ; and uie operation is continued on the same tree 
by annually removing a portion of the bark, till the part laid bare is 
from 12 fl. to 15 f^. in height ; which takes place, commonly, in 7 or 8 
years. At that time, a fresn channel is commenced, so close to the pre- 
cedtng cut, as to leave only an inch or two of bark between them, and 
it is conducted gradually to the same height as the other. Afler this, 
other channels are successively cut, till the operator has completely en- 
circled the tree; by which tiroe, the first wounds are so well healed as 
to be ready to be cut again, if the operator has done his work properly. 
When the trees are to be thinned, those destined to be rerooved are cut into 
numerous channels all round the tree at once, and three times the height of 
those usually roade, and this is continued for two or three years together ; 
after which the trees are cut down and burned, to extract their tar. This 
operation is called iailler d pin perdu. When the wound is above the height 
of a man, the operator maikes use of a pole cut with slanting notclies to re- 
ceive his feet ; by the aid of which he climbs up the tree with great dexterity. 
When arrived at the necessary height, he twists his leh leg round the pole 
and the tree, thus holding them firmly to^ether, and then resting his right 
foot in one of thc notchcs, he uses both his hands to cut the tree, as before 


mentioDed, with just as much ease as though he had a proper ladder leaning 
against the tree. The renmtrt always ciimb with naked fecrt, and they are so 
expert, that it takes them only two or three minutes to mount a tr^, eniarge 
the wound, and descend ; the venMer then takes his pole on his shoulder and 
runs to the next tree, which he also niounts with sucn expedition, that a good 
workman will trim from 200 to 300 trees in a day. The season for cutting 
the pines is from May to September ; and tbe resinous matter jflows most 
freely in warm weathSr ; it aiso flows much more freely from those trees 
which are ezposed to the sun, than from those which grow in the shade. 
Besides the resin which flows from the wounds given to the tree, some drops 
exude from cracks in the bark, which dry, and K>rm grains, oflen employed 
to adulterate the incense used in Catholic churches, by the persons wfao 
seli that sulMtance. These natural drops are only produced when the tree is 
liecome very old, and when neariy all the resin which it can be made to yield by 
artificiai means has been extracted from it. The resinous matter which exudes 
from the pinaster is calied by severai names in FranCe, ^en in its raw 
state. That which incrusts on the sides of the wound is called barras. It 
ia nearly as white as wax, and is used to mix with that substance for 
making tapers, to which it gives suppleness and eiasticity. The Imrras is 
coilected oniy once in the year, at the end of the season ; and it is scraped 
off with a kind of iron rake. The principal substance which flows from 
the tree is called gaiipot, or retme moUe. This substance, having l>een 
coiiected in the hoUow cut in the tree, or in the trough attached to it, 
is put into iarge pits or reservoirs, capable of containing 150 or 200 Iwr- 
rels each, which pits are dug in the earth, and lined with planks made of 
the pine tree, fitted so close together as to prevent the iiquid oozing 
through. It is afterwards melted in large copper caldrons, set in briclc- 
work, to free it from the impurities mixed with it. It is necessary that 
the caldrons used for this purpose should be set in briclcwork, with a 
proper chimney to convey away tne smoke ; as, should the smoke be suflered 
to come in contact with me resin, the whole wouid probably take fire. It 
is aiso necessary to keep continuaUy stirring the resin, to prevent it from 
burning at the bottom of the caldron. When the resinous matter is to be 
made into brown resin, some of the l>arras is mixed with it ; and, when the 
mixture is thought to be sufficiently boiled, a iittie of it is poured on a piece 
of wood ; and if, when it becomes cold, it will crumble between the fii^rs, 
the resin is ready. It is then poured throuch a filter made of straw laid 
horizontally, and 4in. or 5 in. thick, and run mto barrels, where it is lefl to 
harden. In this state it is brown and brittle, and is called by the French 
brcd tecy which is the brown resin of the shops. 

To make ^ellow resin, when the resinoiis matter is boiling, a quantity of 
coid water is added, a few drops at a time : this makes the resin sweli ; 
and a trough having been previously fixed to one side of the caldron, 
the resinous matter flows tlu*ough it to a vessel placed to receive it. From 
this the operator raises it by a ladleful at a time, and puts it back into the 
caidron ; repeating the operation several times, tiU the resin becomes as 
yellow and as clear as wax. It is then filtered throu^h straw into raoulds 
hollowed in the sand, where it is formed into tbe cakes sold in the shops. 
To make these moi^lds, a circle is first traced in the sand, with a forked 
stick, which acts like a pair of compasses ; the sand is then holiowed out 
with a knife, and the l>ottom and sides of the mould are well beaten with 
wooden mallets to make them perfectly hard and smooth. The cakes of 
resin generally weigh from i50lb. to 200 Ib. each. The straw through 
which the resinous matter was filtered, the pieces of wood through which 
it ran, and, in short, all the apparently waste materials used in preparing the 
resin, are carefully preserved, and burnt in a close fumace, in order to make 
iampblack ; or in a tar fumace, to extract from them a resinous matter, which 
is sold cheap, and called in France poix noir, or black pitch. 

Mnde ofprrparing Lampblack. When the wood of the pine tree is burned 

cuAP. cxiii. coin^F£Rie. pi^MUS. 222S 

far tar, lampblack is fonned oo the corer of the fumace; but a superior kind 
ia made from tbe straw, &c., osed in stvainiiig the reain, which na bumed for 
tfae sole purpose of obtaining this pigment« Tbe apparatus employed for 
diif porpose consists of a fumace, a chimney, and a small chamber, or box, 
for collecting tbe soot. Tbie fumace is about 2 fL 6 in. wide, 3 f^. pr 4 fit. long, 
and 2 fi» 6 in. high ; and it is usually set in brick. On each of tbe long sides, 
thia iumace has an opening near the bottom, wbich can be shut at pleasure» 
by means of a iittie door attached to it. The fiimace has a brick cliimney, 
made ahnost borisontal, to conduct the smoke into the chamber, or box« 
The chironey 18 from 14 in. to 16 in. long» and 12 in. or 13 in. broad and hish. 
At the place where the inpe of the chimney terminates, is constracted a 
chamber, or box, into whidi tbe pipe should enter some inches, saas to carry 
the smoke into its centre. Tbis cbamber is generally about 12 ft. square» and 
Oft. high in the roof ; there is a door oa one side, and in the upper part, or 
ceilin^, there is an opening 5 f^. or 6 f^. square. Tbe walls of the cnamber 
aie eKher lined with thin j&nks of wood, or piastered very smooth ; and the 
door 18 fitted elosely into a groove. Over the opemng in the roof ia placed 
a flannel bag, snpported by rods of wood in the form of a pyramid, and com- 
posed of four pieces of coarse flannel sewed together; Wtien the iampblack 
18 to be made, a fittle of the straw through which the resin aoidtar bave been 
atrained, and some of the other refuse, are put into the furaace, and lighted, 
fresh straw impregnated with tar bein^ strewed over tbe fire as fast as the 
other is consumed. The smoke passes mto the chamber, and deposits its soot 
on the walls, and on the flannel bag, from bodi of whicb it is detadied, afler 
the whole of the straw and refuse has been burned, bv striking tbe outside 
smartly with a stick. The flannel pyramid acts as a filter to the lighter part 
of the smoke, retaining the soot, and perraitting the heated air to escape mto 
the atmospbere. The door of the chamber is then opened, and the lamp- 
black, being swept out, is packed in smali barrels made of die wood of the 
sprace fir, for sale. In the Landes, tbe furaace and chimney are in the open 
air, and only the chamber is covered with a tiled roof ; but in Germany the 
wfaole apparatus is constracted in a bara-like building, about 24 f^. long, by 
12 ft. wide, and 10 fL high. f See Hartig*s Lehrbuckfur Fortter, as quot^ by 
Baudrillart.) In Du lumers TVot^ £i Arbres et Arbuitei^ art. Pin, he tells 
us that lampbbick is sometimes made, in Paris and otber cities, by burning 
the bbick resin in a kind of lamp, with a tin tube attached to serve as a chimney, 
the end of whicb tube is fixed m a cloee box, with an opening in the top, sur- 
raounted with a flannel cone, as before described. 

Turpentine is rarely made from tbe pinaster, as it is very inferior to that 
produced by tbe silver fir. Oil of turpentine is, bowever, procured by 
distilling tbe galipot, or raw resin, obtained from the tree, with water. 
The oil ascends with the water, from whicb it is aflerwards separated ; and 
the residue is the colophony, or black resin, of the shops. Tfae tar pro- 
duoed fipom the pinaster, which is very inferior to that or the Scotch pine, 
18 odled in France, goudron det Landei^ or goudron de Gaze. When the 
trees have yielded all their resin, tbey are cut down, and the thickest parts of 
the trunk and roots cut into billets, about 2 fl. lon^ and 2 in. square, wbich 
are pUed up ever an iron grating, and covered with clay at the sides, and 
bumt much in the same manner as has been akeady described (p. 2174.) 
for procuring tar from the Pinus sylv^tris. 

In Britain, it can hardly be considered advisable to plant the pinaster for 
ita timber, in any situation where the Scotch pine or the larch will grow ; 
and, even if it were profitable to employ the tree in the production of resin, 
our sommers are probably not sufficiently warm to produce that secretion in 
any quantity. As an oraamental pine, the pinaster nolds thc first rank ; and 
no plantation, where pines are admissible, ought to be without it. 

Scil^ Situation, Propagatkm, ^c. A deep dry sand, or a sandy loam on a 
dry bottom, suits this tree best ; and, according to Malesherbes and Rosier, and 
rU the French authors who have written on it, it abhors chalk, and every de- 



scription of calcareous soil. With respect to elevation, though it wiil endure 
tbe sea breeze, it wiii not grow, in England, much above the level of the sea. 
In Hampshirey at Muddiford, near Christchurch^ which, in 1830, waa one of the 
handsomest and foest lcept small places in £nffland,there are some remarkably 
fine pinasters, growing so near the aea, that ue salt water must bave access to 
their roots. It is propagated by seeds, which may be procured in any quandty, 
and at a moderate price, from Bordeaux. Seeds are also ripened in sevml parts 
of England ; and manv trees, as we have already observed (p. 2219.), have been 
raised firom them. The cones, which ripen in tfae August or S^tember of 
the second year, may be gathered in October and November, and spread on a 
floor, under cover, to the thickness of 2 ft. or 3 ft. ; and, duriog inclement 
weather in winter, women and children may be employed to take out the 
seeds. The first process consists in throwing the cones into boiling water 
for a few seconds, to soften the turpentine which glues the scales together ; 
immediateiy aflerwards, upon their beginning to snap or crackle, they should 
be taken out, other^ise the water gets to the seed and injures it. Eveiy 
knob or scale is then separated with the point of a knife, and the seed is 
easily taken out. The time of sowing the seeds is April, and the covenng 
from ^ in. to ^ in. When it is intended to plant this species on a large 
scale, the sooner the young plants are moved to where they are finally to 
remain, the better ; but in nurseries, where there is only a demand for them in 
small quantities, they are best kept in pots. 

StatisUci. Vhuu TbtdtUr i» England. In tbe EovlronaorLondon. At Fulham Paboe, 150 jrean 
old, It is 80 ft. tilgh, the dlameter of the tnank 4 ft., and of the head SOft. ; tiie girt of tfalt tne, ta 
1798. waa lOft. ; and In 1837, 18 ft. (See ni43) At York Houm, Twickenham, it ia 48ft. high» 
the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 6 iai and or the nead SS ft. At Abercom Friarj, Stanmore, it ii 60 ft. 
high ; and at Syon areteveral 60 ft. high. <— South ot London. In Caidew, it ia 88 ft. 
liigh, diaimeter of the tnink 8 ft. 6in., and of the head 60 ft. In Hampahire, at Teatwood. 70 years 
^anted, it 1a 53ft. high. In Snrrey, at Oakham. 33 yean planted, it is 45ft. high ; ai Barwood 
Park, tt ia 50 ft. hlgh, the dlameter of the trunk 4 ft. 6 ia, and of the head 60 ft. ; at Deepdene, 9 years 
planted, it Is IQft. high — North of London. In Berkshlre^ at Beu: Wood, 14 yean planted, it U 96 ft. 
high; at White Knlghts, 35 yean nlanted, It is 45ft. hlgh. In Durham, at Southend,40 jean 
planted,lt Is 60ft high, wlth a trunk 3 ft. In diameter. In Leicestenhire, at ElTaston Caslfe^ 33 
ywn plantcd, it is 40 ft. hlgh. In NotUnghamshire, at Clumber Park, it Is 00 ft. higfa, the diameter 
of thetrunk 3ft. 6in., and of the bead 80 ft. In Ponbrokeahire, at StacKpole Coutt, 35 yean planted, 
it is 40 ft. high. In Radnorshlre, at Macslaugh Castle, It ia 48 ft. high, with a trank 1 ft. 10 in. Ib 
diameter. In Staflbrdshire, at Teddesley Park, 8 yean planted, it is 16ft. high ; In the Handawoitb 
Nunery, 6 yean planted, it ia 18fL blgh. In Sufmlk, at Finborougb Hall, 15 yean planted, it is 

85 ft. blgh ; at Ampton Hatl, IS yean planted. it is 88 ft. hlgh. In Worocetersblre, at Hafljiey, is ooe 
wlth a tnink 4ft. indiameter.; at Cromne, 70 yean planted, it ia 90ft bigh, the diameter of tbe 
trunk 8 ft. 4ia, and of the head 80 ft 

nmtsTinisieriHSaiUatta. South of Edinbunh. InBerwidcahlre,attheHlnel,80yeanplanted, 
it ia 85 ft. hieh. In Haddingtonshir^ at Tynnini^me, it ia 46 ft high, the diameter of tbe trunk 
8 ft., and of the head 32 ft.~.North of Edinburgh. In the lale of Bute, at Mount Stewait, 10 yean 
planted, It ia 17 ft hlgh. In Rofis-abire, at Braban Caatle, it la 35 ft high, the diameter of tbe tmnk 
1 ft 6 in., aiMl of the head 36 ft. 

Thtut Vmdster in Ireland. At Dublin, in the Glaanevln Botanic Garden, 35 yeen planted, it la 
15 ft high. In Kllkenny, at Woodscock, 80 yean planted, it ia 78 ft. high, the diameter of tbe tmnk 
f ft. 9 in., and «f tbe head 18 ft In Down, at Mount Stewait, 50 yean planted, it is 4fi ft. bigh. In 
Galway, at Coole, it is 46 ft. hlgh. 

V\nm Findtter in tbreiM Countriea. In F^ee, In the park of Clenraux, 44yean planted, it is 
flS ft. liigh, the dlaraeter of the trank 8ft. 6 In., and of the bead 58 ft. In Bararia, in the Botanie 
Qarden, Munich, 18 yean planted, it is 15 ft. high. In Austria, at Vienna, In Ro8enthal'a Nurseir, 

86 yean planted, It is 30 ft. hlgh. At BrQck on the Leytha, 40 yean planted, it ia«0ft bigli. 
In Italy, at Monia, 84 yean planted, it ia 45 ft high. 

Commercial Statittics. Seeds, in London, are 3t. per Ib ; one year's seediing 
plants are 10«. per thousand, and one year transpianted 25t. per thoosand ; 
and plants in pots are 1«. €d, each. At Boliwyller, piants are 1 nanc each; and 
at New York, I doUar. 

f 13. P. Pi^NEA L. The Stone Pine. 

IdeniifieaUon. Un. Sp^ PL, 1419. : MilL Dict, No. 8. ; Hunt. EreL SyL, p. a6& ; VilL Daueb., 3L 

p.80& ; Lamb. Fin., ed. 8^ 1. 1 10, 11. ; N. Da Ham., 5. pi 8481. ; Ait Hort Kew.,ed. l.,3. p^ SSB.; 

Willd. BeroL Baunu., o. SOa ; Mlchx. N. Amer. SyL, 3. p. 116. ; Hayne Dend., pu 34L ; LawKmli 

Menual, p. 34L ; Bon Jard., 1837, p. 974. ; Lodd. Cat, ed. 1836. 
Synoiwmet. P. aaUva Sanh. PiH.,p. m ., Biackw., 1 1891, Du Bmm. ilrk, 8. n. 185. ; P. dom<atiai 

MMtk. Oomm.t 87., ra5e!ni. /c, SSiSL ; Pin Pignon, Fln bon, Fin cultiT6, Pin Flnier, l-K $ Gcueifea. 

hen Fichte, Ger. 
Engrovhun. Bbu±w., 1 189. ; Du Ham. Afb., 8. 1 87. ; Tabcra. Ic, 996. ; Lamb. Pin., L 1 10, 11. s 

N. Dtt Ham., 5. 1 78. f. 3. ; Folt et Turp., 1 185. ; Michz. N. Amer. SyL, a 1 135. ; our i^. 81Q9., 

to our uaual acale ; JlgM. 810& to 8106., of the natural alxe, ftom Dropmore and White Kni^ta ; 

Mid theplate of thla tree in our iaat Vcriume. 


^wc. dor,, 4*^. Leaves in paira. Cones onte, obtuse, nearly 
■a loi^ M tbe leaves, tbetr scales with recurved decidaous 
points. Seed bony, with veir short wing». Crest of tl)e 
BDtbfiTt jamid.(SmM) The buds fBee^.SlOfi^resemble 
tbose ot P^iister, but are Binaller in all their dimensioDa, 
nnidi leai poiuted, morc woolly, aad wholly without reMti. 
Tbe ■urroandin^ budg are nearlj' bs large aa the centrel one. 
Hie leaves are from S in. lo 7 in., and «ometimes 8 in., long, 
serrated ; aheathB, at first, * in. long, afterwerds bccomms 
lacerated, ihortened to half thor length, and ringed with 
four or five ringe. Cane from fi in. to 6 in. in length ; and 
frooi 3| in. to 4 in. in breadtfa; scales lar^ and noodv, 

o 81 in. in lengtb, and from i m, to Ijin 
ix the -'^--'- -J --^ "-• -"-- ■^ ■■• 

breadth, with tne thickened p 
faexaeonkl in the plan. 
ribs from the fonr anglea, insteac[ of two from the lateral angles." The 
riba meet in a unall rhomboid^ pvramid, of agrey colour,which tenninates 
io f broad bluiit prickle. Tfae colour of the entire cone is much lighter than 
that ot P. Pinuter, and is of a pale wainicat colour. Seeds, without the 
wingif in. long, and from }in, to {in. broad; with the wing, 1 in. long. 
CotyledonB 9 to 11. The tree flowers, in the cUmate of London, in the 
latter end of Haj or the beginning c^ June. 

1 ? P. P. 2 frigiSt N, Du Ham., v. p. 842., iB the only variety mentioned 
b; Omtinental authora ; and it only diflTere from the apecicB in having 
« tender ihell to the seed. It is cultlveted ia tne kingdom of 
Naples on tbis account, and becauae the kemel, like that of the 
qiecies, is white, mild, sweet, end a^eeable to the laste. It is a 
remarkable fact, that, thoush this vanetf has bcen known since tlie 
days of Pliny, and thou^ its excellence is universally acknow- 
ledged, it has never been introduced mto France. If the P. Pinea 
were to be cultivated in the warmerpartH of England, as afhiit tree, 
thii variety would deserve lo be preferred. 
I P. P. 3 critiai Hort.— There is a plant of this variety in the Horti- 
enltura] Sodet/a Oarden, wfaich, aflter being seven years planted, ia 
AfLhigh. The leaves seem to be rather finer than tfaose of the 

t P, P. 4 amerieina Hort. — The plant in the Horticultural Society's 

Oarden bearing this naine ia 4 ft. h^, and appeara not to differ 

&am the species. Tfae name of amencltna, sent with the plant by 

F. Boume, Esq., would Jmply tbat the seed waa received from 

America, where, however, tfae stone pine is known not to be in< 


Sttcripliim, In the aouth of Europe, this spectes is a lofly tree, with a 

yoding head forming a kind of wrasol(see^. 8108.), and atrunkSOfi.or 

eoft. high, dear of Imuicfaes. Tfae bark of the trunk is reddiBh, end some- 

tinNa cracked ; hut tbe general suriace of the bark is amootfa, except on tbe 

■aaller brwoches, wfaere it lons rettuns tfae marks of the faUen leaves, in the 

t of brittly scales. Tfae TeaveB nre of a deep green, but not ^ite so 

as thoae of the pinaster i they are semicylindncal, 6 in. or 7 ui. long. 


d Xin, broad, two in a aheath, and disposed in Euch a 

a tripie spiral ronod the brancheB. The catkini of the male flowers are yel- 
lowiih 1 and, bdng placed on slender ahoots of the current year, near the 
extremity,80or30 together, they fonn buncbes, Burmounted by some scarcdy 
developed leaves. Each catkin is not more tban |in. long, on a verj' ahort 
peduncle, and witfa a rounded denticulated crest. The female catkms are 
«Aitisb, and are situated two or three together, at the extremity of the 
■trongeat and most vigoroua ahoota. Each female catkin has a separata 




peduncle, chara^ with reddish, scarious» lanceolate scales, and is surrounded 
at its base witn a double row of the same scales, whicfa served to envdope it 
before it expaaded ; its form is perfectly oval, and its total length about | in. 
The scales, or calyxes, which form the female catkin are of a whitish green ; 
the bractea on the back is slightly reddish on its upper side ; and the stigma, 
which has two points, is of a bright red. After fecundation, the calyxes aug- 
ment in thickness ; and^ becoming firmly pressed against each otber, they fbrm 
by their aggregadon a fruit, which is three years before it ripens. During tfae 
first year, it is scarcely larger than the female catkin ; and durin£ the second 
year it becomes globular, and about the size of a walnut. The third yeiir; 

CHAP. CXIII. COV^nRS. Pi'wos. 

tic coM* kua-eue f^iA^ id liie ; 

{be «calu lose tbeirredduhtiage, 

sad becoine of a IkhiUIu! green, 

dw [Kniit tXooe renMiuiog Kd ; 

•Dd U Iwt, afaout tbe eod of tbe 

tlurd ytar, tfaegr Mtain KMturity. ' 

At tbis period) tbe eones are 

about 4 iB. loog, and Sin. ia di«- 

meter, aiMl tht^ iMTe ■aniiiied ■ 

«eBenl reddiih faue. Tbe cod- 

v« put of IhB sceJee fonns « 

dqwceaed n*»^ ^nib roupded 

Bnglec, the •sMnit of whfcfa is 

iMsbilicel. Eacli tcale u hollow 

At itBbaBCi and in ita interior are 

two cBTities, each contBiniiig « 

■eed mucb bwiBr thui diBt of «njr 

«tber lijnd of Europeen pin^ but 

tbe wingof wliich la,on tbeoo»- 

truy, mueb diailOT. Hie lig- 

neous abeli wbidi enveiopea the 

kemd is hard and difficuk to btreak in the comaK>n kind, but in tfae vaiiety 

F. P. 8 fri^lis it ia tendcr, and eauly broken bf the fingera. In bath, tbe 

kertid is white, sweet, and Bgreeable to the taste. The taproot of tbe atone 

fiineie oeBrlyu Btrongas tfaat of P.Pini»- 

i*ti and, like.tbat ipecies, the treea, when 

Jnnwlant«d,g«>eis1l}' leao to one side, froni 

tbe nead oot being coneetlv balanced. 

Hence, in fuU-^wn trees of tbe etone 

|Mne, there is o&en a stniilar cur^vture ot 

the base of tbe tnink, to that of the pi- 

naeter, wbich has baen «Ircady mentioiKd 

and Bceounted (oi, p. 221S. Tlie pBlmate 

fbm of the cotyledons of tbe genua i^inue 

JB pardcnlarly codspicuouB ia tltoBe of P. 

Pfnea. Wben one of the ripe kcniels ia 

ipUt in two, tfae cotyledonB HparUe, so aa 

to nnreaent rou^y the fbra of a baad ; 

aiidt&iB,in WMnepartstrf^Fnnce^tbecountry 

people 4»ll ia maut de Diev, and belieTe to 

De a remed^ in casea of intermittent fcTer, if 

swaQowed in uneTea nuahers, such as S, £, -^^ 

or 7. lu Brit&in, tbe ttone pine is «eldom - 

•een in aoy ocher charBcter than thu of a 

laf;ge btuih, tbou^ tbere ere sf ' 

Iweeo SOIt and 40 fl. high. 

growth is slow, seldom exceeding Gft. or 6tt. in ten yeans. Tbe plant in 

tfae Borticultural Societj's Qtaiea, figured in our Inat Volume, attained 

the hdght of 1 1 n. in lOyears; andoneat Dropmore.SSft.ijiSSyears. The 

duration of the tree is much greater than tbu of the pinaster, and the 

timb» ia whiter and soniewbat more durable. In the climate of London, trees 

of from 15 to 80years' growth produce conea. 

Gei^raphy. The Btonefine ia a natire of lulv, Spnin, Greece, the coest 
of Bariiary, and probably Bome parts of Asia. Dr. Sibthorp found it abun- 
daot io the sandy plains of Elis, whence the nuts are exported for eating, and 
where the timber is oflen used for Bhip-building. It ia also fouud wild in the 
sontb of Prance ; but it appeara to be rsther a doubtful native there, as it 
DOTer forniB forests, and very rarely woods of any conaiderable extent; and 
the tteea are not only ^tiier isobted or thioly scUtered, butarealsogeneraJly 


fouiid in the neighboiirhood of habitatSons. It grows ^h the greafeest Iiuq- 
riance on the deep sandy banks of riversy or the sbores of tbe sea ; and aome 
remarkably fine specimens of it were obsenred by M. Desfontaines on tbe 
shorea of the Mediterranean, between MarseilleB and 8t. Tropes ; and by M. 
Audibert, near Saintes, and in the neighboiuhood of Hims. The only 
instance recorded of a wood of tiie stone pine being found in Franoe is that 
mentioned by M. Malesherbes, in Lower Languedoc, on the nght bank of 
the Rhone. {DcMf, ISti. det ArbrcM, ii. p. 628.^ In Itaiy, the stone pines of 
Ravenna are cel^rated for their beEiuty ; and, mdeed, nie stooe pine fbmis 
the most omamentai tree in the landscape scenery of Italy ; as weU as occa- 
sionaliy in Britain, wbere its fine dark leaves, oopious male blossoms, which 
difiuse a shower of sulphureous pollen on all the neighlwuring plantSy and its 
mossy cones» render it as striking^ as it is beantifiil. Miller thmks the tree not 
a native of Europe, because it is never found growing but near dwelling- 
houses. It is certainly plendful in China, he says, whence he had sevenl 
times received the seeds. (Dic^., ed. 6., 1758.) 

Hutory, Pliny pnuses the stone pine for bearing firuit in three stages of 
its growth at the same time. He also speaks of tbe kemels, which, he says, 
were preserved in honey ; and he mentions the variety wttli tender shells, as 
being then common in the vicinity of Tarentum. The kemels have been found 
among the domestic stores, in the pantries of Herculaneum and Porapeii. The 
stone pine is mentioned by nearly all the writers of travels in the south of 
Europe, firom the beantiful efi*ect it producea in the scenery; but the most 
remarkable tree recorded of this species is one in the south of Fhmce, on tlw 
Sabiettes, a tongue of land which joins the peninsnla of Giens to Ptovenee. 
This pine is conspicuous for its great beauty and migestic sbape. AccordSi^ to 
M. G. Robert, wbo measured it on the spot, it has a trunk 12 ft. in drcumfe- 
rence, which is clear of branches to the h^ght of 30ft.; at which point the 
branches that form the head oommence, and extend in height 30 ft. more, imd 
horizontally so as to cover a circle of 100 ft. in diameter. Thia tree is placed 
in a most conspicuous and striking situation, it being the only tree existing in 
the middle of the tongue of land on which it grows, and bong doae to the 
Mediterranean. There is, indeed, little doubt but that its roots find their way 
into that sea, as, when a trench was opened in the immediate vicinity « 
the tree, it filled instantly with salt water. It is worthy of notice in the his- 
tory of the stone pine of Sablettes, that, about the year 1770, durinff the 
American war, an Endish and an American ship being engaged in batue in 
the Mediterranean,an English buUet stmck the trunk of this pine, and lodged 
in it, where it has remained ever since, without, apperendy, doing the tree 
the slightcst injury, the wound having closed over, and even the scar baving 

Tne stone pine was introduced into Eneland before 1546, as it is mentioned 
in Turaer'8 Namei of Herhety &c., published in that vear ; and, as the seeds 
are easily procured from Italy, it has been frequently planted in collections. 
Owing to its slow growth and comparative tenderaess, it has, however, been 
generally choked by other trees, so that good specimens are rarely to be met 
with in English pluitations.. 

Poetical AUutiofu, The following description of the stone pines of Ravenna 
18 by Leigh Hunt : — 

*' Varioua the traes aod puiing roUase tiien, 
Wlld pear and oak, aiul dtakj Juniper, 
With briony betwecn in traib orwhlte; 

And Iyj, and the suclde^t streaky llght 

And moaa, wann KleamiDg with a sudden mork, 

like flings of «umhine lelt upon the bark, 

And sUll the plne, long-halred, and dark, aod tall, 

In lordlv right, predominant o'er all. 

Much to^ admire that okl religiout tree, 

With shaft above the reit up^hooting tne, 

And chaklng, when ita dark locks featbe wind, 

Ita wealthy lYuit with rough moaa&c rind.*' 

Propertiet and Uset, The wood of the stone pine is whitish, moderately 


reanoua, and very light. It is used, in Italy and the south of Franee, in 
carpenti^ and joinerv, and for gutters, pumps, and coveHng the sides of 
ships; and Olivier informs us that the Turks use tt for masts. The kemel of 
the fruit has a taste which approaches to that of the hazel nut, and, in 
France and Italy, is much esteemed for the dessert. Sir Geor^ Staunton 
mentions that the kemds of the stone pine are also much rehshed by the 
Chinese. In Italy, they are put into severai kinds of ragoiitt^ and they 
prove excdlent in svtfarplums, mstead of almonds. In Provence, they are 
extenaively consumed alon^ with Corinth raisins, the dried currants of the 
shops. The kemeb require to be kept in the cone tiil they are about to 
be used, because they become speedily randd when taken out and exposed 
to the air. In the cone, they will preserve their vitality, their freshness, and 
their taste, five or six yeara. They may also be preserved in salt ; but in this 
case Uiey lose great jpart of thetr flavour. In Plin^s dme they were pre- 
served in honey. Tfaev were formerly much used m medicine, but this is 
no longer the case. They are very eag^ly soueht after by sauirrels, rats, 
and dormice. The squirrels which tive in pine iorests are chieny nourished 
by these kemels; and they contribute towards the dissemination of the 
seeds, by striking the cones a^ainst the rocks to make the scales open. The 
crosabill (L6xia curvir6stra) is the principal bird that Hves on the kemels 
of the stone pine. To ^t out the kerael, tbe bird places the under |)art of 
its biil nnder the scale, m order to raise it up, and tnen separates it with the 
npper part of its bill. The crossbiil is a solitary ^loomy bird, which is 
cniefly found in pine forests, where it makes its nest m the middle of Janu- 
ary, in the branciies of the largest pines, fixing it there with the resin of the 
trees, and coating it extemally witn the same material, in such a manner as 
to prevent it ft^om being penetrated bv either rain or snow. The kemels of 
the stone pine are occasionallv brought to the dessert in England ; for which 
puipoae the cones are regularly imported by the iruiterers. 

As a tree, the stone pine may be considered very oraamental where it 
gro¥rB fi^ly, or where it has srown up with an erect trunk, and attained 
considerable age. Oilpin speaxs hiehly in its favour ; but we cannot help 
thinking that he must eitber allude chie^y to what he has seen in prints or 
pictures, or to the pinaster, because we have never seen or heara of anv 
atone pine in England of a sufficient size to justify his description : at all 
events, it is obvious that his ideas were ndt olear as to these trees ; because 
he speaks of the pinaster, the cluster pine, and the stone pine, as three dis- 
tinct kinds. From specimens and dimensions that have been sent to us from 
diflferent parts of the country, we find that the pinaster is very fi^equently 
flupposed to be the stone pine. Indeed, it may be considered as the stone 
pine of Britain ; and, as uilpin*s observations are almost as applicable to it 
as to the stone pine, and are, besides, beautifiil in themselves, we shall give 
them at length : -^ 

" After the cedar, the stone pine deserves our notice. It is not indigenous 
to our soil, but, iike the cedar, it is in some degree naturaUsed ; though in 
England it is rarely more than a puny half-formed resemblance of the Ita- 
tian pine. The soft clime of Italy alone gives birth to the tme picturesque 
pine. There it always suggests ideas of broken porticos, lonic pillars, 
triumphal arch^, firagments of old temples, and a variety of ciassic mins, 
which in Italian landscape it commonly adoras. The stone pine promises 
Uttle, in its infancy,in pomt of pieturesque beauty : it does not, liKelnostof the 
fir species, give an earlv indication of its future form. In its youth, it is 
dwarfish and round-headed, with a short stem, and has rather the shape of 
a fuU-grown bush than of an increasine tree. As it erows older, it does not 
soon depoeit its formal sbape. It is long a bush, tnough somewhat more 
irreguhir, and with a longer stem ; but, as it attains maturity, its picturesque 
form increases fiut. Its lengthening stem assumes, commonly,an easy sweep. 
It seldom, indeed, deviates much from a straight line ; but tbat gentie devia- 
tion 18 yery gracefiil, and, above all other Unes, difficult to imitate. If acci- 

7b 4 


dentally either ihe stem or any of tbe larger brancheB take a laiger sweep 
than nsual, that sweep •eldom failn to be graoeful. Jt is also among the 
beauties of the stone pine» that, as the lateral braoches decajTy tbey leaye 
generaU^ stumps, whioi, standing out in various parts of the stem, break the 
continuitv of its lines. The bark is smoother than that of any other cree of 
the pine kind, except the Weymouth ; thongh we do not esteem this amoDg 
its picturesque beauties. Its hue, however, wluch is warm and reddishy has 
a good effect ; and it obtains a kind of rottghness by peeling off in patches. 
Thefoliageofthestonepineis as beautiliil as tbe stem. Its.oolour is a 
deep warm green ; and its form, instead of breakin^ into acute angies, like 
many of the pine race, is moulded into a flowing hne by an asaeaablage of 
small masses. As age comes on» ita round clumpish faead becomes more ilat» 

3[>readiiu; itself into a caaopy, which is a form equally becoming; and yet I 
oubt whether any resinous tree erer attains that picturesque beauty in a^ 
which we admire so much in the oak. The oak continues long viflorous m 
his branchesy though his trunk decays ; but the resinous tree, I beueve, de- 
cays more equaHy thiough ali its parts, and, in age, oftener presents the idea 
of yG|etable decrepitude than that of the stout remains of a ngorous coch 
stitution; and yet, in many ckrcumstances, even in thss state» it may be an 
olject of |»cturesque notioe. Thtta, we see in the form of the stodie |Nne 
what beauty may result from a tree with a round head, and without laterai 
branches, which requires, indeed» a good ezample to prore. When we look 
on an ash or an eUn, from which the biteral branches have been stripped, as 
is the practice in aome countries, we are apt to think tiiat no trae wsdi a 
head plaoed on a long stem can be beautiml; vet in Natujre*s haofda, whicfa 
can raould so many forms of beauty» it may easily beedfected. Nature faefaelC 
however, doe9 no.tfpliow therules of picturesque beauty in the produetion 
of this kind of obiept. The best spectmen of the stone pine I ever saw fftm 
in the Botanical Uarden at Oxford ; but, for the sake of tne gronnd it oec^aed 
(l never heard any other reason suggested), it waa lately n791 ) cut down." 
[Gilp. For, Scen^ i.. p. $9«) Sir Thomaa i>ick Lauder adds to this passage, 
that he quite agre^ ^Y^h Gilpin as to the picturesque beauty of the stone 
pine. '* We finMiuentlyfind it introduced into the landscapes of Cfauide;'* 
ne continueSf '* tne artiat availing himself of its heavy deep^ioned mais of 
foliage to give effect to the briliianey of his sky and distance. It is quite as- 
sociated in our minds with Italy, and her magnificent remains." (Lmul» 
Gt^., i. p. 169.) 

SoU^ SihuUum, PropqgaAm^ and CuUure, Tbe soil shonld be deep, sandyy 
and dry^ and the situatuNi sheltered, though the plants shouid not be crowded. 
The seeds are procured from foreign oones, vmich are generaliy purebaaed 
in the aotumn, or at the bqginning of winter» aad the aeeds taken out of them 
by throwing them into hot water, and treating them like those of pinaster. 
They are firequently sown in pots in the course of the winter, and preserved 
in a fhuney and kept gentlv moiat, till the spring ; when most of the seeds will 
come up» thou^ some will remain in the ground till the second vear. Thesr 
tardy germination is owing to thethickness of the shdl of the see^ which some 
cultivators break before sowing, though at the risk of injoring the seed. The 
plants whioh come up shouldbe transpknted into small pota, after midaum- 
mer of the same year, or, at ali events» not later thim the following spring; 
^nd, for two or three years, they shouid be kept during winter in a »une, 
quite close to the glass. The plimts are very tender for the first two or three 
years ; but in the fourth and fifth years they will enduK the open air, in the 
climates of London and Paris, witiiout any protecdon. The leaves of thia 
species, as well as of sevend others» have quite a dilbrent appearanoe for the 
&*8t two years firom what they have ever si^erwanls : they are vei7 giiiuconB, 
ciiiated on their margins» very short, and very sharp-pointed. During thiB 
periody they are single and without sheaths ; but afterwards they oome oot in 
pairs, with sheaths, these pairs being what are considered by botanists as 
abortive shoots, as ahready mentioned, p. 2106. The nursery treatment of 

CHAP. CXIll. CONrFEIliB. Pl^NUS. , 2231 

the stone pine Is the same as that reooinineiided for the pinaater ; tfais apecies 
havjng also very long taproots, which render it necessarY to be extremely care- 
ful in taking them up for removal : indeed, they should generally be grown in 
pota ; and, when they are tumed out of the pots to be planted where they 
are finally to remain, the greatest care should be taken to stretch out the 
roots, and to spread them carefiilly in every direction. 

SiaHtHet. It b remaTfcabte Uiat theie to no necoBd <f a itoae pine to Englwd whldi hM «ttarfned 
a tiinbcf4ike tlse. No «pecliDent are meDtioned ettber by MiUer or Dr. Walker ; and the one «tated 
Xty Oi^n to bavebcen grawlng In the Botanle Oarden at Chcfbrd, and another, wlth a ttralght ttem, 
fkee fhnn knots for a conalderable helght, witb a grent bnncliiDC bead, at Old Court, fai Irrhind, 
d cic ribed by Hayei, were probably ploasten. There is no tree of thu ipeclef at >Vhitton or IHiln*a 
HiU: tbe one at Kew U amere busn: aa it that at Purser*8 Cro«s ; aqd Mr. lAmbert only mentlons 
one In the «rden of H. Cavendish, Eiq., at Clapham, bol: does not ftate Its age or bdght 

JSaifrtyTVee». In England. In Deronahire» at LusccRnbe, 1 1 years planted, 16 ft. higb. In BerJc- 
ahire, in a garden on the rlght hand of the road on entering Readlne, a handsome tree, 50 ft. hlgh, 
wlth a Glear tnink of 15 ft, and a broad spreadtau; head npwaidi of So ft. In diameter. In Surrey, at 
Bagshot Park, 16 years planted, 18 ft. high ; at Oakham, 33 Years ptonted, 26 ft high ; at Barwood 
Park;S5 ft^igh. In Ourham, at Southend, 19 years plantefLlt ii 8 ft. hlgh. In Hertfordshire, at 
Cheahunt, 8 years planted, 6 ft. 6 In. high. In ataffl»dUBiixe,at IVentham, S6 years planted, It !• 16 ft. 
mgh i In the Handaworth Nnrsery. 12 years plaoted, it is 8 ft. high. In Suiblk, in the Bury Bolanic 
Oarden, 8 years planted, it it 8 ft. blgfa ; at Flnborough Hall, 16 yearsplanted, 18 ft hlgh ; at Ampton 

Hall, 14 Tears i^anted. 9 ft. high In Scotland. la Kttkcudbright, at dL Mary*s Isle, 14 yean planted 

It to 8 ft higfa.— In Irefand. At Dublin, in tbe Olasnevin Garden, 3S years planted, 20 ft. hlgh. In Cocfc, 

ai Caitle Freke, 88 ft high. In Down, at Ballyleady, 60 years pbmted, 45 ft high In France. At 

Baiis, in the Jardln des Phuites, 100 years oM, U U S) ft bigh. dUmeter of the trunk 2 ft, and of tfae 
bead 4fi ft. ; at Touloo. hi the BoUnlc Oorden, 10 yeors planted, 12 ft higta ; at ATnmofae^ 29 
jears planted, 20 ft high.— In the greater part of Germany, It Is a green-houae plaot 

Commercial Siatittici, Seeds, in London, are 2s. per Ib. Plants, one year'8 
aeedlingn, 5f . per hundred ; in pots, from 1 ft. to 2 ft. high^ U, and U. 6tL eacb ; 
at New York, one dollar. 

§ iv. Halepenses. 

Sect» Char, Leayes slender. Cones as long as the leaves, stalked, with 
the terminations of the scales flattened. Buds small, roundisb, imbricated, 
and dtogether wtthout resin. 

1 14. P. HALBPE^NSis AU. The Aleppo Pine. 

^demMcati&m. Alt Hort Kew., 3. p. S67. : Lam. Pln., cd. 2., 1. 1 7. ; Desf. FI Alt. 2. p. S62. ; MilL 

Dict, No. 8. 1 208. ; N. Du Hamu, 6. p.9». } Hayne Dend., p. 17S. } Lawson*f Hanual, p. 344. : 

Lodd. Cat, ed. 18S6. 
S ^ m on ^meg. P. hlerosoiymHkna Du Ham. Arb., 2. p. 126. ; P. marlUma prlma Maikiohtti Pin de 

Jirusaltaie, Fr. 
Bi^rmbut. MilL Dict, Mo. 8. 1 208. ; Lamb. Pin.. ed. 2., 1 . 1 7. (cxcluslTe of tbe ripe oone, which 

ia tbat of P. Laricio) > our Jlg. 211&, to our usual scale; and Jlgt. 2110. to 2112. ; «U fhmi sped- 

mena flrom a tree in tbe HorUcultural 8ociety's Garden. 

Spec. Char.y ^c. Leaves in pairs, yery slender. 'Gones pjrramidal, roimded 
at the base, turned downwards, smooth, solitary or m pairs, stalked. 
(Xoif.,and obs.) Buds (see^. 2110.) from 4in. to Jin. long ; and 
from t^ in. to ^ in. brofid ; tmbricated, roundish, somewhat pointed, 
wh.olly without resin ; and altogether l&e those of a pinaster in mini- 
ature. Cones (^.21 11.) from i|in. to 3 in. in length ; and from \\ in. 
to l^in. in breadth; invariably tumed downwards, so as to form 
an acute angle with the stem. Footstalks of the cones from \ in. 
to } in. in length. Scale {fig. 21 12. a) firom 1 Jin. to 1} in. long, and 
f in. broad. Seed, without the wing (r), from ^ in. to f in. in length, 
and-^in. in breadth ; widi the wing (^), from l in. to l| in. in length. 
Cotyledons about 7. The tree flowers, in the climate of London, 
about the end of May or the beginntng of June. siio 

Farieties. None of these are yery distinct. P. briitia» ju4ging from the 
voung plant tn the Horticultural Society'8 Garden, woiud appear to 
beloi^ to P. halep^nsis, from the leaves and buds ; but, as the cones in 
Hr. Lambert's figure are sessile» produced in dusters, and stand out 
horizontall^, it seems rather to approach P. Pm^Bter ; and we shall there- 
fore give it as a doubtful species in a future page. Two trees of P. 
bakpensis in the Horticultural Society*s Garden have bome cones, and 
those of one tree are considerably sraaller than those of the other; and 
this is the only variety of the existence of which we are certain from 



. . One has beep 

introduced rrom the neigfabourtiood of 

Oeaoaby C^tainCook,ofwhi(;h there 

ia B fouiiK plut in the Horticultural 

Societ7'B Oarden ; but it has Dot yel 

■howa any chancter ditfering from tnat 

of the Bpedei; a cone, howerer, wfaich 

we possesi of this variecy ia smaller than 

ttut ofthe species; and themsedends 

ofthescales are more promment, ^v 

proaching in a alight degree co the ibrm 

of tiiose of the cones of P. i^n&Kter, 

Mr. Lunbert, in the second edition 

his Genvt Finui, haa figured whst b 

peors to be a Tariety of P. halep^ris t 

under tbename of f.marStima ; but, a 

be haa grven io his figure three conei 

of three difierent shapea, and as n 

linn^ plant in England ii referred U . 

notfaing can be detemitned definitely \ 

respecting it. We shall, however, ^ve 

tbe name among thoae of otfaer varieties, 

roJ or conjectural. 

1 P. A. 8 mnun- ha« the conea rather 
smaUer than the species, Tbere 
is 8 tree in Ihe Horticultural So- 
ciety's Garden, wfaich, in 1837, 
ftfter hsving been 15 years 
planted, wa« 80 ft. higb, with a apreadine branchy habit j but with- 
out auy other marked diflerence from the apedes. 
1 P. A. 3 viaritima, P. marltima Latui. Pm., ed. 8.,t.6.- 
Mr. Lnmbert's fiffure, the conea of this 
variety, in the different fomu in which he t 
haa given it, are all larger than thoae of £ 
the spedea. The tfaree conea given in | 
Hr. Larabert'B plate are, ane &am the If 
Bberardian herb(uiuni,whic:hpoiiiUdown- 
warda, and onlydifiers from the apeciea ii 
bdns thicker; one coUected in Qreece by I 
the Hon. W. F. SlraDgwBys, which pointa 
upwarda ; and one rrom a tree in Syon j, 
Oordens, wbich do longer exists, but wfaich 
it stBted in the text iUao to point upwards. 
A tree in the Horticultural Society^sOar- 
den, receired from 8ir Charles HoDck,aDd 
aaid to be the true P. maritima of Lam- 
bert, is nothing more than P, Piniater; 
as ia the one at Dropmore, received from Mr. Lambert hiinadL 
It is aomewhat more faatigiate in babit than that tree w generally, 
but this appears to us notbiug more tban a variaUon. Hr. Lbuk 
bert has grven the fbUowins particulars respecting the uset made 
of Chis variecy in Oreece, Irom Dr, Sibthorp's papen, publiahed 
tn WalpoIe^B MmioiTi: — " PaJcot, one of the moat uacful trees 
in Oreece. It fumishes a resin (Areftne), tar, and pitcb (jMtta); 
alt of considerable importance for economical purpoaes. Tbrough- 
out Attica, the wine is preserved from becoming acid by meaos of tbe 
resin, which is employed in the proportion of an oke and half to 
80 okes of wioe. Tfae tar and pitch for ship-buLding are taken 

CHAP. CZIII. CONl'FEB^ i>rNUS. 2233 

from CfaiB tree, and Irom the PUui (i^nua Piaen). The reunous 
pana ofthe wood of the Peakoi ere cut into smBll piecM, snd Mrve 
fot candles, caUed da^, The cones (iomoi) are tometime* put into 
the wine baireb. The bwk is used tn tanmng hides. The wood ia 
rouch emplo;ed by carpenten in building." {Lamb. Pin., ed. 8., 1. 
p. 17.) 
X P. A. 4 gow^iu», P. genu^niia Cooi. — Tbe pltnt intbe Horticultural 
Sodety'B Oarden waa raised from cones brought from the cout of 
OenoB, bj Captain Cook, in 1830. It haa nol yet bome conea in 
England, and doe« not appear, in foliage and habit, difl^rent froiD 
tbe spedes. The cone we poaseaa is 3in. jonc, and l^in. in dia- 
meter at the broadeat end, and regularly pyramidal. The leoath of 
tfaestalkislin. -* J w "8 

Detcriplion. A tree, riMng generally to the hdght of 23tt. ot 30 ft., 
thougfa Bometimee to that of 40 ft. or 50 (t., with a trunk scquiring, at the 

Kund, Irom 4ft. to 5h. of drcumference. When youug, it faas a Bpreading 
d, with more aleader branchei than most otherpines. The bark of the 
trunk and brauches ia jEreyish or aah-coloured, and ratber smooth, even 
wbea the tree is old. The bark of tbe joung 

branchea is ^reenish, and leM scoJy tlian is IW^ 

usualin species of thia genus. The old trees ""^ - 

iiB*e a round head, and are generally, in Eng- 
UadBt least.broaderthanthey arehigfa. Tbc 
leaves we ofa deep ^een, 2m. or Sin. long, 
moBt commonly 8 in a theath, but some- 
limes, though rarely, 3 ; and they btc so dis- 
posed a» to form a double spiral round the 
ftranches. They never remainlonger tban two 
years on the tree; in conaequence of which 
the branches of old treei have b naked appear- 
ance, and the head looks open, str^gling, and 
thin. The male catkint ore reddUhVirom ^ b. 
to-^in. in length, on abort pedicels, disposed 
in branches ofso or 40 together. The creat 
is Ibi^ pruportionably to the size of the an- 
thers, and is rounded. The female catkins 
are not, aa is usual, placed at tbe extremity of 
tfae shootof theyear.butcome out at the side 
oS the sfaoot, and towarda the middle of it : they point outwarda duriug their 

flowering, and are of a greeniah hue, elightly tinged with red. The ci 
bave very strong pedimnes of half an incb or more in length ; and, as I 
advance in site, they take b direction slmost perpendicularty downwards. 

The cones are of a very r^lar pyramidal form, somewhot rouuded at the 
base; 8in. or 3in. loitf; of a yellowibh or fawn colour, but taking agreyish 
tinge when mature. The eitremitles of the scales project very «lightly : 
the^ are searcely angular, and are somewhat convex. The seeds are o^ 
l^ va. long, pomted al their lower extremities, and with the wings measuring 
1 in. in length, The tree grows rapidly when young, ncquiring the hdgfat 
of 15 ft. or SO ft. in ten years ; after which it increases more slowly, aod, in 

England Bt least, loses much of its beauty, by the head becoming open ai 
■tr^Iing. The head, from itt rapid Rrowth, generBlly leans to the ude 
opposite to that from which the prevuling wind of the locality blows the 
brauches, in young trees, generally resting on the ground j so that the trunk i> 
■ddom, tf ever, erect and stralght. The cones are produced at the age of 10 
years, but sddom in any great quantity. The fLnest tree» which we hare 
■een of this species are at Wfaite Knigfats and Dropmore; at which places, in 
1837, there were trees 17 ft. and S7ft. high. That in the Hortlcultural 
Society'i Oarden, of wbich a portrait is gi*en in our last Volume, wu, in 


1834, tAer being 12 yean plaoted, ISft. bigh. P. hakpMs k the most. 
ieoder of European pinea, not even excepting P. Pinea. 

Geography. Tbe Aleppo pine 10 indigenoiia in Syria» in the neichboor- 
hood ci Aleppo, in Jenualera ; in BailMry, on the mountaina of AtTas ; on 
the hiUs of Provenoe» and in the ndghbourfaood of Tottk>n and Frcjus, in 
France, where it is called the pin blanc ; and throughout great part of Spain. 
According to Captain Cook, it forma great part of the foresta of Upper 
Catalonia, and in the Aleborca, a district of New Caatile, near the Guada- 
hixara, but not rising so high on the mountains as tbe P. Piniater. It is 
alwaya found in dnr« Bandv» warm soila, aod tihrtveB admirably among rocks, 
where the roots of 4w other trees wiil find aubfliateoce. 

Mktory. The Aleppo pine waa firat a^vnted in Engknd in 1683, by 
Bishop Compton, under the name of P. hierosolymitaaa. {Rt^t Letten^ 
p. 171.) In 1732, cones of the tree were sent firom Aleppo to Miller, who 
raised plants from them, mofst of which, however, were destroyed by the 
severe winter of 1740. As cones are readily procured from France, the 
species is not rare in British nurseries ; but, though one of the moat oma^ 
mental of tbe genus, it has not been much phmted. In Scotland and Ire- 
land, it is rarely to be met with ; tt is not common in the neig^bourhood of 
Paris, being destroyed there by very severe winters, such as that of 1788, 
which killed all the trees in the vicinity of the Freneh capital; and in Ger- 
many, and at New York, it is a green-bouse plant. 

Properties and Uies, The wood is white, with a fine ^rain, whtch becomea 
dark in old trees. In Provence, it is much used for joinerv, and also for 
making pumps for vessels. According to Bosc (^Afm. de PAgr,, Feb. 1826, 
as quoted by Delamarre), the Aleppo pine is verjr common between Mar- 
seilles and Antibes, where it rivals m height and tmckness the pinaster, and 
its wood is considered very superior. The chief employment, however, of 
the tree is for ejctratdng its resinous products, for which it is much preferred 
to the pinaater. llie liauid resin extracted from this tree in Provence, 
where it is called le pm blanc, is often sold for Venice turpentine ; and tbe 
tar produced by it in the same country is esteemed greatly superior to 
that of Bordeaux, which is made from the pinaster. The variety P. h. marf- 
tima, as we have seen, p. 8232., is used for various purposes in Greece, aod, 
among others, the bark is employed for tanning hides. In Britain, P. hale* 
p^nais can only be considered as omamental ; and, when planted suglv on a 
lawn, it forms one of the handsomest species of the genus. Accordmg to 
Bosc, it is the most elegant of European pines. 

SUUisties. In England. At Fulham Palace, VJjtm pUnted, it It 90 ft. bigb. In Sumy, at 
Oakham Park, 14 jwt planted, it to 13 «. bigh. In Baikahin, et White Knif htt, S8 ymn piaiited. 
it is 57 It high. In Hertfonlshtnt, «t Cheshunt, 10 jean planted, it ia 16 ft higfa. In SlellbidihlR^ 
at Trentham, it U SO ft. high. In Suflblk, at Ampton HaO, 18 yean pUnted, it it 16 ft. bigh. In 

Worceatenhtxe, at Croome, 40 years piantod, it U 40ft. bigh In IreUnd. In tbcOlanieTin Bolanie 

Garden. 35 yean planted, it ia 15 ft. hi|dii at Terenuie, 8 yeaci Bianted, it it8ft.l4gh. In KUkcnuy, 
at Woodfltock, it U 90 ft. high.^In Franoe, at Paria, in the Jardin dei Plantet. 40 years nUnted. 
itU45ft.bigfa,dUmeterorthetrunklft., andoftheheadWft. " ' 

Commercial StaHttics. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 2s, 6d. each ; 
at Bollwyller, 1 franc 50 cents ; and at New York, 75 cents. 

1 15. P. BRU^A Ten. The Calabrian Pine. 

Ideniifieation, Ten. FL Nap. Prod., p. 69. ; Synopa., ed. alt., p. 06. ; SylL , p. 477. ; Lamb. Pin., rol. 5. 

t. 88. ; LawM)n*a Manual, p. 3S& ; Lodd. Cat. ed. 188& >'''>'' • 

Simo n ^mu. P. ooogUmerkU Ontfyr Pi. Egtiee., at ouoted br Lambert. 
EngrmingM. Lamb. Pin., toL SL t. 82. ; and our fy^g. S115. and 8116., flrom Lambert, and from a young 

tree in tbe Hortlcuiturat SocieCy*! Gerden, lent Cheie by Mr. Lambeit. 

Spec. Char., 4^c. Leaves in pa|rs, Terj long; slender, wavy. Gonea sessiley 
crowded, ovate, smooth. Scales truncate at the apez, flattish, umbilicate. 
{Ijamb.) Buds (see^. 21 14.) f in. long, and ^ in. broad ; ovate, pointed, 
whitish, and whouy witnout resin ; centre bud surrounded by three smaller 
buds. Leaves firom 34 in. to 4 in. long, on the young plant in the Horti- 
cultural Society*s Oarden ; but above 6 in. long in Mr. Lambert'6 figure. 
Sheathsy in both, less than ^ lengtb. 




Dt t er^itim. " A midiUe-flized tree, with muiy large spreuluiK 
brsnchei. Bark grejriBh brown, Bmooth, not crocked, but caverea 
with depreued tubercles. Leaves in twoa, rarely in threea, very ' 
long, alender, elabrouB, wavy, ipreading, sbout 9 tn. long; light 
greeo, canalicuUte above, convei beneath, aermlate on the margin, 
tenninated by a bihbII conical c«]]ous mucro; BfaeatfaB about Jin. 
long, peraiitent, of an ash-brown colour, membranaceoua, entire 
rouDil the topa ) guarded at bottom witb a iioear-lanceolHte, revo- 
Inte, bright brown, thread-like, ciliated acale (metamarphoaed leaf ), 
Cones aeaule, genenilly in cluatera, ovate, amooth, browniBh, Sin. 
to 3 in. tong. Cones trunntte at the apex, flHttiab, trapetoidBl, um- '"* 
bilicate, naooth, obaoletely 4-angled ; umluiicua dilated, depreased, aomewhat 
Ih^ow, Bsh-coloured. (S, Don.) Thia apeciea ia nearly relfited to P, h. mari- 
tiiDB; but it ia readily diatinguished both froin it aod P. halepenaia by itsvery 
loug wavy leavea, and by ita ahorter, aeaaile, cluaterett 
conea, witb the acales depre«8ed and slightly con> 
cave at theb aptx The leaves rcBemble tBo6e oF P, 

Larido ; but thev ere more alender, and rather longer, and both apeeies differ 
eaBentially in their cones. 8[]rengel has referred it to P. Ptnister, not even 
allowing it the rsnk of a variety ; but no two apeciea can be more diatinct. 
The Inves in P. PSn&ater are twice m ttout, streight, and rigid, and diaposed 
in intemipted verticels; and the conea are double the size, with the acslea 
derated and aogular. The tree of P. brtitia is said to attain s connderable 
aize, and to yield timber ofeseeUent quaKty." {Lamb. Pm., iii. t. 68.) Mr. 
Lambert haa raised young planta at Boyton, which he haa distributed to dif- 
ferent public and private eBtabliBhiiieitt8,including tbe HonicultuTsl Society's 


App. i. SpecUs qf Pine kavhig 7W Leaves in a Skealhy •nhich 
•xe cannat vatth certainty refer to ant/ <^ the preceding Sections. 


_„__, P. DCDiltlldl 6« 

C(wt gf Um u tbm dfoUtt-lKcnle. ( 

K itf "ctaloiirud^pnta^TM 

tna tlw Cnpt nf Oaod HsfK, whf i« It wh n ' 

but Mr. L««HD gtwrtCL " dd camparinr m i^nt ncdTail ftnt IJL ^Iil m 
.. -r- ihMTliiaSwiltafimudaimlptliiDDf?.!! 

Unla doabtbut tb« m lU r 
■mita, bvtdlOkn fn taiikm 

BsSr -^ 

mnMtt I ud, «lUi 
TWDCt u ID* /*. DCiiDwiiw rcoivDd AvB Lord Abat 
dMn, K li pnbDtalj pTkHifirblU. 

Plamtim.,flvKNip*L Bon» cooBflf ■ ^n* hn* 
bonUndlTHntDibtMr.PuioD, «111011 wcnbmi^i 
hoawlhuUwKcMliidM In l^, bi ■ aUacKir •«■ 
eal br Kli Onco tbc Dokc D( DoTODitaln. Tlweonn 

tMriad*^biiItbcToniDuchMMUn;tha Infnl ta 
UId. loBf, ud S fai. bnDd{ nd tbemDet oUM, 
i»dIh*c«tiudaclrwlDnrcnUoA.tlt7. Ms 
kmt vcn bcooabt howTW Mr. Fub» iDKni , 
Iiitliattht|ci>ccduiicau»orthe tm, oi Kt uUtc 
hUta, tm likc Uul of u old, itBDtod, wwtbcibcoua 
BcDleti D)De: It hnTtiv. Hk* IbH ticc,dart hecTT Rh 
UMMtacrdcoce. AHlbelrccilheGonocltticwhcd 
Ihil cfactsctel, ncciit ooc OT Iwo wtalcfa wcn (lowlnt 
■on frodjr, ■nd hcd hten Ihe ■Bpeuuee of ecdan or 
LebnDoa ; ddIt thct thc bnutchcc dld Dot iiaeMl » 
nuch ■tbotloai tboufli thcr hiid tta* hcblt of ibu 
Ine, Ibc bCDd tiporiat « eTtT cldt, Ann ibe eitie. 
Biltrortbebetlambnnchacupwmrdiia^polDL Th* 
bdftU tu wbleta tta* lr*e mwc !• citlBcled il bctweca 
aiHuiHan. AiiheeoiieibceriocfaconctnbliiBOo 

iDthdTBClH !• tbOH DT P. ^DUcC (Dd f. niMII, 

SecL ii. Temata. — Leaxxs 3 in a Sheath. 
A. Conei hardU/ n hng ai Ihe Leatiet ; iMe Scaia ailh Prietlei. 
§ V. Tada. 
Seet.Char. LeavesSin aBheBth.loQgerthBDtheconM. ConesiD twos, thrm, 
or clusters, with tfae Bcalea prickly. The tnmk oad larger branches throw 
out tuits of foliHge fuid abortive Bhooti, eveu in the thickest parta, and in 
ev«y stage of the tree'B growth. NadTes of Norih America. — The kindf 
broiight together in this Bection, though generally coneidered tpeaea, may, 
poMibly, be onlj' varieties. Though the pineB befonging to thifl diviBioD are 
coaily known bv the coneE, and even by tne leaves and budB, wben the tre« 
are mature and seen tt^ether; yet we have found none so difficultto deter- 
mine by thdr leavea and buda, wheu the pUntB are yoiing. In general, the 
leaveBof i*. 3Ve'daarelonger, stronger, andof amoreglaucoushue; andits 
budB are lai^ger thati thoBe of anj other kind in the section. P. rtgtda hst 
shoiter lesTet,fewerof them, and they sre 1e«s glaucous; and the buds are 
long, cylindiioU, and blunt-pointed. P. ser^tina resemblea P. rfgida in the 
leavee, but these are still fewer, and the cones are egg-shaped. The P. 
vari&bilis of Lanibert, according to his figure, is differcnt fi-om any of theae, 
snd in no way resembleB the P. mitis of Michaux, of which it is said to be a 
synonyme. 'HieP.mltisof Michauxiskaown withcertainty atfim sight, by 
its numerous, thickly set, and slender, sbort leaves;and, above all, Dy th« 




Tiotet«oloured gUucous bloomof tbe ■faoots. (See p. 8105^^ Ae P. mitis 
hu frequently tbree leaves, it may poSEibl]' belong to tbis section, bnt 
itl buda Bre ecsIj, Bnd not reBiDoua. 

i 16. P. Tm^^nk L. The Frankincense, or LabloUy, Piae. 

MiHMcalliiii. LId. Sp, FL, MIS. ; Srtt., ed. Selcli., t. p 173. ; A[t. Hott. Kew., S p. S68, i Midiic 
N. Abht. ByL.&pT5&;I.>i»i.^ii,. 1. t.lKiFunlih Amer. StC.S p. M.; ii.DaMua.,S. 
P.M3.; U*iuD«d., p 17^) I.ima'1 HiikuI, p. Ul. ) Boa JiiiL, 19S7, ^ 87A ) Lo4d.CU., 

%HnW 7>. RlllitJinli Ofw. Hrx., 1« i P. Tlrfbdkrw WnuinHUl tri|llU> PM. Alm., Wl.; 

'MhttaKoe,fX PrterAufx ani] iUchiiuind, ln Vlralnla j OldHcld Flnc. .^nw. i Findal'Enceiw, A-. 
Xiwn(*w( Lvnti. Pln., ed.2., L I. IS. ; N, Du Hmi., t.7sL L 2,: Miehi. N, Amn. Sil., t. 1«. < 

tuwkfTim., bi mrutuidiule; (nil ^, glls. KiSia),, ortheuninlil», rninUieHaTIlciil. 

timil Baclecr, Droiiniafv, «id S^chi ■p^l-nr*'* 

^tte.Char., ^c. LesveB in threes, elongated. Cones often in pRirs, shorter 
thtm tbc leaTes; oblong, pyrunidal, Gomewhat truncate at 
tbe apex ; scales with sharp pnckles, tumed inwards. Crcst 
j of the anthere rminded. (Z^.) Buds, on young treca (see 
fjig. 2118.), iin. 
long, and jin. 
bro«d ; pobted, 
with strught 
■ides; brownub 
red, and more 
coTered witb re- 
tban axij 
nis other species, 
except P.Bankuona. Buds 
aa the liill-gro w n tree at Sy- 
on,Bsin^. S120. Leaves 
to 5| in. long,rind, bluntly 
pointed, channeled in the 
middle, witb sheaths from 
{ in. to 1 in. long; brown, 
and fbintly ringed. Conea 
S4in. to *iin. long, and 
fram 1| in, to S in. broad ; 
scalet l^ in. long. Seed 
«malliwiththewin^ l-f^. 
long. In the dimate of 
London, the tree flowers 
in Hay, bnt in Carolina it 
flowera in April Tbe 
cones ripen in the Au- 
gust of the second ;ear. 

1 P. T. 8 ^loprctirSfdea 
Ait. Hort. Kew., 
ed. 8., T. p. 317., 
incense Pine,iBsaid 
to faave tbe leaTes 
spreading, and more 
■■^n the 

q»edes. Tbere is 

B plantof this nanie 

in the Hortieultu- 

ral SocdetVa Oar- 

den, which, 6 yearB planted, i« 10 ft. hixb ; but it doea not appear 

difibrent fh>m the spedei. Punb is of opinion tliat this Tariety 




18 nothing more than the P. 

of Bdichaux, but Lambert thinks it a va- 

riety of P. rf gida. 

Descripikm, A lofty tree, often, in America, 
upwardtt of 80 ft. hiffb, with a trunk sometimes 
clear of branches to tne height of 50 ft., and from 
2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter, with a wide«preading 
head. The Isaw^ are broad, pointed, flat on the 
upper surface, and forming a ridge below ; of a 
fine light green, with a sheath long and wbitish at 
first, but becoming short, thick, and brown when 
old. The cones are about 4 in. in length ; and the 
scales terminate in processes which have the fonn 
of an elongated pyramid, somewhat in tbe manner 
of P. Pin^Bter; but the apex of the pyramid 
terminates in a thick sharp prickle, somewhat in 
the manner of P. piingenfi, and tumed upwards. 
When the cone opens, the eloneadon of tne pro- 
cess contracts latendly, and it £en assumes the 
form of a regular rhomboid. The timber is said by Michaux to have a hu-ge 
proportion of sap wood, which arises from the rapid growth of the tree, 
and the consequent thickness of its anuual layers. fn England, in the 
climate of London, P. T^Ma grows vigorously, there being large trees at Syon 
and at Kew, which, after being 50 years planted, produce shoota of drom 9 in. 
to 1 ft. every year. At Dropmore, a tree, of which JSg. 2122. is a portrait to 
a scale of l in. to 12 ft., after being 41 years planted, was, in 1837, 37 ft. hidi. 

Geography and Hisiory, P, 7\eMa, according to Pursh, is found inbar- 

ren sandy sicuations, from Florida to Virginia. AU the woods in the 

southem states, he says, seem to be seeded with it ; for, when any piece of 

clear land is neglected for any length of time, it is speedily covered with tbis 

species ; and hence its name, amongst the inhabitants, of Oldfield pine. It is 

(ufficult, and in some cases almost impracticable, he adds, to recover the lands 

which have been overrun with young pines of this species, as the ground ap- 

pears to have lost all fertile properties for any otber vegetable than these 

trees. Michaux, whose account Pursh characterises as very correct and in- 

stractive, says that P, TteMa is found in the ^^a\ 

lower part of Virj^nia, and in the di^tricts of 

North Carolina situated north-east of the ri- 

ver of Cape Fear, over an extent of neariy 200 

miles ; always growinff in dry sandy soil. On 

spots consisting of red clay mixed with gravel, 

it is supplanted by the yellow pine {P, mitis 

Michx.), and by diflPerent species of oak ; the 

two pines regularly alteraating according to 

the varieties in the soil ; and ftequently vanish- 

ing and reappearing at intervals of three or 

four miles. " In the same parts of Vii^nia,*' he 

adds, *' this species exclusively occupies lands 

that have been exhausted by cultivation ; and, 

amid forests of oak, tracts of 100 or 200 acres 

are not unfrequentlvseen coveredwith thriving 

young pines. In tne more southem states, it 

is the most common species after the lone- 

leaved pine (P, austrahs) ; but it grows onfy 

in the branch swamps,orlongnarrowmarshes 

that intersect the pine barrens, and near the 

creeks «ad rivers, where the soQ is of middling 

fertility,and susceptible of improvement : sucn 

is the vicinity of Charleston, in South Caro- 




lina, which is covered to the distance of five or gix miles 
with loblolly pines." (Mkhx,) P. T^Vla waa intro- 
duoed into £ngland before 1713, by Bishop Compton ; 
and there are &ke specimens of the tree at Syon, Kew, 
andmore especially at Pain's Hill. Of one of the trees 
at Syon, and of one of those at Pain'8 Hill (tbe latter, 
doubdess, the handsomest tree of the species in £u- 
rope), portraits are giyen in our last Volume. As seeds 
are easily procured from New York, the species is not 
uncommon in the London nurseries ; and it is more fire- 
qnent in collections than most other American pines. It 
grows freely in the neighbourhood of Paris, and ripens 
cones there ; it aiso stands the open alr in the south of 
Germany, and as &r north as Berlin. 

Proparties and Uses, The wood, as already obseryed, 
18 porous, and not very durable ; thouflh the fineness of 
its grain, and consequently its durability, irary accord- 
ine to the soil on which it is grown. In some parts of 
Virginia, three fourths of the houses are built with logs 
of diis pine; and it is there even used for laying the 
0ound floors, instead of the yellow pine (P. mltisl 
These floors are formed of boards only 4 in. wide ; ana, 
though they are strongly nailed, they soon shrink, and 
become uneven ; a resmt which does not take place when 
the long4eaved pine (P, australu) is used ; tne conoen- 
tric cirdes of whico, Michaux observes, are twelve 
times as numerous in the same space as those of P. 
TVeMa. On the whole, the wood of thb latter tree is 
little esteemed in America for its timber ; but it affi>rds 
turpentine in abundance, though in a less fluid state 
than that of the long-leaved pine. Michaux suggests the idea of trvingit along 
with the pinaster on the plams of Bordeaux, and employing it n>r the saBie 
purposes as tbat tree. 

Siutittkt, Tliere ii a tree «t Syon 75 ft. high ; one at Kew between 40ft. end fiOft higii ; aome at 
Whittoo, 60 ft. hich ; and a number et Pain^i HiU, 00 ft. to70 ft. hlgh : at Dropmore, It it 38 ft. high. 
Fkioe of cones, in Xondon, U. per quart ; and of planti, 5». eedi : et BoUwjller, planta are 2 franca 

1 17. P. Ri'oiDA MUl. The rigid, or Pit^ PSne. 

Mmiifieati am, Mill. Dict, Na 10. : Du Roi Harbk.. 8. n.eOL; W«ng. Beft. n. 4L ; Maniiall Aito. 

Amer.j pi 101. ; Lambi nn., ed. 8,. 1 1& 17. ; Mionx. N. Amer. Syl., S. p. IdO^ rurah Fl. Amer. 

8ept, 8. ^6491 ; Hayne Dend., p. 174. ; Lawion'! Maoual, p. 96SL ; m . i>u Ham., p. 944. ; Bon 

Jaid.* \&1, p. 9lb. } Lodd. Cat., ed. 1886. 
AnMMwmtfc. P. TlieMa rlglda fi Ait. Hart. Kew.,S.v. 368., WiUd. BeroL Jknam.. aSlO. ; P. cana- 

d^nrte trllblia Du Ram. Arb.'JL pi 196. ; ? P. Te^da m Potr. Diei., 5. p. S«0. ; ? tliree.leaTed 

Viiginian Pine, Sap Fine, black Pine; Ptn bMa^ Fln rudo, Fr. 
Bmgrmwimgt. Lamb. Pin., ed. S., 1. 1 1^ 17. ; N. Du Ham., 6. t. 74. ; Michx. N. Amer. Sjl., ▼oL 3. 

1 144 ; our>lif. 91S&, to our usual icale; and figt. 2183L to 9125., ofthe natural size, Arom Drop. 

Spec, Char,^ ^c. Leaves in thraes. Oones ovatfroUong, in threes or 
foari, mach shorter than the leaves : their scales tenntnated by a 
rouffa thomy point. Male catkins elonf^d, with tfae crest of the 
antbers dilatea, and roundish. (Ltrit.) Bads, on young treee (see jSg, 
2l23.)f firom ^in. to f in long, -^in. broad, pointed, brown, and 
covered with resin ; on the fuli«grown trees at JDropmore as in J!g. 
2125. Leaves (see^. 2124.) from 3^in. to 4jin. long; sheadi 
f in. long, white at first, and afterwards becomin? da?ker, bnt 
acarceiy black. Cones from 2} in. to 3 in. long, and from H in. to 
1 ^ in. broad ; scales 1 J in. long, terminating in dqmssed quadrilateral 
pyramids, ending in a prickle,*(iointing ovtwards. Seed little more 
tfaan ^in. long; but, with the wing, from f in. to fin. long. Cotylectons, ? 

FiMriety, According to Mr. Larobert, P. T. alopecurdidea Ait. is a variety of 
JP. rigida, characterised by its much shorter ond stouter leaves, and its 
ovate-oblong, much parrower, and aggregated cones. (Ltmb. Pm., ed. 2., 
DO. 17.) 7 F 



Deirripfiim. The pitch iAm, 
in Americs, Wchaux infDniw 
ua, VBriea, sccordinf; to soil 
aod ■ituation, from IS ft. or 
15 n. to 70 ft. or 60 h. in hdght. 
** The budi ore Blwa;s reiiDous ; 
and its triple leavea Tary in 
lengthfrom 14in. to 7 in,, ac- 
conliiig to the deoree of moii- 
ture in the Miil. The mBle cat- 
kins are I in. long, Btraight, and 
wiuged, like those of the jMud 
pine (/>. serdtina). Tbe siie of 
the cones depends on the nature 
of the Bcnl, and variet from leM 
than 1 in. to nore than 3 in. iu 
length ; they are af a pyramidal 
■hu», and each «cale is pointed 
witn an iicute pricltle of about 
■^ m. long. Whenever these 
trees grow in masses, the cones 
are dupersed aingly over the 
bnnche« ; and they shed their 
seeds the Grst autumn aAer they 
sre mature; but, on soiitary 
trees, the conea are coUected in 

Kupa of four, five, or even a 
jer Dumba', and will rematn 
on the trees closed for several 

rowed bntfc. It is ranaAable 

fer the numlw of ita brancfaes, 

vhieh occupy two thirdi of ita 

truok, and render ita wood ex- 

tremdy knotty. The concen- 

Iric drdea are widel; disCant; 

and three fourths of the wood 

of thelargertreesconsists of i^wood. On raountains and gravdly laods, tbe 

wood is compact, hesv;, and surchareed with resin; whence is derived the 

■ume of pitch pine. In swamps, oa the con- 

tniy, it is light, loh, and composed «Imost 

wholly of sap wood ; whence it is called the 

aap pu)e. In Britiah gardena, the tree is of as 

r^idgrowthaa J>. TtoMasnd P.plingent ; the 

■pecimra at Dropmore, after being 41 years 

planted, bdng upwards of 31ft. higfa, 

Geograpku and HiHory. Accon 
Purah, P. rfgida ia found on the plaina^irom I 
New Englsnd to Virginia, growing, in &vour- ' 
able situatioaa, to a very large tree, and dther 
in dry soil, or in very wet low ground. Hi- 
chuix atatea tbat it ia found tbroughout the 
whole of the United States, witb the exception 
of ihe maritime part of the Atlantic districtl, 
and the fertile r^^ions west of the AUeghany 
Mouutains; but most abundantly where tbe 
■oil is nteaire. The most northem points at 
which Michaus obaerved it were, the vidoity 
of Brunswick, in tbe district of Maioe; and Bur- 


lingtan, on Lake ChampUin, in the Btate of Vernioiit. In thete placei, it growi 
commonl; in ligbt, rriable, and sand^ soil«, which it occiipies almost eidusive- 
ly; not exceeding ISfl.orl5ft.inheight; Bnd«hereit8Blenderbranches,ladeii 
withpun; conea,eTince the feeblenesa ofits vc^etation. In FcDnsjlvanis and 
Virgmia, the ridges of the AUt^hanies are aometimes covered with it; parti- 
cularly the souUi mountidnB, on the ridge called Saddle Hilt, wbere th« 
soil a rather richer, and where the [ree attains the heigbt of 35 ft. or 40 ft., 
witb a trunk 18 in. or 15 in. in diameter. In the lower parta of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, and Maryland, it is frequently seen, in the large ceder swainpa 
(which are constantly miry, or covered with water), 70 h. or 80 (t. hlgh, with 
a trunk from 80 in, to 28 in. in diameter, and eiceeding the surroundinK 
treea both in buUt and elevation. It supports a long time tbe presence of 
seawBter, which, in spring tideH, overdowB the salt meadows, where it is 
aometimes found, and where it is the only species of the pine tribe. Messra. 
Browu and M^Nab fbund the aummitB of the All^any Mountuns entirely 
covered by scraggy trees of thia apecica, with dwarf scrub oek (Qu£rcu« 
BannlsterT) as underwood. (Quarl. Joum. o/ Agri., v. p. 604.) On dry 

Kvelty soil, Hichaui obBerves, the wood of P. rigida is knotty ; and, in 
nid situations, it ii of so poor a quality, as to be unfit fbr vorki which 
require strength or durability. This Bpecies Beems to have fonnerly al>ouDded 
in Connecticut, MassachuaettE, and New Hampshtrej for, from the begin- 
ning of tb« rigfateenth century, till lT7e, these atates furaiahed Britain witn a 
ooi»derable quantit]' of tar. About tbe year 1 705, a misunderatanding having 
taken place between Great Britain and Sweden, from which latter country 
the BntiBh goTeroment bad principelly drawn ita supply of tar, Oreat Britain 

encotiraged this branch of mdustry in the northern part of America, by a 
premium of W. sterling for every barrel of tar tnade Irom dead wood, and 8'. 
fbr erery barrel made from green wood ; in consequence of which, and of this 

c fiirDishing tai abundantly, its destruction has been so rapid, that it 
rarely found in tbe northen stales. P. rigida was cultivated in England by 
ifae Duke of Bedford, previously to 1759; and, aa the conea are frequentty 
imported, it is not uncoaunon in collections of the genus. There are old 
trees at Syon and Pun'B Hill, from 40 ft. to 50ft, high; and one at Dropmore, 
40 years planted, wbich, in 1837, was 31 ft. bigh. The apecimen in the 
arb«»^um at Hackney is 10 ft. 6 in. hifjh; and one in the Horticultural 
8ociety'B Oarden, after being 6 years planled, is 5 (l. high. 

pTojnrriiei and TJtet. In aome parta of the Alleghanies, where thia tree 

abounds, houses are buitt of it ; end the wood, tf it is not covered with paint, 

i* readity recogniscd by its niimerous knots. It is thought better tban th« 

7f 2 




jrellow pine for floort tbat Brefrequeotlj wathed; u tbe rena widi wiudi it 
u impr^naled reodera it finer »01] niore durable. Tt la used for ship pumM, 
•nd aa fuel by the bakers aod brick-caakcn of New York and Pbiladelpfaia ; 
and from tlie rootx is procured lampblack. Hie prindpHl use of tbia tree is, 
however, to tiiniish tar and turpeotine. The easeace 01 turpentiiie, used IB 
moBt parts of America for paiuting, is prepared from this tree. 

Comnirrciai Statatkt. Pncx of conea, in London, 2f. per quart. RMits, st 
Bollwyller, are i franc 50 cents each ; and at New York, 50 centi. 

J 16. P. <R.) sBiH)'Ti«* 3lie*jf, The late, or Pand. Rne. 
UmtUUaUa^ HlcliL Fl Am«. B«., «. p. WS. i Wtdii, Aib.. 1. 11.W. i R Aiur. 8*L,3. p. t«<. ; 
PunhFI. Amci. Stpt., C pL 643, i N. Uu Hul, 5p.«w.i Luh, Pia.,«]. 3., t, uA.; !,•■«'> 
HuiujU, p^ 353. 

* •= ■^•inalBfrrmeiiet AU. Hart Jt«.,«d, «.,, 

il..\rij., 1. tT-i N. Amer. ail,,3. 1. 1«. i N. Du Him., fi. 1.75. t I. ; Luab, Fio.. 

Spvc. Char., /[c. Leaves in tfarees, jtty long. Male cAtkins erect, 
incum1)ent. Cones ovsce; acales faaving very small mucroa. 
I (Mickx.) Buds, on ^ouog trees (see Jig. S188.), 
I from .^in. to VW'''- *" 1bis^< '"<' IHim -^ in. to 
1 }in. in breadth; conical, dark brown, and very re- 
I sinoua; buJs on old treet u vn Jig. 8127. LeaTes 
I (see^,2189.), inlheDropmore specimens, from4in 
to 6in. long; in Hicbaui's fi^re, upwards of Sin 
loi^. Cones 8)in. or 3in. long, and I jin. or Eiii 
broad ; egg-ebiped ; •cales { in. tong, and } in. broad, 
with the apex depreased, and temibating in a slender 
prickle. Seed very small ; with tfae wing, from # in. to 
{ in. in length. Cotyledons, ? The cones and leavea 
trees of this name at Dro 

Pams Ilill wth 

cones of d fferent 

iises and shapes 

b t »11 o three 

leuved p nes and 
•II evidentlv ot the Ta da fa 
mily, induce us to believe tbHt 
P. rlRida and P ser6tina are 
only dilferent ftrrms r^ the sau e 

DcBcriplion 5-c Thepondpme 
Bccording to M chaux rorely ex 
ceeds 35 fl. or 40 fl. ii height « th 
a branchy trunk from 15 m Eo IS n 
in diameter The leaves are ge- 
nerally 5 tn or 6 n long and 
eometimes more The n ule cat- 
kins are Btreight and about \ d 
long. The cones are commonly n 
pairs, and opposite to each ocfaer 
they are about SJ in. long, nearly 
8 in. in diameCer, and e^-ahaped ; 
ibe bcbIcs are rounded at their ei- 
tremitiee, and anned with gne short 
prifkles, which are easily broken 

olF, » 

tfaat i 

Ikea are lelt of theu 
'nie coues arrive at maturity tbe 
second year ; but ihcy do not shed 
thetr seeds till the thiid or fourth 



jear; wbence the specific nuns. Purah, wb« ■«)•- 
peets thia «pecio to be only a varietj' of P. rfgida, 
■ajs that it grow» on the edgea of pondn and 
Awainp* froni New Jersey to Caroliiia. HiehauK 
obsen-es that it ia generaJly ibund iti the maritime 
partt of the Bouthem distnctt ; but that " it growa 
occBibnally in olber parts of the United Statei, on 
the borders of ponds, and in the black and mirj 
Boil of the SDuJI swataps whieh forro the habitat 
of the lobloll}' faay (Gonlonta lasiiDthus), 
pelo (Vfaaa Mcolorl, and tbe s " 
fHagitoui claGca). This speciet 
round, also, ui abandoned fields near the swampa; 
but thedrfnees ofthe Boil occasioDs no dijference 
in its fomi. This observation, Michaui aiida, ie 
of importMice, as P. serdtina is fremmitly con- 
founded with P. Hgida, whicb jt strikiBgly resem- 
bles. The tinber is found to consist of more tban 
one balf of sap wood ; and fbr this reaBon h it 
uaeless it bonie, and deMrredly n^lected abroad." 
^Mk&r.) Id England, it fonas, like the other 
kinds of P. 

aadditionto the pinetuni, m>w- 
ing aa freely at Syon, Piiin's HilT, aiid 
Dropniore, aa P. rigidB or P. Tx^da. 
The tree at Dropmore (of which a por- 
trut ia giren in our last Volunie) wbs, in 
1837, 38 ft. high, that at Syon was S5 (t. 
bigfa,andoneBt KenwoodwasSOft. bigb. 

F. naridtim Unh Pln., cd. l, 1. 1 14.. -^ oar 
JU. flSJ., oT the nauir^ ilie, nroui Lunbcrfi plat«. 
Hr. Loriim daKilha thla jiat m biiinc thr \fnt 
lo initnd iliM, S In. lona, dunBtM, ita* iw|1ih 

tlig •hHtl» •boTt, 'unitht, ud kat llUle vrin£M.' 
ni coDw »1111117, nniiTdl, pwidutaut, tamw. 

thb nifdH In Eostudi onelit^P^o^HilT.^iuKl Uic 
othcr 11 Ke». ILamt.) Tba «ic « Kn no lontcr 
«■Mi 1 cnd th« ool* DHi M FilD'1 HiU, IbM wc eould 
■e.with anm RHiaUln^ ttaaa h)_ Mi. Umbeifr 

FilD'1 HiU, IbM wc eoul 
lliwtl ■-■-,... 

to be rariiioiM, bbt tbfloeoTA 

n (M OBuOdeDt l> Ihe P. mltlt otl^Hil' 

(■hlch Hi. Idmbert Duka ■ •TDon^iue of hle ptont). 
ire •GolrtWltb the •eale* nflned, a iiijf»>a- m 
f. «ISG. Ilw Vft ■hoati ID Kr. UBberri Biiio 
•••(rein.bul ID tbc DnpiBore ptant Ihejsroottbe 

•nd whlcb, UcluiiK iin, bdoon Lo nq othA dIh dI 
tha Unltid StMat bul P lna|>e uid >. nltlL (W. 
-<-(r^..lM«l.) Ittoftmniilw in J>. Sehin. 

5 vi. Ponderiisa. 
Sect. Char. Leaves very long, strong, somewhBt flexuose. 

i 19. P. PONCB*o'sA Doug. The henvy-DKiodrd Pine. 
UmaUmmi. Dcwdu'i ipeclnKni In Ibc HDnirullunl BDCictr'i bcibulum : Lawioi 
p.Stl I^Cu.,i<IJ^ 


s, with Bbort «heathi ; crest of the 

Conei o*ate, refleiied, with the apkes 
ot the scalet flattened, with s raited 
process in the middle, ttrminatiag in 
a conical, minute, recurred spiiie, 
I slightly quadrangulBr. Buda, in Dou- 
j^as'B specimen, Jin. long and |ia. 
Ibroad; cylindrical, with straght rides, 
t rounded like a dome at the eitremit]', 
f but wtth a prominent blunt point ; dark 
brown, and covered with reain. Buda, 
on the living tree in the Horticiiltural 
Sodety'» Oarden (aeejlg. 8132.), from 
— lin. to l^in. \oBg, and from }ia. to 

l^ in. broad; siaooth, cjlindrical, wtth a long point i 
reddish t«t>Hn, and covered with e fiae white bkKun, 
consisting of hae partides of reain, ■uirounded by 
two or more Bmaller buds. Leavea dispoaed in pa- 
ralldBpirab; inDouglas'sBpecimen (seej^.8133.), 
from 9in. to llin.long; 3in asheath, whicn is &oin 
^in. to I in. in length, with nuinerous fine rings; 
(cales of the leaves persiatent on the wood, eren of 
twoyeaTB' orthree jears'growth. Leaves, on the 
living plant, from 7 in. to 9 in. loag. The cone (aee 
Jtg. 8 134.), in Donglai') specimen, ii derormed, and 
eiji '«y, i"P«ftctl/ 
developed ; it la 
oaly 3 u. iong, aad 
jin. broad. The 
Bcales are tenni- 
nated m flattened 
processes, scarcetj 
ribbed in my direc- 
tjon. In ihe centre 
of the process is ■ 
protuberaDce, large 


[irickle, pointii: 
ong, and }in. t 

ale, which terminatei in a shup 
linting outwards. Scale 1 in. 
_in. broad; dark brown. Secd 
•^ia. long, and|ui. broad; darkbrown, 
with the wing nearly 1 in. in lenglh, and 
Jin. in breadth; wings of a jellowish 
browD. The foUowing deBcription, given 
in LawBon'fl Mamial, of a joung tree of 
P. ponderdia, taken from the Bpedmen 
growing in the Caledonian Horticultural 
Sodety'sGarden, which,inI837,waalSft 
high, is at once correct and characIM'- 
istic : — " In its habit of growth, P. pon- 
derdss seems to «urpaas all otheTB of the genus for slrength and luxuriance. 
The branches ore few, regularly verticillat^, hoiizontal, and seem inclined to 
aMumeapeudulousordroopinghBbitBBthetreebecomesold; cenlndoriop 
shoot often more than an inch in diameler, and of proponionabte length. 
Buda large, and free from resin. Leaves thicklj aet, f« in. to 1 ft. or 1 ft. 8 i». 
in length ; thick, rigid, and Dearlj slraiKht i rounded on ihe extenor, and 
having a longitudinarprominent rib, togetner with minute channels, on the io- 




rated or tora at their extremitiei.'' 
LmtomU Mamal, p. 3U.) The 
timlier u md to be so heavj ai ■!- 
■ocwt to nnk in trater. The tree ia 
found tabeqiiiteh«rd^,aDdornpid 
Krowth, both in the dimste of Lon- 
3oD aDdofBdiDburgh. P. ponderdra 
i* a netive of the nortb-west coatt of 
Notth America, oo the banks of the 
Spokan Bod Flathesd rivers, and on 
the Ketde Palla of the Columbia, 
abuodBDtlj. It was discorered b; 
Douriaa, and Knt by him to the 
Horticultural Sodet; Id 1826. A 
number of planta were raiged from 
■ceda ID that jear, and diatributed : v 
tbe i»TseH o( tbeae we believe to be - 
that in tfae Hordcultural Societ;'! - 
Oarden, of which i^. 8 136. ii ■ por- 
trait, to the acale of liu. to 4ft. 
llie tree at Dropmore wbb, in 1837, 
9 ft. higfa. Both thia tree, and that in the Horticultural Sodetj*! Gatden, 
■re reryautgect to the attackH of the Hylliigus fuiiipi^rda.Blread]' described, 
p. S14I.; and tbe specimen 
■ent home by Douglai is 
remarkable for having « large 
tuft, among the leavei, of ft 
paruitic plant attached to it ; 
of a portioD of which jfg, 
SIS7. is a mpecimen ilight^ 
magnified. This plant, the 
Arceuthdlmun Ozycedri of 
Keb., Spmg. Syil., iii. p. 
001. ; nwnim Oi/cedri Sec, 
Hoek. Fl. Bor. Amer., p. 971. 
t. 90.; WBB found \ij Dou- 
glai on i^ouB ponderdaa, on 
tbe weat ride of the Rockf 
UouDtains ; and both \>y Dou- 
^■B and DrummoDd "od p. 
Jtankwriiia, &om the Spoknn 
river OD the weat aide of the 
Rockj MountainB, iu lat. VJ°, 
to the Rocky Mountwni, and 
tbeDce to Hudton'8 Baj on 
tbe eaat, m lat. fi7°. Mr. 
DoDg^ entertained an ide« 
that thc specimens in lus 
herfaariumoi thiscuiious para- 
nte, fiiund on P. ponderdsa, 
wcre cUcreDt from thiMe Ibund 
on P. Bankaiana ; but the only 
difo«nce consists iu tbe latter being loaded wilh feoiale, the former 
■ with male, flowert.which certainly gives a vcry difierent appearance to the 
extremitiesorthe Dumerous branches. It is remsrkable too, itiat all Hr. 
■ (and they were all found upon P. BanksiaHa) 


•re maleplKiU. 
Tbese and the 
plants ot Mr. 
Dougbu faave 
beeo carefull; 
fouud growing 
on the Junipe- 
nu Ox^cednu, 
■ome Iroin the 
■ south of Fraoce 
(in Languedoc, 

Sthered by BL 
}i7 de SMnt 
ViDcent), and 
CaucBuis, com- 
municated to 
cott,and I 

Fl. Bor. Amer., 
i. p. S7S.) FU 
nut ponderAM, 
whidi ia, per- 

dy tban the pi- 


growth, liBi a noble appearance, ereu wfaen a yooiig tree ; and, together 
with P. Sabimaiu •nd P. Co6lteri, equally noble treea, and ■ppwaOlr aa 
hordy and of a* rapid growth, well deBcrret « place in ever; pnenm. 
Price of the plants, io the London nurseriea, Slt. eacfa. 

B. Conet AaVM^ tke Scalei hooted. 
§ vii. SabinihaBe. 
Sect. Char. Cones large, with the apez of the Bcales elongated and hotAed. 
1 SO. P. Skvwia SA 'Don^iM. Babine^a, or i/ke great pri eify ' «em d , Piae. 
LoBtu nn.,ed. t,, )^ teO. ; LKWnti-tTtmntttl.r.iia.-, Lodd. Cat, id.lS». 
BnliL PlB., «d. £,, i. L 80. ) Dnr A- il**-. iBoor <nwl —*>*• •^JWk SUt. lo SMO., 
I >i», rm Ibe tm ln U» HoUeuUunl Biieittj't Oudoi, ud Ijmhwt 

cHAp. cxni. 

coni'fbra: pi^us 



FART tll. 

on the tree in the HiHticuItiird Sodely'» Budai (aecj^. 
2139.), nearlj' 1 io. lon^sndf in. bro«d; convex on the sides, 
imbricated, but not covered wiih resit. Leavei from 
J Ift. inlcnrth;^MicotwineTerjBtageortheirgrowUi,fleziiOK; 
I and, Then ihdl^irown, Mrtl; bent downwarda, as those Bhown ia 
f Jlg- 8148. Sbeatbs nbore 1 in. in lengtb, iDeDibnuwceo«M,ul)- 
I brown,aluiiiag,uidDearl;entireutbetop,with Duma^iiu rii^; 
scslea o( the conea, in tfae speciraens Bcnt nome by DouglM, 2 tn. 
. loiigand1}in.bro«l(_aeej^. £140.). Seed8(aiD^.Sl40.,aDd 
b iiijif.2141) sboTe I in. long.and neailj Jin. broad,muchtBrger 
thanUOBeotP. Coulteh shown Ua ia j^.814l.; wioK very 
shoR. Shoots of the current jear covered with violet-coloured 
bloom, like those of P. tnope, but darker. Native of GalironuB, 
XieteTiption. Douglas describea ihe leaves as in threes, venr rard^ ia 
fburt, firom 11 ia. to 14 in. long, shsrp, rouiid, and soiooth oa theoutnde, 
■i^ular on tfae insidc, serrated, more widely and conqiicuously so towsrdt 
tbe poiot, erect, but flaccid and drooping during winter ; sheatQ 1) in. lon^ 
li^t brown, chid^, sometimes tom at the top. Stipules Unceolate and 
rwid. Male and female catkius erect. Flowen appeatiog in Fdiniary and 
B^ch. Coaea ^. ^,^ 

jeart; and from 

Sin. to II in. long, and&om l6in.tOlBin. round; some, however, are larger. 
Scalea spathulste, SJ in. long, having ■ verj strong, sharp, incurved point 
(see b in fig. 8140.) with abundance of pellucid resm. Seeds (see a itt_^. 
8140.) somewhst obbng, twiering to the base ; flattish on the insidc, 1 in. 
long, and nearly^in. broad; shell thick, hsrd, brovm; wing yellow, short, 
Mi^ and half toe length of the seed, which it nesrly encompaBSes; kemel 
pleasant to tfae tasle. Cotjledons from 7 to 18. Tfae tree does not sttain 

r'te so Isrge a size as tfae other dgantic specie» of tbe genus, whicfa inhabit 
noTthem and westem parts of North America. The treei ore of s taperiiu 
form, stiwgfat, and ofr^ular ^wth; from 40ft. to 120 ft. in heisfat, with 
trunks from 18ft. in circumference (or, as Douglas Btates inliii letter 
to Sir W. J.Hooker, from llOfL to 140fL in hdght, with tninks from 3 ft. 
to ISft. in diBmeter^, clothed with brancfaes to tfae groond when standii^ far 
■part or solitary. 'nie largett and most fasndsome treea inbabit the aqueou* 

cnAP. cxiii. 

CONl'FEnje. Pl^NUS. 

deponu on tke 
n flank of the Cordille- 

rai of New Albion, at b great 

rieration above the lerel of 

tfae >e«i, and 1600 ft. below 

the verge of perpetual mow, 

in the paraUel of 40° n. lat. 

Oti the leu elevated mouiv 

taini near the eoast, where 

the temperatore ia higher, but 

laon uuifbTm, iu the parallel 

of31°nonh, in decompoaed 

granite tchiatua, or eravelly 

amb.ttie treea are smaller aod 

few, inhabitiiis the suinmita 

of the mountama only . Th« 

wood ia wfaite, sof^ even- 

grained, and periumg not voy 

durable. (Lamb. hn.,t. 60.; 

«od Cmmp. lo Ihe Bct, JHag., 

H. p. 150.) Id the Qmpmam 

to ae Bolmieal Magaxme are 

publialied a number of letto^ 

trma Dooglaa to 6ir W, J. 

Hooker, by whicb it appears 

that Dou^i diicoTer«l this 

pine in ISfiS, and named it in 

cotnplimeat to hu earl; friend 

and patron Ur. Sabine; but, 

iinfbrtunately,he lost hia spe- 

eimena, together with the n< ' 

hia retum northward. In t , . . . 

, after ataling that he had ftnind another tree of this epedes, 
he lavt, " I lent to London a 
detaifed account of this mo«t 
beautiful tree, to be publiihed 
'-'''''■' in the Horticulturtil TVaiuac- 

thnt." Thia account m 
rived ; but die conea and spe- 

a he faad made. 

received in 163S; 
«nd plants were rdsed from the 
Beeds, in the Horticultural So- 
ciet;'s Oarden, that year. Of 
one of theK, which, in 1837, 



waa 4 ft. 6 in. higfa, j^. SI13. i* s portnut, to a Bc«le of lin. b>4ft. Tbetv 
iaaplantat Dropmore, which, in 1S37, was Sft,0iii. high. The apecies 
appeMB to be aa hardy a« the pinaater. 

1 81, P. (8.) Cow'i,TBit( D. Don. CouWsx'», or ihe greal kookcd, Kne. 
Uai^laaa m. Donln Lln. Tnuu., IT. ^4«. i Lnnib. nn,,& E.U. 

^uraSwi. LuDb. Fln., 3. L 13, ; dutj^. Iltd r»ai LuBtxrt, jV. !1*1. IV(ni thcdritduiwtn the 
HcMtlcukunl SocIMt'! iMftHrtDni, ndjbt. ai4k ud tl4& Iton lh« icubc planti ka tkc HgRtcul- 
tunl Sod(tT'> OuilnL 

Spec, Char., ^c. L«svea in threea, Tery long, compreased ; aheatfas 
ngeed. Cones oblong, solitory, very targe ; scafes wedge.4hq>e(I, 
w^ tfae apex elongited, thickened, lanceotate, mucronBte, com- 
pretsed, booked. (D.Don.) Buda, on tfae tree in the Horticul- 
tural Sodetf 's Oarden (seej^.2144.), 1 in. lonr, and rrom (in. 
to jin. broad; conical, pointed, convex on the Bides, imbri- j 
cated; tbe acales of the buds adpressed, brown, and not corered [ 
witbresin, Leaves of theyouDg pUnti 9in. long.andof thedried ^ 
■pedmens in tbe herbarium ofthe p ■ ■ ' " ■ - 
of 10 in. long; of the Bame glauc< 

idna, but not tumed downwarda at anv stage of their growtb. •. 
Conea (lee f^. S144., to ournsualBcale) senthomeb; Dougtai 
I ft. in lengtfa, and 6 in, in breadth ; scalea of the conea 3 in. long, 
andfrom Uin. to Ijin. broad. Scales (see/^.814I. e) from eiM 
3|b. to 4m. lonK,andfrom l^in. to IJin. broad; inj^- !140., at a, s 
Iroat view of the nook of the acale is given, of tbe natural size. Seed 
(aeejEg. 8141.a) brown, flattiib, from f in. to g-in. in length, and 3 tn. hi 
brcsathi^witfaout tfae wing; with the wing, 1 in. inlength; wing stnr, li^t 
brown, and nearlv encompassing the aeed. Cotyledons,? The seed of P. 
SMni^rm u mucn larger than that of P. Codlteri, as shown aC a in the same 
figure. Shoota of the current year covcred with • riolet-cdoured glaiieous 
bu>om,li]ce thoseofP. inops,butdarker. Ifativeof Califomia, on mountuns. 
Deicttption. A large strong-growing tree, rrom SOft. to lOOft. high. 

Bark browmsfa, Branches large; top spreading. Brsnchlets knotted, and 

tubercled from the callous basea of 

tfae stipular scales ; about 1 in. in thick- 

ness. Leavea in threee, rarely in fours 

or fives, about 9 in. long, incurved, 

■omewhot compressed, mucrouate; 2- 

fiuTowed above, daCdsfa beueatfa, aligfat- 

ly serrated oa.tfae margia, and on the 

elevated line along the middle ; Bheaths 

Ijin. long, about tfae thickness of a 

crow-quill, swelling at the tips, Scales 

of the atipules ovate-lanceotate, acumi- 

nate, cartitagtnoU8,brigfat hrown, shin- 

ing, adpreased ; margin scarious, white, 

thread-like, aiid toni ; with the lower , 

ones sborter,aiid ked-shaped. Stipules 

larger, much acnminattd, nooded at the 

bsM, callous, indurated, end persisteDt. 

AU die cones lai^ conical-oblong, ) ft. 

aod more in length, 6in. in dianieter 

near the middte, and weighing about 

41b. Scalea wedge-shapea, elongated 

at the apex, lanceolate, mucronBte, 

CODipreBEed on both sidea, obBoletely quadrangular, inctinred and hooked, 

very thiek, indurated, smooth, shining, brownioh, acute at the marrin, I b. 

to 3in, long; the lower ones looger, defleied, and spreading. XLamb.) 

coni'fkk«. prNtiM. 

Thie tree whh diocovered by Dr. Coulter, id «hat ;ev U not stated ; but, if 
we are correct (and Profesgor Don thinks we are) in considering it the SAme 
w P. SBbtDkina nir., seeds aud Bpecimeiu were sent home by DouglaB in 1832, 
thouch unBccompanied by any description or historical particulars ; hi« pBperx, 
which he had despatched by another thip, having been loBt. Dr. Coulcer 
found it OD tbe tnountiuns of Santa Lucia, Deor che mission of San Antonio, 
iD lat. 36 °, within sight of Che aea, and at an elevation of from 3000 a. to 
40O0 h. above iCs level. It was growing intermixed with P. Lambertioru, 
and rising to the height of trom BOft. to 100 ft., with Ivge, permanent, 
■preading branches, and a trunk 3 fl. or 4 ft. in diameter. Ita leaves are 
broader than those of Hity ocher pine ; and the coues, whicb grow singly, are 
thelargest of all, beiDg often more than llt. long, and 6in. in diameter, and 
weighing about 4 Ib. The spinous proceases of the scales of the cone are 
voy atrong, hooked, and compressed, 3in. or 4in. in len^h, and about the 
thicknest of one'* fiogeri characters which esBentially distinguiah it iraat P. 
SabinuiRa. (^l}on in Lmn. Tram.) A[ che luggestion of Mr. Lambert, Pro* 
feasor Don named this apecies afier Dr. Coulter (who appears to have dis- 
corered it about the aame time as Douglas), " who is no less diatinguished for 
his Rcientilic acquiremEnCs, thaii for the eicellent qualicies of his mind." 
CoDee and specimens were sent home by Douglas in 1832, and plancs were 
raised frooi ttie seed in the following year; one of theae in che Horticultural 
Society'» Garden, of which fig. 2147. is a portrwl, was, in September, 1837, 


7 ft. higfa. In ita seneral mppeanuice, it reataiblea P. SabiiuaiiB ; 
retdilf dirtiiiguiahed Irom tbat meciei fa ' 
Both ipeciet have the buda of the sc 

s by the upright dimnKter of it> foliae 

fbmi Bod colour; the le«Te* of the . 
beautiful ^Micoua hue in erery stage of 
tbdr growth ; the young ahoota covered 
with a Tiokt ^uicoua bloom, Uke those of 
P. inopa and P. mltia ; and botb TeUin 
their leavea till the auminer of tbe third 
year. The colour and form of the aeeda in 
the two kinda^are exactlv the aame ; but the 
laigcr cone baa ihe anialkT aeeda. To ua, it 
appears that they are onl; Tarietiea of one 
apeciea ; but, if tbey are ao, they are es «etl 
worth keeping diitinct aa aoj' ipecie» what- 
ever. They may, indeed, be deacribed aa of 
Burpaaaiiig Eieauty; and, what adds greatly 
to tbar value, they appcar to be quite 

1 SS. P. LONfiiFO^LiA Soxb. Hie kmg-leaved Imlim Pme. 
ii, p. SU. : Ba 
■.tjH. SUi,t 

Spec. Ckar., S^. Leavea in threea, very h>ngand slender.penduloua; abeatha 
loDg. Conea ovate.oblong. Scalea elevated at tbe apex, very thick, re- 
curved. (Lami. Pm.^ Buda, in theDropmore apecimena (aeejlg. 8146.), 
from ) in. to 11 iu. long, and nearly |in. broad; covered with 
dry Bcales at the lower pnrt, and abortive leavea ; awelling . 
towarda theupper part,andconcavelyacuD ' 
and entirely withoiit resin. Leavea (se 
length; aheaths {in. long, white, chafiy, e 
(seej^. SlAO.)from 5in.to5|in. long, and Hin. to S}in. 
broad ; scale, accordii^ to Hr. Lambert*B plate (aee^. S149.), -^ /f 
trom IJin. toSin. inlengCh. Seed, without the wing, Jin. long; v: ''/ 1 1, 
with the wing, Itin. Cotyledons, accordin^ to Lawson, about ' ?if .// 
18. Native ofNepBl, andreqDiring protecCion in England. 

ive leavea ; sweiimg ,. . 
inate ; whitc, woolly, j 
M2\50.) Ift. m3 
id lacerated. Cone ^ 



branchea. The leaves are of a vivid 

Een, dispoaed in apifBl rowa round 
young wood; and they vary in 
length from 9 in. to 18 i». ; they 
are very alender, generaSy penduloua, 
and channeled so as to appear trian- 
gular in the aection. They are aer- 
rated on the margins, and imperfectly 
tcabroua throu^iout. Shcatha lesa 
than I in. in Tength, delicate, and 
lacerated at their margina. Hale cat- 
kins crowded round the base of the 
youne shaota, pointing upwards ; cy- 
lindncal, and about 1 in. in lenmi. 
Young cones globose, with stmks, 
and erect ; mature cones less tban 
ODB half Uie length of the leavea; 
obking.«vat(^ and dark brown i ouier 


CBAP. CZtll. 

nir&ce of the acales 

verj prominent, irrepi- 

l»rly fbur-Bided, uul 

recurred. 8eed oval- 

onte, MmewhM point- 

ed below, light-colour- 

ed, with a broad wiDg, 

alao l%ht-coloured, uid 

nearl; tbree tiniea the 

lengthoftheteed. P. 

loiigili&liB ie a natire of 

Nepal, on the mouii- 

taina ; and also of the 

lower and WBnner parta 

of India, where tho tree 

ia cultiTated on account 

of its beautifiil folUge 

and STaceful habit of 

growth, but wfaere it 

Derer attaiiu the nme 

magnitude a* ou the 

HiDialayan Mountains. 

It waa introduced into 

Britainin ieoi,ai]dfbr 

s loi^ tinie was treated 

aa « greeD-houae plant : 

H ia naw fboDd to ataod j 

tlie open air, but not 

whhout protecttoa dur- I 

ing winter. Ilie largeat l 

treein England b be- ( 

fiered to be that at 

Dropmorc^ of wbich ^. 

S15S. U a port-"'- 

a acale of I in. 

It waa, in 1S37, nearty (' 

18 ft. higfa; but it 1» * 

covered every winter witb a portableroof of fem, encloaed tn mata, and lup- 

ported by a wooden rrame tbe sides beuig cloaed tn with the Bome mnteriah, 
but witfa two doora oppo- 
Bite each otber, lo open 
on fine days, to promote 
ventilation Hr. LawBon 

niggest* that the tender- 

iieas which is apparent in 

indifidiiak of tliis 



FART 111. 

spedes may poesibly arise from the aeed from which tbey were raiied havii^ 
becD produced by trees growiog in the warm vaUejrs o£ Nepal; and that, 
** by procuring seed from trees at the hkhest elevation at which they are 
found to exist, piants might be nuBed su&ientlv hardy to stand the dimate 
of Britain." {Man,, Scc, p. 356.) Price of pumts, m Law«on*8 Nunery, 
25ff. each. 

$ viiL Gerardihnad. 
Sect, Char, Leaves rather shorty 8trai|^ty stiflT, with the sheaths caducous. 

1 23. P. QiE^MXDlA^^SA Wall. • Gerard'8, or tke 9hori4ea/oed Nepal, 

Uemtfflemlkm, LoiIil liiL, cd. £.,& lAwm't llMiiial.iiL8S6L iXodd. Cftt,ea. 183& 
Jy wo i yig. P. ycAtfl GoTan ; — fblaweded Pliw oftheBMtlndta} FChUgiiftwi Ji»ttM«giig^iio 

tbe autboritT of R^e Bhi$L, dw 92. 
Mngrawtmff, tmb, fin,, ed. S., S. L 79. ; Boyle lUiuL, t. 85. f. 9. : uidMttJlf,SlSa,^ttam BmO^ to 

oor UMial seale; aod flgt. 815L and S1S&, thecone Aram Lambett, aod tbe leaTca ftvm Bofl^ 

botb ortbe natural sise. 

i^c, Char,, S^c, Leaves in threes^ short ; sheaths deciduous. Cones ovate- 
oblong; scales thick, blunty and recurved at the apex. (Lamb, Pin.) 
Leaves, in Royle*8 figure, from 3|in. to 5in. in len^h; sheaths im- 
bricate, f in. in length. Cone 8 in. long, and nearly 5 in. broad. Seed 
lin. long, and fin. broad; cylindrical» pointed at both ends, and of a 
dark brown. 

Description, A kurge tree, conical in form, and eompact in habit ; rea- 
dily known from all other 3-leaved pines by the sneaths from wbicfa 
the leaves prooeed being scaly, and mlling off, like the sheaths of the 
division of pines baving five leaves. The appearance of the leaves, with 
the scalesy has been given by Dr. Royley fit>m which our fig, 2155 6. is oo- 
pied ; and the leaves may be seen without the sheaths, as they sppear 4Mk 
the branches when fiill grown, in^. 2155 a,, also from Royle. The cones^ 
which bear a general resemblance to those of P, longifolkt are from 8 in. 
to 10 in. in length, and from 5 in. to 6 in. in breadui, with thick, broad, 
wedge-shaped scales, not woody, like those of P, Sahintana, but rather 
corky. The apexes are elevated, and dilated lateraliy, forming a serai- 
circular line above^ and two convex segments, meeting in a blunt corky 
point, below, and tumed downwards, as in Jlg, 2154. The leaves are 
straight, of a glaucous green, with two channels above, and convex 
beneath; obsoletdv crenulated along the centre and margins. Noihiog 
js said respectins the timber of tlds tree; but the seeds are eaten by the 
inhabitants of the lower parts of India, in the southem countries. This 
apecies was discovered by Capt. P. Gerard, of the 
Bengal Native Infimtry ; and named in commemoration 
of him bv Dr. Walhcb. Cones have been sent to 
England, by Dr. Wallich and others, at different tiroes ; 
though they are often confounded with those of P, 
iongifolia. The plant named P. Gerarduma in the 
Horticultural Soaety's Garden has persistent sheaths, 
and long slender leaves,and is, doubtless, P, longifolia; 
and the same may be said of a number of plants at 
Messrs. Loddiges'8. A plant at Sir Oswald Mo8eIey's, 
said to be raised from seeds sent home by the Marquess 
of Hasdngs as those of P, Gerardiaita, is a 2-leaved 
pine ; and evidently, fix>m the specimen kindly sent to 
us by its proprietor, who is an exeUent botanist, and of 
the same opinion, nothing more than P, Pinea. A 
young plant at Dropmore, named there P, Nedta, may 
possibly be true. Mr. Lawson has received cones and 
seeds from the East Indies, and has plants of the true 
P, Gerardtema for sale at 35f . each. There are also plants 
of the trae P, Gerardtima in the Clapton Nursery, under iits synonyme of P- 


C. Conei hag, iUghth/ tubgrcled. 

j ix. Austrdles. 

Seet. Ciar, Letnes Bud coDca verv long j the luter Dearly w loi^ u Ule 

leBTea; icalei of the coae* ilighuy tubcrcled, nearty flat, with ytry Muall 

caduoMU piickles. 

1 84^ P. AUSTRA^is MMr. The Bouthern IMne. 

UemlHkaltp^ inchi.Arti.,1. plM; K. Ants. SiUS. p. Iffl. ^ N. DuHu.,& i>.Me.; Dkt. dM 
Eaui tt Fmta, t ^ SML I La«n>* HhuiiI, Il3U 


Jf M«M. r. pdaKrU WOd. Sp. Pl., 4. p. VB., tHU. Dld., I*., *». Btl. Km., 3. | 
Fl-imcr. atfl.,i.p.t^,LmS.ftm.,tA.i.,\.^t^^; f. mnT t ctn i priOiliU. *a 
p. »A.,Dm B*m. »ti..%. BlMi /. •nMni&rt., H* Bon JanL. cd. ISt;, p. no. 
lanclHnd Pina, •■Uoir Fina, Pitth Plna. iDd Braoai Plni, In Ihe •ouUicni Ml 
FlM ■») nd Ftnc in U» BonlHrn MllUa ; ud jriln Pinn nDd Pltcll PtBC ID Ite 


XM-uAtn Hlchi. ATtl, 

rtM^.i «I - -- 


lat iDdlM, br ttic Unil) 
., 1, iTrV. An..r. fr 

11, GnnlsPit 
.1, ; Abb. Inl., 1.1.«.: uniii.nn..Ki 

oaiiDd ji(i.g]M,uiii%,<iriiK uti 

^c. CAor., Sfi:. Leavea id threei, rery long. Hale catkini long, cylindck»!, 
of a tawDy blue, dirergent. Conea very loiv, tesiellated with tumid tuber- 
cles, terminated by very loiall 0111(708. (3fict<.) Buds, in tbe Dtc^hikm^ 
spednien (aee^. 21Ji6.), rather stnall in proportion U> the tennination of the 
•Doot, and buried iii leaves. When the ieave* are removed, the bud ib found 

be from | ti 
end froni .f^ i 

, long, 



broad, «iih niinierouB, tar- ^ 

prcnecting, white, Wnged n -•-,,. 

■cHle*; general fbrm conical, A ■ i|| 

and whoUy without remn. U- '^ 

Leaves^seej^. S15e.)from \X 

ein. to 9in. in length ; - 
/■h^th from l}iD. to 3in. 
' long, white,niembraniu;eou>, 

snd lacerated. The cones, 
ii^ in Hichaui's figure, 6 in. 

long, and l^ in. broad io the wideat put. Scale 
(f^. 3157.) iTDin \\\a. to 1} in. long, and 
l{.ui. broftd. Seeds oval, from |in. to ^in. 
in length, A-in. broad; whitish,with thewinE S^in. in lei^tb, and .^in. m 
breadui, and, u well as the cone, of a rich cnertnut, brown; in LMnben'B 
figure, the scales aod seeds ue much Bmaller. CotyledoDB,P 

I P. a. 8 exeiUa, P. palustris esc£lBa Soolh, was raiaed in the Floetbeck 
Nurseries, in 1830, from aeeds procured from the por^weat cout 
of North America. The planl, in 1837, was 4ft. bigh, witb leBvet 
!iB long Bs thoBe of P. austrilia ; and was quite hara;, eren in tliat 
climBte. PoBsibly a distinct species. 
Detcription, A trce, accordiug to HicbBux, Irom 60 A. to 70 fL hieb, and 
with B trunk ironi I ft. 3 in. to 1 tt. 6 in. diRmetcr for two thirds of itB neight. 
8ome Bpeciniens, in favourable situBtions, attain much larger dimensions, 
particularly in East Florida. The bark is BOmewhBt fiurowed, and the 
epiJermis detaches itself in thin tnnspBrent sheets. The leaves are about 
Ifl. iong, of abeautiful brilliant green, collected in bunches at the extranities 
of the brBnches : they are longer and more numerous on young trees. The 
buds are Bsid b^ MicnBux to be very [arge, white, fringed, and not resinoiu. 
The male catkins are produced in masaes ; they are violet-coloured, and 
about Sin. long; in drying, they shed great quancities of yellowish pollen, 
which is diSiised by the wind, and forma a momentary covering on tbe ad- 
jacent laiid and water. The cones are laige, being 7 In. or 8 in. long, aud 4in. 
tbick when open ; and they are Brmed with very smtll retorted pridcles. Tbe 
tree flowers in April, and the cones ripen about October in the second year, 
end ahed their Beeds the same month. The kemel is of an agreeabte taBte, and 
ia contained in a tbin whitiah shell, inatead of bdng black, aa ia the case with 
every other species of American pine, and it is surmounted by a wtng, which is 
otten more than ! in. in length. The seeds, in some years, are very abundant ; 
but,inothers,B foreat of 100 miles inextent mavberuisacked wiuiout finding 
asingle cone ; whicb was probablythe occasion, Michaux observes, of the itate- 
ment made by the Prench, who, in 1567, sttempted to eSect a settlement in 
Florida; viz. " that the woods were filled with superb pines, that neveryielded 
seed." The timber is said to contain but little sap wood. Trunks I It. 3 in. 


in diaiDeter, often 

hanng 10 ia. of per- 

iiect wood. Tbe 

coDcentric drdef, 

iD a trunk fiilly de- 

veloped, we close, 

aad Bt equal din- 

toncea ; and the re- 


ia nbundant, ia more 

unirormlf dittri- 

buted thin in the 

otber speci«8. Hence 

thc wood ia strong- 

er, more compacl, 

and more durable ; 

it ii, bendea, Bne- 

graiDed, and aua- 

c^>tible of a higb 

poliab. TbcK ad- 

raatagee give it a 

prefcrence, a« « 

dn^r tree, o*er 

erery other Amen- 

eao pine; but ita 

quality is modified 

by the nature of the 

soil in which it 

growa. In the acigh- 

bourbood of thc aea, 

vhere onl; a thin 

tajer of mould re- 

poaet on the aand, 

it ia more rewnous 

than wbere the 

mould ia 4 in. or 5 in. 

tbick; aod thetreea 

which grow upon 

the firiit-mentioned 

«oil are called pitch 

pines, Bi iftbef were 

diaunct apecie*. In 

certain soili. ita 

wood contracts a 

reddish hue ; and it 

■t, for that reaaon, 

fcnown in the dock- 

jarda of the norlhem 

atatea b; the name of the red pine. Wood of thia tint L 

beit ; snd, in the opinion of aome ahipwrighta, it is more durable on the ridea 

ofveasels,andleuIiBble toinjury from wormB, than thc oak. In thectinUe 

of London, P. auRrMia is raUier tender. The largeEt plant that we know 

of ia at Pamham Caatle, which, in 1834, after being 35 yeara planted, waa 

SOft. hJgh. There ia one Bt Dropmorc, of which j^.S160. ia a portrait, to 

the «ctJe of 1 in. to 8 ft. Tbis tree was planted wbere it now atanda, in 

September, 1824, when only i'w. high; and it is now (September, 1837) 

16 h. bigb, without having, duriog thnt period, received the sligbteet pro- 

tection. H. Vilmorin atates, in thc Bon JardimeT for 1B3T, that, in the 

ndghbourhood of Faria, thia pine ia generally grown in boxea, and taken into 



tbe conMfTatorKs during wii)' 
ur. He had seen ooe 16 ft. 
high, without a lin^e lateral 
bfwch ; but, notwithatMiding 
tfaia, it> trunk threw out nume- 
roiu ^oota or tufta of icaves, 
from adventitioui or dormaat 
buda. Soine pkuits havtn| «ood 
out durinK the scvere winter of 
1689-30, H.Vilinorin b in bopea 
that it loaf be acdimatited in 
the ncighbourhood ot Paria. 

Gfograply and Hittory. A 
natiTB of the United Statea, 
from North Carolina to Plorida, 
abounding in extensive foreata 
neartheseacoost. "Towardstbe 
north, tfae longJeaTed pine Grat 
makes its appeanmce near Nor- 
folk in Virginia, wfaere tfae pine 
barrens begui. It seema to be 

e^^ecially aasigned to drj Eandy jt-ki. 

linas. Georgia, and the Floridaa, over h tract of more than 600 miles long 
from narth.ea(t to south-west, and more tfaan 100 miles broad froin the le* 
towards tbe mountains of tfae Caralinaa and Georgia. Where i 
■how itaelf towsrds the river Nuse, it is united with tfae 
lobloll:^ pine (Plnus T^Ma), the yellow pine {P. mltia), tfae 
pondpine (P. serdtina), the black Jaek oak (Qu£rcus nigra), 
and tiie icrub oak (Q. Bonnfsteri) : but, immediately beyond 
Raleigfa, it faolds almost eiclusiTe posaession of the soil, and 
is secn in compony with the pinea just mentioned, onlv on 
tfae edgea of tbe swamps enclosed in the barrena ; even tnere, 
not more than one tree in a hundred is of another spedes, 
With tfaii eiception, the long-Ieaved pine fbrms the unbroken 
maas of woods wfaich coverg tfais extensive country ; but, be- 
tween Fayetteville and Wijmington, in Nortfa Corolina, the . 
■cnib oak is fbund, in some districts, mixed with it in the ^ 
barrens; and, eicept this species of pine, it is tfae only tree I 
cwiable of subusting on eo dry and stcrile a soil," {Mickx.) 
Wangenhdm, according to Lambert, says that dry land doei 
not suit tfais ^ine, but only low marBhy spots ; whence 8o- 
lander^s speoGc name of polustris; which, Michaux very 
properly observes, ^ves a false idca of Ihe habitat of the 
plant. P. australb faas been cultivated in Engl&nd rince 1730 ; 
but bdng (as we faave already observed) r^er tender, thou^ it will stand 
the climate of London in the open air without protection, it is not common 
in collections. M, Michauz recommends it for tfae soutfa of Fiance, aod 
particularly for the neighbourhood of Bordeaui, in boiIs and situations wfacre 
the pinaater flourishes, 
Pt ■■'-'-■ - -* "- 

fiftbs of the faoiues are built of it, ezc^t the roof, which ia covered witb 
■hinries of cypress ; though someiimes tbe shingles also are made of pine, in 
whicn case tfaey require to be renewed after Id or 16 years, owing to the 
wuinth and humiditj of the climate. It is generally used for che encloiure 
of cultivated Gelds; and, in tfae aoutbem Btates,it ia preferred before all other 
pines in nava] arcfaitecture. Ito other specics is eiported froro tfae southati 
■lates to the Weat Indies; and it is alwi aent in large quantities to LJTer- 


pool; where, according to Michaux. it ia caJIed the Oeorgia pitch pine, and is 
sold at 25 per cent ot 30 per cent nigher than any othcr pine import^ from 
the Unltecf States. The young treea, which have larger and more numeroiu 
leaves than the old ones, are sometimes cut bj the n^roes for brooms ; and 
hence the name of broom pine. P. aufitralis supplies nearly all the resinous 
matter used in the United States iu ship-buildin^. Formerly, tar was made ia 
all the lower parts of the Caroiinas and Georgia; but at present thjs manu- 
&cture is confined to the lower districts of North Carolina. The resinouf 
products of this jpine are, turpentine, scrapings, spirit of turp^tine, resin» tar^ 
«nd pitch. Of these, turpentme is the raw sap or the tree obtained by making 
incisions in the trunk. it begins to distil about the middle of March, when 
the circulation commences, and it flows with increasing abundance as the 
weather becomes warmer ; so that July and August are the most productive 
oionths. The sap is collected in what are in America termed boxes : these 
are incisions, notches, or cavities, cut in the tree^ about 3 in. or 4 in. from 
the ground, eenerally of a sufficient size to hold about three pints of sap, but 
proportionea to the size of the tree ; the rule being that the cavity shul not 
exceed one fourth of the diameter of the tree. These cavities are made in 
January or February, commencing with the south side, which is thoueht the 
best, and going round the tree. The next operation is the raking or dearing 
the ground firom leaves and herbage. About the middle of March, a notcn 
is made in the tree, with two oblique gutters, to conduct the sap that flows 
firom the wood into the box, or cavity, below. In about a fortnight, the box 
becomes full, and a wooden shovel is used to transfer its contents to a paUy 
by means of which it is conveyed to a large cask placed at a convenient di»- 
tance. The edges of the wound are chipped evorv week, and the boxes, 
a(ter the first, generally fill in about three weeks. The sap thus procured is 
used as turpentine, without any preparation, and is called pure dripping. 
The scrapinffs are the crusts of resm that are formed on the sides of the 
wounds; and these are often mixed with the turpentine, which, in this state, 
is used in the manufiuture of vellow soap, and is called Boston turpentine. 
Long-continued rains check the flow ofthe sap, and even cause the wounds 
to dose ; and, for this reason, very little turpendne is procured in cold damp 
seasons. In five or six years, the tree is abandonea; and the bark never 
becomes suffidently healed to allow of the same plaoe being wounded twice. 

Spirits of turpentine are made principally in North Carolina; and are 
obtained by distuling the turpentine in large copper retorts. Six barrds of 
turpentine are said to afford one cask, or 122 quarts, of the spirit. The 
residuum, after the diotillation, is resin, which is soid at one third of the price 
of the turpentine. 

AIl the tar of the southem states is made from the dead wood of P. 
australis, consisting of trees prostrated by time, or by the fires annually 
kindled in the forests ; of tbe summits of those that are felled for timber ; 
and of limbs broken off by the ice that sometimes overloads the trees. 
(See p. 2137.) It has been already observed (p. 2108.), that, as soon as 
vegetation ceases in any part of a pine tree, its consistence changes : the 
sap wood decays, and the beart wood becomes surchaiged with resinous iuice, 
to such a d^gree as to double its weight in a year; ana that this accumulation 
increases for several years. Dead wood is thus productive of tar for several 
years after it has fallen firom the tree. 

To procure the tar, a kiln is formed in a part of the forest aboundmjz in 
dead wood : this is first coUeeted, stripped of the sap wood, and cut into biUets 
2 ft. or 3ft. long, and about 3in. thick ; a task which is rendered tedious and 
difficttk by the numerous knots with which tbe wood abounds. The next 
step 18 to prepare a place for pilin^ the billets ; and for this purpose a cir- 
cnlar mound is ndsed, slightly dechninjs; fi*om the circumference to the centre, 
and surrounded bv a shaliow ditch. 'Ae diameter of the pile is propordoned 
to the auantity of wood which it is to recdve : to obtain 100 barrels of tar, 
it shotild be 18 ft. or 20 ft. wide. In the middle is a hole, with a conduit 

7 G 3 



IhiK to the (Ktch ; in which ia roniied t, receptkcle for the t 
. Upon the surface of the mound, after ' " ' ' ' 

_^_ _ - . t haa been be»teo h»rd, and 

coBted with clay, the «ood is laid round in a circle, like rays. The pile, 
when finished, maj be compared to a cone truncated at two thirds of its 
hdfiht, and rereraed; beingSOfl. in diameter below, SSft. or 30 ft. abo*e, 
and 10 ft. or 18 ft, high. It it then etrewed over with pine leavea, covered 
with ea>th, and held together tt the sideB with a slight cincture of wood. 
This eovering is necessory, in order that the fire kindled at the top maj 
peiwtrate downwards towarda the bottom, wtth a slow snd gradual com- 
buition; fbr, if the wbole mus were rapidlj inflamed, the operation would 
ftjl, and the tar would be coogumed inetaid of being distilled : in Gne, the 
■ame precautione are exacted in this process ai are obierved in Europe in 
making charcoal. A kiln, which ia to afibrd 100 or 130 barrelK of tar, b 
eigfat or nine daja in buming. A» the tar liowa off tnto the ditch, it is 
emptied into caaka containing 30 gallona eacb, which are atwajs made of 
pine wood. I^tch ia tar reduced bj evaporation : it ahould not be diminished 
more tfaan half ita bulk to beof good qualitj. (Mk^.} 

AccidmU, Duema, ^c. Foreats of the long-leaved pine are psrticularly 
liable lo be consumed bv fire, on account of the abundance of resin wbich 
the treea conteia, and the great length of their leavea, which easilj take fire, 
and apread it rapidlj. Immense swanns of Bmall insecta, Michaux obeervei, 
insinuate themselves under the bark of thia pine, penetrate into ihe bodj of 
the tree, and cnuse it to penBh in the course of a jear. Tbia tias becn 
noticed atao bj Dwight, in hia TVaveh m New Ensland; ond it appeara that 
this insect ia not peculiar to the long-leaved pine, for extensive trncta, accord- 
ing both to Michaux and Dwight, are seen, both in the northem and southem 
atates, covered solelj with Jead pines. In Abbott and Smith'B IntccU e^ 
Georgie, L t. 48., is the ligure of a moth which attacks ifaiB pine (Sphfni' coni- 
feriruin), of which ourj{g. 8161. isacopj. "Thelarra was taken feediagon 

the long<1ea*ed pine in August, on the S7tb of which month it went ioto the 
ground. Another buried itselfso late aa the lOth of November. Tfae moth 
was produced on April 8. It is not verj common ; but maj be fouud occaMon- 
allj, tfaroughout the summer, in Oeorgia, sittin^ on the trunks of pini 

feeda bIbo on the cypresa, and is found tn V- •" tu:. ;~ .. j 

From the Eutopean S. Hnaster." (Sm. and A 

iLaaila. In the nti(>ibauih<wil of LoDdon, m( MuisfU Hin, 10 yc^n plinlcd, it It 8 R 
ID DiTciniliire, •tLuKaBl», lOinnplinlal, UliUn, hlih. In SuTrfT. u FimhimCu iison. ht(h i >t Oikliim Puk. 9 y«u> plKnled, II ii sh. hl^. In Ch«l 

coni'fer£. pihus. 


Catiniiervial Statulki. Planta, in the London nurseries, s 

Bollwyller, 5 francS. 

$ X. CanariSnses. 

Sect. Char. Leavea long, slender. Cone« shorter than tbe leavea, more or 
lesa tubercled ; the tubercles tenninating in biunt pdnts, witliout spinei ar 

1 S5. P. 

II C. Smlh. 


'• Hanuil, p. SJ7. 1 Bmiui., 1837, p.9 
BmCt ucordiM id SpreaKL 

Spte. Char., S/c. Leavea in threes, very long and «preading, rough. Crest 
of the antfaerB round,' endre. Cones obloug, tuberculate. (Lant£. Pin.y 
Buds, in the Dropmore specimeu (seejSf. 2168.), from -ftia. lo ^ in, long, 
and firom A- in. to ^in. broad; dry andscaly, white, sndwithout 
reain. LeaTes (eee^. SI64.) Iroro 7in. to 7iin. long, and ' 
slender; sheaths froiu i in. to fiu. long, whitish, uiembraneous, . 
tom at the morgin, and Drownish et the Iwse. Cone, in Letnbert^s 
figure, 5} in. long, and SJin. broad ; scale 8 in. long and l^tn. 
bnMid, tenninating in an irregular pyrsmidal process, at the apex 
of whichis a bluntpoint, like that ot .P. i^in&ster. Scales (seefig, 
2163.)2in. loug, and l^ in. broad. Seeds } in. long, and JVin. 
broad ; flat, pointed at both extremitiea, with the wing 1} in. long, 
and J^ in. broad at tbe widest part : colotir a whitish brown. Co- 
tyledons,? The tree throws out abnndance of shoots and tufts 
of leaTesfrom the dortnimt buds in the trunk and larger brancbes ; um 
more eapecially at places where any branches have been cut off. 
HracriptKHi. A tree, from 60 (i. to 70 ft. faigh. Brancfalets squarrose, with 

at^nilar, erowded, lanceolate, acuminate, threadlike, and ciliated, ^volute 

•calea; callous and rigid at the baae. Leaves in threes, recurved and spread- 

ing, generally pendulous, very long, slender, wavy, a little (ortuous, codi- 

preased ; calloua and mucronate at the apez, bicauoliculate above, lerrulated 

oD the margins and on the intermediale elevated angle, scabrous, > 

beaeatfa, very smooth, shining, marked witfa dotted 

panlld lincs ; grass green ; 7 in. to I ft. in length ; 

dMMha cylindrical, loose at the apei, tom, \ in. long. 

Male catkins many, clustered, vertidllate, cylindricai, 

obtiiae, I io. long. Creat of the anthers rouiidish, 

membraiMceoiis, entire. Cones ovate-oblong, liiber- I 

cled, 4in.t« 6in. long, Stn. in diameter at the base; 

•calea Ibii^, woody, dilated at the apex, depressed- 1 

qoBdrai^ular, truncate. Seeds oblong, dark brown ; 

wing iDembmnaceous, atriated, obliquely truncated, 

brownidL (LawA.') This species, P. longifolin, and 

F. lao(rii<'llB bear a close seneral resemblance, and 

are all rttber tender ; but, when the leaves and buda 

■re exaanioed closdy, their apeci&c difference becomes 

obnouB. Lambert states ^at thia species diSers 

from P, longifolia chiefly in the much more depressed 

and straight-pornted tnbercles of its cones; thosc 

of P. longiRlia bdng hooked. The largest sped- 

men of this pine that we know of is at Dropmore, of whichj^. 8166. ii 

• portrait, and wbere, after having been 14 yeara planted, it waa, ; ' 

■"" ■ ' ' '■ ■ - ■ ' ' -^ — ■- -n thes " ■ 

17 fL b^. It is protccted during wi 

le eame msnner as P. longifSlia, 


Cbriuiana, at TeneriK:, attained tlie hei^ht of I5ft. without anj protectkNi, 
and remwned uniDJured till the severe Bpnng of 1830, when the top waa con- 
pletel.T destroyed. In thc eurly part of tbe iniminer of that year, bowierer, 
tbe tnink threw out iwo or tiiree shooo, a few inche« abore tbe coUar, aml, 
tbe dead part abore it being cut o^ these shoots have grown Tigorouiily erer 
unce; and one of theni, hftving taken the lekd, promitea lo suike a haod- 
■ome plont. A tree of the same age in Dr. Percival's gardoi «t Annfidd, 
near Dublin, met with a Hinilar&te U the same time; but baa aow baoome 
a« handsome splant as itwaa befbre theaccident — J. T, M, AngMt, 1837." 
Geograp/iy, Hiiloty, ^c. P. canari^ii ia a native of tbe ialanda ot 
Tenerile and Grand Canary; where it fotmB extensive foresti, bom the 
■ea shore to an altilude on the mountains of 6700 ft.; tbough it is most 
abundant between 4080 ft. and £900 ft. above the level of the sea, which ma^ be 
conadered os the pine re^on of these tslands. Tbia pine haa been loog notieed 
b; tTBvellerB who viuted Teneriffe; but it waa contounded witb P. maritiina, 
P. Tte^da, and even Liiix. eurap»^ till the name oftbe speaes wti setdBd 
by Profeiior Smith of Chriatiana. In its gener»! appearance, Bdetsra. Webb 
and Bertboltet observe, P. canari^us resembles the European apecies; aod 
tbe firat view of a pine forest in the Canarieit ia very similar to that of a 
pine forest on the Alps. Under tbese gigantic trees, the loil ia dry and 
poor i aod very few planta grow beneath their shade. The pines ^w on the 
inargiiu of the valleys, and oa tbe ateep slopes and ru^etl precipices «hich 
form the iddes of the mountains, but not on their aummits. (^Hitt. Sat. de 



Het Cmariei, Geog. Bot., p. 
Sl.) The fofcau of pino, 
in OraBd Cmar^ Uand, 
extend fraiu OratoTa, nnr 
DcMna Bto, SI96 ft. abore the 
lerri of the ■<>, to Portillo de 
la ViUa,Bt au altitude of near- 
IjSOOOft TheTolcffiicaa- 
tttte of the loil, the brokea 
rodta, erideBtl]' tom BMin- 
der by «ome tremeadoua cod- 
TUlsioil of imture, tbe ter- 
riSc precipicet, the yawning 

of lava, which are found in 

(USerent directiouB through 

thia region, convey a most 


u)d treea of P. canari£nu<^ 

wfaich Bppear in lonie CBses 

taenij spreading thdr roots 

oTcr the looae rocks, btc the 

only aigna of Ufe or ve^eiR- 

tion that can be perceiTcd. 

ITie island is expo«ed to feai ,^ ^ 

called Ihere tbe wind of AFrica, which teara up the pines by the ro 

the Voyage aia Ilei Cmariei, by Father Feuill^, made in 172*. it ia Btated 

that tbe mountaiD wui tben entirely cOTcred with pines i and one tree fa parti- 

cularly mentioned, which was called the Kno de la Caravela. Thw pme, 

which had been previously seen Bnd desLTJbed by J. EUens {PiiL Tratu. Soe. 

Rty. Lond.. 1714-16), received its name from ihe citenr ' =" ' '"- 

whicb, at a diatance, gave it the appearaiice of a ship. 
inentionH another remarkable tree, Pino de la Mcri- 
endBjwhich ii still standing, though most oftheother 
pine tree» deacribed by ihese travellers have diSB[i- 
peared. " The I^o de ia CBTBTela no longer exisl , 
but it has bequeathed its oame to the rocii whicli 
lerTed as its tMue. The Pin du Domajito hst shared 
thesame&te: the atorm of 1886 havins torn it u|) 
bj the roote. Tbe trunk of this tree, which was co- 
vered with a apecies of U'mea, had acquired bii 
enormoua thickneaa, and was seen from eTcry part ol 
the TBlley. Viera, in his Noticiai, mentions anothcr < 
enoriDOUs pine which grew in tfae CBnBriea, in thi 
districtofteror, atan altitudeofabout I600a Thc 
trunk of this tree WBS nearly 30tt. French (32 ft 6 lr 
Ei^lish) in circuniference at the base ; closeiy united to 
it wBB the chapel of NcUstra Senora del Kno, and one 
of its arms servcd as a buttresa to support the beltry , 

bnt repeated earthquakes in dme destroyed tbuj 

siogular chapel and, on April the 3d, 1684, the ^no tanto fell, and cruijhcd 
tbe cbapel, of which it faad so long formed pert. Viera adds that the 
reaaon of the chapel being placed so near this tree was, that, in 1483, an 
estraordiDary light was perceived to hover round, or rather iasue from, tbe 
pine. Don Juan de Frius, who waa both b bisbop and a wBrrior, alonc 
Tcntured to ascend the tree, and there found, reposiny in a sort of cradle 
formed by tbe interlacemcnt of the hranches, and lined witb the softest 
and purest nkous, an imaae of tbe Holy Virgin, in honour of whom the chapel 
was afterwords built. . Tne firuit of this holy treu is said to havc bcen usefiil 



in raedicme; mDd b ininctilou* ■pring ia suppOMd to bave flowed &om tu 
root, which cvred «11 diBcaBes, tiJl ut aTariaoua prieat put it under lock and 
key, not allowing any one to tMte the water, udIcm they fint gare vnple 
almi, when, aa a punishment for his cupiditj, the ■tcemm dried up. (/«•■ 
p. iis.) The hlc of Pnlma bas afso tipaia tanla wliidi growsabout 2787 fL 
aboTe the levet of the sea. Tbis tree, which tE &aid to have becn in exiMeoee 
■t IhetiiDeof thecoaquest ofthe Canarie» (1463), ifaows no dgn* ofa^ A 
hdrU statue of the Virgin i« placed among its branches, beiide which is sn»- 
poided akindof lamp; ond erery evening the woodcuttwsof the forest light 
this lamp, whicb is seen to a great distance ^limmering through the tree«. 
(/M., p. 154.) The timber of P. canari^nsu it said to be verj resinoui, 
not lisble to Im attacked by insecis, and, in bvourable situatioQH, to endure 
for ceaturiet. The inhebitaDts of the Csnaries use the wood for torches. The 
specie* may be prop^ated fay making cuttingH of tfae young shoots which 
[Mvceedfram ihedormant buds (see i)e<cnpCK>ii above, and p.S188.),or by 
graftiiv on P. sylv^triB or P. PtD6ster. 

1 86. P. siitB'NstB Lami. Tbe Chinese Pme, 

■ '■»- . 

19. ( UXl oaijlg. »18§.. tO OUT BUl «sW. I!™ ■vMteHBBra 

i •"^^- viL'^itiTo!^"!^ 

«nl tlw tnidfVDu' 

Spfc. Char., ^e. Leavet in threes, tometifflet in twos, very tlender. Hale 

catkins sfaort. Cone* ovate ; scales truncate at the apex, witb- 

out any point, {Lamh., snd obs.) A large tree. Brancfae* 

tubercled. LeaTes aauarrose, with stipular acales; twin, or in 

tfarees,slender, spreading, semicylindrical, mucronBled,semilated; 

grass green, 5 in. long: sheatns cylindricaJ, | in. long. Hale 

I cstkins nunierotis, eoroewhat verticillate, 4 in. long. Cones witfa 

very shm footijtalks, ovate, browniah, S in. long ; Ecales tfaick, 

[ woody, tetragonal at the ^iex, Sattened, truncate, mutic. (Lami.) 

' Buds, in the Redleaf Epecimen (see Jig. 2167.), from .^ in. to 

.ff in. in length, and about the same breadth ; bluntly pointed, 

with nuBierouB fine scales, of a brownish colour, and wholly 

ma witbout resiD. Lesvesirom 5in. to 5| loigthi three-sided. 

■lender, ttiwght, and about thc 

•ame colour as thote of P. P\- 

n«s; thealhsfrom { in. to }iD. 

long; bronniBh, tlightly membranaceous, and rigid. A naUve of China- 
There is a tree at Redleaf, raited by Williatn WellB, Esq., from seeds 

CHAP, CXHl. COMl'PE[t£. Pl^HUS. 2265 

TMOTed from China in I8S9, which is now 16 ft. bigh, toleraUj faardf, 
Bnd m yery handioine plant. Mr.LBmbert^sfigureistikkenfrom ft Chinese 
dmwing in the poBBeuion of the HordculturBf Society, which maj be the 
resBon why in hiB Epecilic character he hsB deecfibed the ieaves aa two 
in B sheath : in Mr. WelU'B plant, the number in a aheath is fbr the 
moirt part three. 

J 87. P. iN9i'ai4is Doug. The remaricable Pine. 

* ^ i w*m* OurjU !17t tDourunimJ K.le. u>d/(. «171. of iht imu,.l"S, tntfa (Rm Dmflu^ 
Vcliam ]n tbt HDTtlniltunl 3ocl«tr'i bntutijmi ^x^jV- (ITO.j ftoin thv aide ■hoot or ■ roMnf 
tno is tbo HonlEultun] SocMr'! Gudon. ^ 

^t€c. Char., ^e. Leavea three, and occasionallj rour, in a aheath; I 
much twiited, VEUTing greatly in length, longer than the conea, ■ 
of a deep graBe green, and very nuinerouB. Cones ovate, pointed, ■ 
with the scales tubercuiate. Buds (aeejfg. £170.), of the stde BhootE ■ 
of joung planta, from ^^ in. long, and from \ in. to \ in. broad, ff 
Ikvwii, and apparently witbout reeui ; on the leadine shootB a ^''0 
great deallarger, and resem- 
bling in Form.and almost in 
size, those of P. Sabtnt- 
nrui. Letivea, in Douglas's 
Bpecimen,from3in. tol^in. 
long; on the plant in the 

Horticultural Societ/sGar- 
den, froro 5 in. to 7 in. long. 
This pine ii well named 
inslgnia; its general ap- 
peaTHnce being indeed re- 
marhable, and totallv differ- 
ent ironi that ofevery otfaer species that has yet been introduced. The 
leavesanof *de«pgruBgreen, thickly set on the branchea, twisted inevery 
direction, and of dinefent lengths. The plant seema of vigorous growth, 
■nd as hardy as aay of the Cahfomian pines. It was sent home by 
Douglasin 1833; and the plants in the Horticu'tural Society'a Garden, 


and in the Duke «f DeTonBbire'3 villa at Cbigwicli, are IVoiii 3 ft. ta ift. 
ia hdght. It is needlets to say thal such a piiie ought to be io efery 
coUection. PUnti, io the Loodon DurBeties. are 6L each. 

S 2S. P. Tsoco^Ts Schiede et Dcppe. The Teocote. or iwiilcd-Uaced, Pine. 

iSi^lv- Lmb- Ptn.. «t tTL l.n.t™ •vaatn Gr.Ubtd b). MM. fchlBlt «J PyPff ■'■* 
plul ■! BsT'<n- 

^pnr. CAar., ^c. Leares in threea, com- 

pre8sed, fleiuose, scabroua ; sheatbi 

about I in. long. Cones ovate, 

smoothisn. {I^i3>. Pm.) A uatiTe 

of Hount Orizabo, near Vera Cruz, 

in Meiico. Introduced by A. B. Lam- 

bert, Esq., in 1826, or before. 

Detcription. Branchlets very lcafy, witb 
s peraislent epidennis. Buds iinbricated 

in tbrees, erect, 
rigid, coDipresied, 

li^t green, bica- 

naliculaLe alxiTe, 

nlightly convei be- 

iieath, vra^ysiDootb; 

the intermediate 

!,lightly prominent 

angle, and tbe mar- 

gins, crenulated, 

Bcabraua ; sheaths 

cylindricBl, abaut 
^ , pcrtiistent, torn on the 
mar^. Cones ovate-oblong, droopin^, 
smoothish, Ecarcdy 3in. long; scalett di- 
lated Bt the opei, aomewhat trapezoidal, 
inuchdepressed; in thejoungcones always 
mutic. (ijiiwJ.) Thia ii e very rore species ; 
there bdng no planls of it either at Drop- 
inore or in the Horticultural 8ociety*8 
Oarden. Indeed,so &r as we areaware, 
it exists in no other collectioninBritain, 
than that of Mr. Lambert at Boyton. 

i Schiede ei Deppe MSS. The Bpreading-/«nwJ Pine, 

I 89. P. P 

Iilfiumcttiom. Lamb. Pin, ti. 1., L 19. 
EHtrnf^i. Limb. piii.,«Lg., i.t.19. iindjfc'. «ITS. »nil «78., ftWB Mt. UiBtieirit flgmt 
S^c.C&ar,, ^. Leaves in threes, very slender, S-channeled, spresding; 
sbeath* abo.ut 1 in. long. Coaes ovate-obtung, polished. (Lamb. Pin.) 
A native of Mexico, at Malpayo de la Joya, in the cold regioo, where 
it was discovered by MM. Schiede and Deppe, and introduced into 
Elnglaiid by Mr. Lambert. 

Deicription. Braochlets covered with a smooth, ash-lead-coloured, and 
peraistent epidcrmis. Scales of the bud lanceolate, acuminate, carinate, 
ripd, thread-Ulte, and dliate. Leaves in threes, slcnder, rccurred and 
Bpreading; soii, light green; deepiy bicenaliculate above, convei beneath . 



com'pf.r«- PI NUS. 

mftrked wilb many dotted linei; 
6 in. to 9 in. kiDg ; the intermedinte 
aomewhat prominent angle, and 
the margins, sharply serrated, 
■cabrous ; aheaths cyUndrical, I in. 
to l|in. long; apex and margin 
of tne Hcales tfaread-like and cili- 
ated. Coi)esoTate-ob1ong,sniooih, 
about 4 in, long ; acalea dilated at 
the apex, niuch depressed, flattish, 
' ' trapezoidal; in the 

dantly diKrent froni erery otber 
KpedeB of the genus. He has h 
plant Bt Boyton, which, in 1837, 

§ xi. Uavekase. 
Sctt. CW. Sheachs of the leavet caducoiu. Cones slightly tuberdtMl, 
without pricklea. 

t 30. P. L\.kvka'na Otto. La Llave^B IMne. 

Suwkn Oaijf. IISOl and 1181., i 

Spec. Char,, ^c. LeaTeB short, narrow, triquetroua, slightlv twitted, in 
tbicklj Bet luHs on the branchea, ofa sIbucoub green. BrBnches in regular 
wborU, smooth, of an ash grej', dechning towards the atem. 

exceeifinsly sniall, in form, and iu every^ other respect, like those of 
P. haleplnaia; the buds are scarcely lin. long, and froni ^in. to 
^ b. broad; roundiBh, with two or Uiree smaller buds. (See ^. 
S177.) Leaves generally in threes, often in twos, and sometimeB 
in foura, raryin^ ftom IJin. to SJin. in length ; flat on the upper 
suiface, and cybndrical, with a rib below; aheaths short, anJ ca- 
ducous. Cones conicol, pointed, SJin. long, and l^in. broad (see 
^.2179); BCHle^in. long, and {in.broad} slightly tubercled, und 
without prickles. Seed.r A very handsome epecies, a native of atn 
Heiico. Tbe plant in the Horticultural 8ociety'B Oardeu was receivcd &Din 
M. Otto of Berlin, about 1830 ; and, in 1837, waa about 4 ft. 6 in. high. It 
seema quite hardy, and likely to form one of the niost elegant species of the 



gentu. On spplicatian to H. Otto (from whoin the pUot in the Horticnl- 
tuTBl Soaety'a Oarden wm received) for lunher infomiation, he could pre 
UB none respecting ita geoeraph; or historj, further thaii tbat behaJ receiTed 
(heGoaea(froni one of which, very kindiv tent by him to ub, our^. 8179. b 

taken) from Hexico, about 1887. P. llaveano \t, at preaent, one o( tbe 
inoit rareipeciea io England, though it might doubtleaa be jiropagated by 
cuttinga, or herbaceouv grahiog on P. halep^nua, which it moit Qearly 

App. i. Speciei qf S-ieaved Pinet vAich cannot with certaintj/ be 
referred to any of the preceding Secttons, but of which there are 
Uving Plants in England. 

t 31. P, cai.ifornia'na Loit. The Califomian I^ne. 

« Bomc, M quotcd In Jba J*r4., f. naiUiin- 
iid>HoiiURT.A»Jar<t, nt. 1BI7. 

. «taiti (MOVni i>. id 

Uw Honicultunl SodMy-t awia; 

!<^pec. Char., ^c. Leaves in twoi and three«. Conea much loneer thao tbe 
lesves. {Lott.) The followins deacription of tbis species, wntten bj Pro- 
fessor Thouin, intBken fromUie Noveeau Du Hamel: — "Tbis tree grows 
in the neighbourhood of Monte-Rey, in Califomia. One of its conea, 

Sithered by Colladon, tbe gerdeuer belonring Co the eipedition of La 
eyrouse, wu sent to the Huseum of Natuial History in Paris in 
1787. The coue was in the forro of that of P. PiniiCer, but one tlurd 
laiger in atl its parta. Under eacb of the scales were found two seetls, of 
the «le of those of P. Chnbroy and of which the hemel wbs good to eat. 
These seeda, sowd in tbe Jwdin des Pluites, produced twdve plants; 
whtch, cuitivated in the orangery, succeeded very welL Most of theae 
plants were afterwerds sent to botanic gardens in tbe soutb of France, 
There still remains one apecimen in the Jardin des Plantes, whicb h«s 
stood for severa] veara in the opeu ground ; wbere, witfaout beuig vigorous, 
it remains in healtb." Loiseleur Deslongchampa adds that this ipediaen, 
in 1818, was 7fl. hi^, with leaves 3 in. long, *ery sleader, and of a 
deep green, M. Vilmorin infonns us that Ihe tree in the nunerj' 
of H. Oodelroy, from whicfa all tbe young plants sold hy bim have 




been produced by inarchingy is supposed to be die onJy one stili existing, of 
thoae raised from the seeds sent home by CoUadon. It is protected every 
winter; while those that were planted in the open ground, in the Jardin des 
Plantes, are all dead. Tbe species is interesting, especially to the Frencfa, 
as lieing the only plant that has been preserved, of those sent home by the 
expedition under La Peyrouse. The plant in the Horticultural Soci- 
ety^s Garden, named there P. montheragensis, which was reoeived from M. 
Godefroy about 1889, forms a stunted bush, 3 ft. high, and 4 ft. or 5 ft. broad. 
It is a grafted piant ; and its stunted appearance may be chiefly owing to the 
scion having sweiled to a much greater thickness than the stock, and 
to the buds having been destroyed by insects for several years past. 
The buds are small, about f in. long, blunt-pointed, about ^ in. broad, 
brown, and covered with resin. The leaves are chiefly 3 in a sheatn, and from 
2 in. to 3 in. long, with short black sheaths. 

P. Frdsen Lodd, Cai,, ed. 1837. There is a tree bearin^ this name in the 
Hackney arboretum, which, in 1837, was upwards of 12 fl. high, with 3 leaves 
in a sheath, and pendulous branches reaching to the ground. The leaves 
and young shoots have every appearance of those of P. Hgida; and, though 
the tree has not yet borne cones, we have little doubt of its belonging to the 
§ 7\eMs. The plant was received firom the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1820. 

P. HmorieTuU. A tree at Boyton, which, in 1837, was 16 ft. high, after 
being 25 years planted, was raised firom seed received by Mr. Lambert 
irom Tlmor, one of the Molucca Islands. It bears a close general resem- 
blance in the foliage and habit to P, Iongif61ia ; but the leaves (pf which 
there are three in a sheath') are rather more slender, and of a dee[>er 
green ; they are 8 in. long, ancf the sheaths about 1 in. in length. Buds f in. 
k>ng, and | in. broad, covered with 
loose whitish scales, without resin, 
and blunt-pointed. The tree has not 
yetbome cone8,so thatnothing with 
certainty can be determined respect- 
ing the group to which it belongs; 
but, in tbe mean time, we have, for 
convenience' sake, given it the naroe 
of P. timori^nsis. 

App. ii. Pines supposed to have 
3 LeaveSy but qf wfiich the 
Cones only have been seen in 
Britain. The Cones are 
hooked or ttibercled. 

1 32. P. MURiCA^TA JD. Don. The 
tmaOer pnchly^coned Pine. 

Idemt^fieaUom. Un. Itant., 17. p. 441. ; Lamt. 

Ptn., a. t.84. 
AvaoiiyMe. Obitpfs S^n. 
JBM^rmwlmgi. Lamb. Fln., & t. 84. ; aad our 
M, 8180. 

Spec» Char., ^c, ? Leaves in threes. 
Cones ovate, with unequal sides, 
cro wded ; scales wedge-shaped, flat- 
tenedat the apex,mucronate; diose 
at the extemalbaseelongated, com- 

pressed, recurved, and spreading. «E^K^ Qion 

{p.nan,) Cones, in Lambert's ^*™^ ^*^" 

ngure, 2in. long, and 3in. broad. 





Deicription, A straight middle-Bued tr«e, about 40 ft. h%fa. Cones 
in cliuten (2 or 8), unequally-«ded, ovate, about Sin. long; scalei wedge- 
shimed, very thick ; dilated at the apex, obaoletely 4^«ngied« mucronated with 
an elevated umbilicuB; elongated at the eztenud baae» oompresBed on botfa 
sides, callous, rigid, amooth, ahining, recunred, and spreadmg. (D. Don.) A 
native of California, at 8an Luis, wfaere it is called OUapo (the bisbop), 
growing at the height of 9000 ft. above the lerel of the sea. Professor Iion 
uiformsus that the cones grow 2 or 3 toeether ; and adda, that be had not 
seen the leaves of this, or of P. tubercukta and P. radi^ta, but that he thinks 
it JB probable that, like the sreater part of the American pines, they grow 
in threes.** (Lm. TranM. and Lamb. Pm.) 

± 33. P. TUBBBCULA^TA D. Dou, The tuberculated Pine. 

Ideniifleaikm. Un. Tnnt., 17. 

p. 448. ; Ism. Pln., 3. 
EiufrMiiigM. JjKBab. PliL, 3. t. 

85.; aod oaxjlg. 8181. 

Spec. Char., S^c. ? Leaves 

in threes. Cones ob- 

long, with unequal sides , 

crowdcxi. Scales qua- 

drangular, and truncate 

at the apex, with a de- 

pressed umbilicus; those 

at the exterior base 
larger,eleyated,and con- 

ic^. (D. Don.) Cones, 

in Lambert's figure, 

4^ in. long, and 2 in. 

broad. A native of Cali- 
, fomia, at Monte-Rey, 

on the sea shore. 

DescHption. A tree 
aboutlOOft.high. Cones 
oblong, 3 in a cluster, 
of a tawny grev, 4 m. 
long, 2h in. broad ; scales 
wec^e-sfaaped, dilated at 
the apex, quadrangular, 
truncate, with a depressed 
umbilicus ; larger at the 
extemal base, conical with 
an devated M>ex. (D. 
Don.) Found by Dr. 
Coulter, alon^ with P. 
radito, which it resembles 
in size and habit, but is 
essentially distinguished 
by the form of its cones. 
(ihn in Linn. Tram. and 
Lamb. Pin.) 

t 34. P. RADiA^A D. Don. The radiated-taoM 

Ident(fieaikm. Lin. Traiu., 17. Jk44fi. ; Lamb. Pin., 3. 
Sngrmrkfgt. Lunb. Pin., & 1 86L j andourjig. 8188. 

Spec. Ckar.y ^c. P Leaves in threes. Cones ovate, with unequal sides. 
Scales radktely deft, truncate, with a depressed umbilicus; gibbous, 
somewhat recurved, and three times as large at their extemal bf^. (D. 
Don.) Cones, in Lambert*s figure, 5} in. long, and 3^ in. broad. 




Dacr^tioH, ^c. An erect tree, attaining the heiffht of about 100 ft., 
with copious spraiding branches, reaching uroost to tne ground. Cones in 
clusters, ovate, about 6 in. long, Tentricose at the external base ; scales 
wedge-shaped, thick, brifht brown, shining, dilated at the apex, depressed, 
quadranguiary radiately-clefl ; umbilicus depressed ; three times larger at the 
eztemal base ; apex elevated, eibbous, somewhat recuryed. ** Found by Dr. 
Coulter about Monte-Reyy in lat. 36^, near the level of the sea, and erow- 
in^ idroost close to the beech. The trees grow sinely, and reach the 
height of lOOft., with a straight trunky feathered with branches almost to 
the ground. This spedes t^rds excellent timber, which is yer^ tough, 
and admirably adapted for building boats, for which purpose it is much 

Sect. iii. Qmtkg, — Leaves 5 in a Sheath. 

§ xii. Occidentales. 
Seci, Char. Leaves long; sheaths persistent. Cones tubercled. 

i S5. P. occidentaYis Swartz, The West-Jiu/tan Pine. 

UmtUeatiom. Swartx Prod., lOS. ; Fl. Ind. Occid.. 8. 1990: N. Du Ham., 6. p. 850. ; LunbL Pin., 

cd. 8., 1. t.29L ; Mart Mlll., Na la ; Bon Jard., I8S7, p. 9rJ. 
^Mmes. P. OaiM qulnii, ftc, P/Um. OK . 17., PtoMt. Amer., 164., WUkL 8p. Pl., 4. ^ 501., Poir. 

Did. Biui^tB. p. 348. ; Lktix ameridUia Toum. Intt.,S96. 
Mmgrmohtgg, Lamln Pia, ed. 8l, L 1 83. ; N. Du Ham., 5. 1 78. f. 1 ; Plum. Flant Amcr., 1. 161. ^ 

aad oiaJI§, 8181, flrom tha Nouveau Du Hamd. 

T R 



pniliUal. Conncnnial. lulf tb«l«icUiarthr 

3«. (Vd^ci TTie IDUowlBt cti«»et*r 
_ , , M ki «««■ br H Lotdeur DnlcDf' tliLfl- 

TluB or KPbI«w, wED^liend It hli.. 
In Hini BT» tai Utij. Tbc kmva oT tlila pi 


'-.■hitUnatant Tlwca 

DtterlpaiM. Auniree. BniKhleu « 

Htei. n relyl ii threee « roun, MlnuUi, pndrtent, luceolue. DuchpolDled, wltb ctUiMd unl Un 

Ute nirilii, brl«ht'bcDwn. HllaiiMkrni ^Knd^. 1 In. b^f , wllh many ImticlDUed. nal, ciUeled 
Knlei u thc bue. Appendige lo the ulhnm roundUh, csnTei. corlKeDui, ■KniljTumaiu an the 
nurtin.lani.indcreiiulued, Conei oblong. tubercleil, biighl brown, thlckn' at U» haaE,allnla 
«tenuftlcd towardi the ■pex, ibout 6ln. lonfi Kilai ewvuedat tb* ■pcar, bluaHT tKrknnu, tnin- 
«le, wrthlik. (!«».) Hr. LwnbutnT'; " Buwi HuuboMt bu lelHTed IMi iped** lc i>. o». 
cUoilUU SnHrtc ; but I liiTeieniuiM loiciiaTUeli.ulheiliearihecanei, irhlch nij, kn BHnL 
ta nlM OB, u ladleiitinf ■ iprcillc aiMlDetiaii In Ihli nnin. dinn la nuch." Tlme dnrfbid b« 
SwwU ■!■ anlj 3 ln. loni, whereu Ihoie of ^. Mome^u* u* non Uun donUa tfwt lei«tfa. 


C0N|'FRR£. PI*VV3. 

t 37. P. LBIOPBT^LLA SMede el Deppe 2ifSS. The amootMMTed PiiM. 

laBA. Ftn., A. g,, iVi.Ki. ,'iiikI out A' EIU. froD lAdwrtl 0(0» 
^vc. CW., j-e, Leave* in fives, very sleiider ; sheathe deciduoua. Couei 
orate, rtalked. ScHles depressed, tiuncate. {Zmi6. Pm.) Bud chMdf 
nMinbiini that ot P. canuiiniit. (jtg. 8108. in p.SSSI.) Leaves, in the 
Dropmore and Boyton ipecinienB, Ironi 5 in. to 6 in. in iength, verf slender, 
and pMident, cloaelj' set on the branches, and fonniog lerge tufta at the 
extreoiitiet of the ■boots. Ilie atem and old wood readilj' emit leavet and 
■hoota Ironi adventitioui budi. A natire of Hexira, between Cruiblanca 
and Jaladnga, in the cold rt^on, 

DeicnpSon. BranchletB covered vith n deciduouB epidenniB. Buds imbri- 
cated with lanceolate, acuminHte, brown acaJes, BcariouB, white, and tom on 
the margtn. Leavei in Gves, very tlender, triquetrouB, niucronatei bicanali* 




culate aboTC, llauish beneftth, uDaoth; wglea 
■ligbtlv ■erraled, rumuhed with conapicuoua 
dottca lines, wBvv, not fleiuoBe; li^t green, 
4io. longi Bhestfas conipoied ofmany ligulate, 
dliated, and torn, bright brown, loooely obvo- 
lule,CKducoiu«csles. Cones oTate, pendulous, 
8 10. long, on a ver; short, thick, peduncle; 
■cales dilaled at Uie apex, trapezoidal, truncate, 
depressed, a littlebollowed; in the youog coue, , 
elongated and mucronate. Seeds sniall ; wing ^ 
oblong, brown. (Larab.) This species waa 
discoverol by MM. Scbiede and Deppe ; and ^ 
Hr. Lambcrt s figure was token from epeci- 
mens communicUed bj them. The leaves, 
Mr. Lambert say«, are prccitel^ tfaose of the 
Ardhus tribe , with which this species atao 
■grees in baving a caducoui shealh. Mr. 
I.aiDbert sent seedt to Dn^more; where 
there arc three plints raised li^m them ; oue 

in 1837, 6 ft! 
high, and had 

jean without S 
any protection; 

and two others, 18 (t. and 14 ft. bigb, wbidi 
are covered every winter in the same manner 
aa P. longifolia, and whicb have been more in- 
jured than those which were left wiihout pro- 
tection. Fig. 2187. is a portrait of one af 
tbe Dropmore trees, whicb, in 1837, wa> 1 * ft. 

j xiv. Cembrs. 
Sect. Char. Leavea short, nearly straight, with longitudinal silverj channel*. 
Cone, with the scalei not thickened at the apex, globose, about at loi^ u 
the leavef. 

I 38. P. C^tiBRA L. The Cembran Pine. 

tl Dlct.,Na.S.i Flll n Rw, 


ItAfaoMM. Ud. Bp. Pl., 1419., Snt. m. RHch.,». p.173.; Mlll I 
p.3.i VllL Dauph., a. p. 90& j AiL HdtI Kn., 9. p. SGS. ; WlHd. B 
\B.M- 3> I. >-30, 31 .:"- 1»' Hun., & p.»a ; Amjnr, DcncL. p. IT(. 
n'! Mliiiul, p Va. i Bnn Jirri., 1S57, p, 977. ■, Lodd. CaL, «d. IS3B. 

pl?r., HM. Urt»., 

NoTlim, Oa Rot Hnrit., ti. Vou., *. p.<lB.; P. utlin Aimm. BiUk , p. ITS. i P. nrlieitTii, «c, 
Arut. Pia., tSl. i P. iiliMHi cJmbn Cacn. Epii., ntt.; iJirii iFmpenlteiu, ftc. Brm. )n 
Acl.Kal.Cm: Cntl.,l,i.; i^nfiKR Alf^a,^,BeU.CimUtT.,B. 21. b. il. i Ik'da krbar.Ctm^ 
lullmini, Dfllr Hitt., 1. p. 4". < Apbcniniil) Plna, hn«. ihe Sibnnin SXide PIh, tlie 
*._,__ u^.. kfl».. A».i^ i„ «.»»■. Ai-L» i.. ij—i, , — j. .. — ,.__ 4_ n-.,^i„L. (^fjnbnt. 

, in SiToTi AlTtcL in SMtHdandi L>iiifai*.ln D 

Tlnler. Fr. i ZUrbelkierR, brr. KeJr, «lui. (lee Pak FL Rca ) 
- " RoH., 1. t.ilLi nmel. SltL, Du llun. AitL. S. 13 
imb. Pln.. 1^.«., I. L3V, 31. I N. DuUvii.,i, LTT, f, L; our^ 

Spfc, C/iar., Sfc, Lea*ei in fives; sheaths deciduous. Cones ovatei 
erect, about aH long^ a« tbe leaves, and hHving, when young, the scales j 

Euhescent; the wings of the seed obliterated ; anthcrs having a ] 
idney-sfaaped crest. (Luu.) Buda, in the Dropmore Bpecimens, 
from Jin. to |^in. broad; globose, witb a long narrow point; wbite, 
and without resin ; not Euirounded by Bmaller ImdB (see ^. 218«.) 
Cones nbout 3 in. long, and 2^ m. brosd. Scalei 1 in. tong, and I 
about the saine width in the widest part. Seed iBracr thau that of d 
anyotlier species of /^iniis, except P. Pinn, ^ in. Tong, and .^ in. 
broad in the widest part, somewhat triangutar, and wedge-^aped ; 



without wingx, and hBvine, [irobably from abortion, h verj harJ r 
■hell, containing an eatable, oily, wbite kernel, agreeable to the fi 
taate. Cotjledons II to 13 (seefc 8189.). A native of Swit- { 
cerland and Siberin ; flowering in May, and npening its cone 
the November of the following year. latroduced in 1746. 

1 P. C. 1 a^rica; P. Cinbra Lodd. Cat.. ed. 1837: Kedr, 
Pall. i Cedar of some aitthors t tfae Siberian Stone Pine, 
or SiberiBn Cedar, Hort. — The coaes are atud to be 
longer, and the sodea larger, than in the Swiaa vartety; 
the leavei are, also, rather «horter; and the plant ia of 
much slower grawth in England. According to Pallas, 
thii is alofty tree, and not found beyond the Lena. 
genersl appearance, it reaembles P. aylvl^stTia, but is ra< 
tufled, froni the braDchea being tbuiner, aod from the 
number and length of the peraiatent leaves. TrunJi 
straight, often 120 ft. high, and 3 (t. in diuneter near the baae 
in old trees, naked till near the top. Bark smoother, greyer, und 

futrowed bark, marked by tbe 


in fivei» rardy la foon or threeii at fint sheatbedy afterwards 
naked, yerj longy sfaaiply triquetrous; the 2 angles rou|^, eana- 
Hculate, sbarp at the pomt. Tbe vood of the cembra ia bgfat, soft, 
white» rennoua, looae in tbe fibres, not tough. Tbe remn» wbich 
mav be collected in quantities, ia somewbat of the odour of citroOy 
and ia pellucid, yellowish, and hard. {PaU,) 

t P, C. 2 nygnuB^a; P. C pikmila PaU. Rou,; Slanez, Rtut, — According to 
Pallas, tbe trunk of tbis ▼arietT doea not exoeed 2 tn. m thiekness, 
and it israrely aboye 6 ft. in nefght; the bnmches being not more 
tban 1 in. in diameter. Some specimens are much lower in height, 
prostrate, and sbmbby. The branches of this ▼arietj are more 
slender, die bark rougher and yellower, and the leaves more crowded, 
and shorter, tban those of the mecies. The cones are scarcely laiger 
tban those of P. sylv^ris ; and the scales and seeds less than those 
of P. C. sib(rica. In the east of Siberia, this variety is found 
covering rocky moumains, which are so barren, that hemge of no 
kind ww grow on them ; and also in vallevs, where^ kowever, it 
nevcr attains the siae of a tree. Those Ibund on the mountains are 
much more resinous and balsamie. Tbe vonng shoots are reckoned 
an exceUent antiscorbutic, and are much more i^greeable in tasto 
than those of the il^bies. Pallas had a specimen m>m Montanvert, 
in Savoy, which resembled the Siberian variety in the number and 
closenessof theieaves, onl^they weremuchthicker. (PalL) There 
is a plant at Dropmore which bas been twenty years planted, and, in 
1837, was not more than 6 in. high» wfaicfa we presume to be this 
variety. The same may be said cn a tree in Hopetoun Oardens, 
near £dinbuigh, said to be upwards of 100 years oid, and which, in 
1836, only measured 5 ft. 6 in. high. 

1 P. C. 3 heivStica Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; the Swiss, Cembran, or Stone 
Pine ; has the cones short and roundisb, with dose scales ; and the 
plants are of more vigorous growth than the Siberian variety ; the 
wood, also, is said to be more fra^nt. This is much the com- 
monest form of P. Cembra in Britisb sardens; and it has been 
treated as a species bv Du Hamel and Hailer. In the Brianoon- 
nais, this variety is calied Alvies; and in Savojr, Aroles. In Dau- 
pbin^, it has a diffisrent name in almost every viliace. (See Villars'8 
Plante* du Dauphmi^ iv. p. 807.) In Kasthofer^ Voyage dans les 
peHts Caniofu, et dtmt les Atpes RhStienneSf it appears tbat this 
variety grows at the elevation of 6825 ft. above the level of the sea; 
and it vegetates there so slowly, that it does not increase more 
thmi a spen (9in.} in height in six years. A tree, tbe trunk <^ 
which was 19in. m diameter, when cut down, was fbund to have 
353 concentric cirdes. The wood is very fragrant, and retains its 
odour for centuries. In the ruins of the ancient Cbateau of Taraap, 
Kiwthofer found the greater number of the chambers omamented 
with this wood, which, after having remained there Ibr oenturies, 
Btiil continued to exhiJe its delidous perfiune. (Fo^., &c., p. 196.) 
This odoriferous property in tfae wood, wfaile it is agreeable to 
man, is so oflfensive to bugs and moths, as to deter them fiom 
establishing themselves in rooms where it is used, either as wain- 
scoting, or as fumiture. When this variety of P. CSmbra was in- 
troduced into British gardens is uncertain, but it is now common in 
the nurseries. 

Bescnption. In England, P. Cembra is an erect tree, with a straight 
trunk, and a smooth bark. When standing singly, it is r^ularlv furnished 
to the summit with whoris of branches, whieh are more persistent than 
the branches of most other species of ilbi^tinae. The leaves are from 3 
to 5 in a sheath, three-ribbed ; the ribs serrated, one of them green and 
shining, and the other two white and opaque. In most spedes of pine. 

coni'fer,«. pi'nus. 


it haa bMQ obaened tliu the I«tm iocliiia niore to- 

wards the «hooti «bich pro<luce them durii^ wiDter 

tban In ■ummer, (w if to jmTent tbe mow from ■ 

lodging on tbem j uid tbit m aiiid to be niuch more 

coMpicuoiulT tbe cue with the iGsvea of P. CemSm 

tban witb tboie of an; other uiecies. The nMle 

ntkba are red, ukl Bppear at the bsse of the ; oung 

iboats. According to Laaibert, the flowera have a 

iDore beaudfiil BppeBrauCB tfaaa in anj' othcr species 

of pine, being of a bright putplei and the unripe 

fiiU-grown coneih he t»y», bave a blooni upon them 

like that of a ripe OrlEaD* plum. Tbe tree is of 

remarkabl; hlow growth in everj stage of its pro> 

pe», iBore eapedaUj' when ^oune ; leldom advanc- 

riM more, eren in ricb soiIb, tbnn 1 ft. in a yaa 

(tluingfa, in tbe neigbbourbood of Edinburgh, as will 

be hereafter nottced, it growa mucb faiter) j but it 

graws ooicker when it become* okler. It is readily 

knowD tfam all the other ipecies of pinet bj its nar- 

row, conical, eooipact forni, and the sbortneaa of its BJlvery leave*. which 

fera tufta at tbe extremities of tbe hrancbe», In England, it is a rormBl, 

and we do not iMnk it can be considered a handtione, tree : it preseDls 

lo tbe eje B inultipUcil}> of tufls of leavei, piled up one above another 

of tbe Mme lise, and equidiatant ; and every where ofrBther a dull green 

CMOnr. Tbe unilbrmity 

«f ^mpe Is aowhere 

broken, eieept at the 

■nminit, where alone 

dnced ; aod hence, as a 

Maaa, it may be charac- 

teriaed as formal and 

inonotonoui, without 

being grand. In proof 

of tbia, we may reter to 

a plate of thb tree in 

oar last Volnme. In 

Sibena and Switzer. 

laad, treea tucb as thoas 

moitioned by Pallaa as 

benig 180 ft. in height, 

faave a mnch more 

grand and [ncturesque 

■ppearance; and Jig. 

2IM. ia a portrait of 

one of these trees. 

"ne lat^est tree tbat 

weknowof in EngUind 

b tbe original piant 

at Whitton, whidi, in 

IS37, after being 91 

yeartplanted, was only 

50 ft.lugh,withBtrunk 

1 ft. e in, in dtameter. 

Thia trea bears cones 

and ripens seeds every 2192 

yor; and, though it appearii to have sufterBd from the smI round it havinjf 

been raised abore a foot in height. yet it Mill continues to grow with vigour. 


retaining its branches from the groand upwards. The tree at Dropmore ia 
nearly as high, though not planted above forty yeari!. 

Geography, History, S^c. P. CSnibra is indigenous to the alps of Siberia, 
to Tartary, Switzerland, Italy, and to Dauphin^ and other parts of France. 
According to Klasthofer, it is found to a greater height on the Swiss 
roountains, than any other species of pine or fir. ( Tc^., &c., p. 150.) Vilbirs 
found it, in Daupbine, on high roountains, growing with different varieties of 
P. sylv^stris, but rare. According to Hdss, it grows on the alps of 
Hungary and Austria; and, according to PaUas, as we have seen above, 
it has a very extensive geographical range in Siberia. It was introduoed 
into England by Archibald Duke of Argyll, in 1746 ; but whether from 
Siberia or Switzerland is uncertain, though, in all probability, from tbe 
former country ; as the cones of the original tree, still existing at Whitton, 
answer better to the description of those of P. C. helv6tica than to those of P. C. 
sibf rica. The Swiss variety was strongly recommended by the Rev. J. Harte, 
in his Estatft on Husbandjy, publish^ in 1746; and it is not improbable 
that it was he who communicated the seeds to the Duke of Argyll, tbougfa 
we have no positive evidence on the subject. Mr. Lambert states that 
a great many seeds were brouffht from Switzerland about the end of the 
last century ; and that more than 2000 plants, raised from part of them, 
were plant^ at Walcot Hall, the residence of Lord Clive, m Shropshire. 
These plantations are still in a healthy state, many of the treea baving 
att»nea the height of 40 ft. or 50 ft., and producing cones. Several treea 
were also plantod, at the same time, at Gledhow, near Leeds, where some 
of them stili exist, and whence arose the name of Oledhow pine, which 
18 often apnlied to tbis tree. In 1828, Mr. Lawson of Edinburgh imported a 
quantity ot seeds of P. Cembra from Switzerland; and disperaed Uiem through* 
out Scotland for experiment ; raising, also, a great many plants in his own 
nursery. {QMort. Joum. of Agric.yi. p. 813.) In 1836, the plants sown in 1828 
had, in several places in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, attained the 
height of from 8 ft. to 12ft. From tbis, Mr Lawson verv properly concludes 
that, though some varieties of P. Cembra grow remarkably slowly, yet P. 
C. helv^tica, after three or four years' growtn, will make annual . shoots ftom 
1 ft. to 18 in., or even 2ft., annually in length. There can therefore be 
no doubt, he says, but that this variety, from the high altttude at which 
it naturally grows, is well adapted to clothe the tops of many bitherto 
almost barren mountains in Scotland, not only with fresb and luxuriant 
vegetation, but with valuable timber.. {Man.y p. 359.) The finest trees 
in the neighbourhood of London are at Whitton, Kew, Dropmore, and 
Mill 1^1, at all which places they bear cones. The Gledhow pines were 
examined for us, in October, 1837, by Mr. Murray, nurseryman, Leeds. He 
found in the plantations at Gledhow several trees, most of wfaich were of 
small dimensions, and going fast to decay; particularly those in exposed 
situations. The largest and best tree which he found was 35 ft. high, with a 
trunk 3 ft. 2 in. in circumference, at 3 ft. from the ground, after being planted 
from 45 to 50 years. It stands on a lawn sheltered from the north^ east, 
and west, and exposed to the south. The tree is now abundant in the 
nurseries, and, being remarkably hardy, is likely to be soon genecally 
distributed ; but, owing to its very slow growth, it will be liable to be 
choked by the trees among which it is planted, unless greater attendon 
be paid to thinning and pruning than is generally the case in ornamental 

ProperHes and Uses. The wood of P. Cembra is very soft ; and its grain 
is so fine, that it is scarcely perceptible. According to the Nomoeau Du 
Hamely it is very resinous, which is the cause of its agreeable fiagrance. 
It is not commonly large enough to be used in carpentry ; but in joinery 
it is of great vahie, as it js remarkably easy to be worked, and is of ereat 
durability. In Switzerland, it is very much used by turners; and the stiep- 
berds of the Swiss Cantons, and of the Tyrol, occupy their leisure hours 

/»B.n » n«X. 


in carving out of it numeroiis curious little figures of men and animals, 
which they sell in the tovms, and which have found their Way all over 
Europe. The wood is much used for wainscoting; having not only an 
agreeable light brown appearance, but retaining its odour, according to 
Kasthofery for centuries. The kerael of the seed, in Dauphin^, Villars 
informff us, is eagerly sought after by a species of crow (C6rvus Caryo- 
cat&ctes L.), which shows an almost incredible degree of skill in 
breaking the hardest shells. In Switzerland, the seeds are used in some 
places as food, and in others as an article of luxury ; and the sheli 
being very hard, and requiring some time and skill to separate it from 
the kemel, the doing so forms an amusement for young persons in the 
long winter evenings ; who, Kasthofer obsen^es, show a deeree of skili 
in it that might vie with that of the squirrel. In some placeK in the 
Tyrol, the seeds are bmised, and an oil obtained from them by expression. 
80 abundant is this oil in comparison with that produced bv other seeds, 
that, while a pound of flax seed yields only 2^ oz., 1 Ib. of cembra seed 
yieids 5 oz. Cembra oil is used both as food, and for buming in lamps ; 
but, as the breaking of the seeds requires a long time, it is generally dearer 
than most other oils : it has a very BgreeMe flavour when newly made, 
but verv soon becomes rancid. The shells of the kernels, steeped in any 
kind of spirits, yield a fine red colour. In Siberia, the seeds of the 
cembra are sometimes produced in immense quanddes ; but in other sea- 
aons there is scarcely any crop. In abundant years, they form, according 
to Gmelin, almost the sole winter food of the peasantry. The seeds, both 
in Siberia and Switzerland, are employed medicinally ; and Gmelin relates 
a story of two captains of vesscls, who were sufl^ering dreadfully from the 
scurvy, and whose crews had almost all died of the same disease, being 
cured in a few days by eating abundantly of these seeds. In Britain, 
P, Cembra can only be considered as an oraamental tree ; and, though 
we hold it to be scarcely possible for a pine to be otherwise than ornamentai 
(tf it werefor no other reason than its being an evergreen), yet we cannot 
help, as we have alreadjr observed, considering the Cembran pine, when 
compared with other species, as rather monotonous, both in form and co- 
lour. The summit of the tree, however, and its purple cones, we acknow- 
ledgeto be truly beantiiul. That we may not run the slightest risk of 
injuring this tree, we may roention that Mr. Lambert, so far firom enter- 
taining the same opinions as we do respecting it, looks upou it as '' one of 
the handsomest trees of the whole genus.'* (Pm., ed. 2., i. p. 49.) 

jSm/, SUuaHon^ ^c, Though the Cembran pine, as we have seen, will grow 
in tbe poorest soils, and in the most elevated and exposed situations, wnere 
no other pine or fir will exist, yet it will not g^ow rapioly, except in a free soil, 
somewhat deep, and with a dry subsoil. This is rendered evident fi^om the 
trees at Dropmore, which, though they cannot have been planted above 
half the time of the trees at Whitton and at Kew, are above 40 ft. high, 
with tmnks from 1 ft. to 14 in. in diameter. The tree at Whitton is on very 
moist soil, and that at Kew on very dry poor soil. The soil at Dropmore is 
also dry, but it is not so much exhausted by the roots of other trees as the 
Boil in the arboretum at Kew. AII the varieties are propagated fi^om imported 
seeds, which may be sown in the same autumn in which the^ are received ; 
or, porhaps, kept in a rot heap for a year, as they lie two wmters and one 
summer in the ground before germinating. The plants grow exceedingly slowly 
for 4 or 5 vears, seldom attaining in that period a greater height than firom 
1 ft. to 2 fC When they are to be removed to any distance, they are best 
kept in pots; but, the roots beine small and numerous, large plants of 
P. Cembra transplant better (when they are not to be carried to too great a 
distance) than most other species of Pinus. 

StaUtOct. FteiM C^mbra in Engkmd. At Syon, it Is 30ft. high j in the Mile End Kunenr, it ii 
U ft. blgb i at WaltOD oa Tbames, it b 35 ft. bigh. In Surrej, at rarnham Castle, 35 yean planted. 


.ktiS&klfb. InWo _ -,--,-- .- 

wU. tilBairlckriitn,MlbaH]»d, SvcM pluud, UiiSfLllln. k%k 
i^ ttllSDIt bl|k, udllfciiad ttiia un, fniDi «hU t«>« ■>>i"' ^»* 

^ , , Jt M|ta| IB tbe Ofiutiwn i , ., 

yHn^Md,HblOlt hiriL In auonr, it WK^fltLWTtm ptoBUd, ItTi jOft.hlch. ta c:ucl, 
MWdlMlHhiM,«}MnaU,Kku>tnaklA.«lihladlaHMi. tBTntn, U Si^ at 8w 
Sawl, 10 T« ^Btad, It i> 90 ft. talfk. 

$xv. StrbbL 

St«t, Giar, ticavea ntber kinger than b Cimira, CoDa «ith tfae ■odet 

BOt thickeaed at the apex, pendultias, uid much loi^er tban the lekTca. 

1 89. P. ffrao^mn Z. Tho Strobiu, or WeymeMti, Ptae. 
MtiMliatfii'. Lin. £p II.' Byit_ Bd. Rrtch^ t. p. m. i lOIL DleL, Nn. U. ; Hatlt. Enl. 
Sr1.,;iSR9. ; Wing. IW:. > . | AlL Holt. iww^i.f.i».i Du Bnl Huhk., «d. PHL. & 
u.7«,l Huiii. Arti. Aiiv< . .1 l>D[r. Dlct., fi.ti.}U.| Lwb. Fln., cd. &, L LSE.; nTDh 
Hun., S.p.2^^ J - . -f.- _ _.._.. - .. . 

duXoid WtrmDulii. !-< 
AwmfcM. Wing. Si-M. : ' : ei.;Lun. llhuL, t 
«lchxV. Amer. s,i., 1 ..|. It. Du Bm, fi. t. A t " 
fron WhiTtDiT, Drdtnc<{.i.,',. ..i i..tlr»lo«u Uit Votume, 

l^ee. Ot»,, ^e, LeaTCB ■leiider, without aheathi. Uale catkios aBialL 
Cone eylindrka), k>B^ aod pendukiua. (Micki.) Bud« ft«m yV t»- 
to 4in, lon^ aiul from ^in. to ■fgia, broAdi ovate, pMnled, and 
■ligfatlj reBiDotia ; «urrouiuied by one or two aiaall budi. (Seej^. 
S1S3.) Leafcs&om 3in. toS^ii). lon;. Cone(Beej^.8195.)from 
5in. to Om. long, and from liin. to l}in. broad, on a peduncle 

ifb. long; icalea^Beej^. ZIM.) liin. long, Bnd from |in. to tin. 
bro«d. 8eed \ in. long, and ^ in. broad p obovate, poiated below, 
with a wing whicn, incliiding the aeed, ia Bbout I in. long, and } in. 
brosd, in UM widast pmrt. CotjledonB S to 10. A native of North 
Aiaerica. Introduced b 1705: and liaweriDg in April. 

t T. S, t dlba Hort. has the leavea and barit much whiter thi 


Bpecies. There. is a plant in the HortlcultuTBl Societv^s Gardcn, 
whicb, in IB3T, afler bdng IS years plsnted, wbb SO H. iiigfa. 
tP.S.S brevi/SSa Bort. has ^orter les 

7. 4i compreua Booth; P. S. ndva Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; Floetbedi 

Wejmouth Pine. — Atso much shorter in the leaf, snd probatdy tfae 

nme ai P. S. brerif&lia. 

DettriplioH. A tall tree, which, in AnMrica, accor^n| to Uicbaui, variea 

io heigbt from 100 fi. to 180 fl., with a ■traight irunk, frcHB about 4 ft to 6 ft 

or 7 ft. in diameter. The trunlc if geaeraU; free trom brancheB for two tliirds 

or tfaree fourths of ita hoight; the brBucbeB ara short, and in whorls, or 

dispoaed in stagea ona above Bnoiher, nearlv to tbe top, whicfa cooiistB of 

three or four upright brBnches, forming a ■malf conical hMd. In rich strong 

luams, the tree doe* not grow »o higb, and Bssumes a more Bpreading shape; 

but it ii stili taller and more vigorous than most of the trees by whidi it is 

turrounded. The barlE, on joung trees, is smooth, and even polished; but. 

CHAr. CXll 

coMi'rEn.c. piVufl. 

M tbe tree adnacet In age, it Bplits, and be- 
coDiefl nigeed and grej, but doe* not fiLll 
off* in scaleB like thBt of the other pines 
The lesTca are from 3in. to 4in. long, 
Mraigbt, upright, slender, 
BoCt, triqiMtroua, of s Goe 
k li^ht bluish greea, tnM-ked 
I with lilTery longitudinHl 
f cheJQDelt; tcftbroue and m- 
conspicuouilj ecrTBted on 
ihe margin ; spread ng id 

tracted, and l^Jng cloae to 
the braacbes. SheathB and 
Hale catkini8hort,eIhptir, 
pale puq>le, mixed with Tel 
low, tuming red betora 
tm ther iidl j on long fbot 

stalka, and amitted like thoEe of P. auttr^ 
Creatof the anthera Ter; sniBlt, and com 
poeed of two erect very etiort bristlea. Fe- 
male ealkins OTBte-cylindrical ; erect, an 
•bort peduDclea wben voung, but wben fuU 
growa pendulous, and &om 4 in. to 6iii. 
-'■- 'illy curred. 
«les, rounded 
partl; corered wich white resin, particularly 


ie tips of the tcalea j ij>ex of the ■cHlea 
■.mea. Seeds ovate, oradull grev. The 

cone opeos, to shed the seedi, in (Jctober 
of the ■econd jear ; and in America, accord- 
inK to Micbaux, part of the aeeds are gene- 
raUy left adhering to the turpentine which 
exudes from tbe scalet. The wood is soft, 
light, free fron knota, and easily wrangfat ; 
it is also durable, and not rer; liable to 
Ktlit when expoied to the sun : but it hai 
little stren^, gives a feeble hold to nails, 

and sometimes swelb from the huuudkT of the atmoqihere ; while, from 
the very great diminution of the trunk from the bue to the tummit, it i» 
lUfScult to procure pianks of great length and uniform (Uameter. Th« 
preportion of sap wood is ver; smalli uid, according to MichBux, a trunk 
IS ID. in diameter generBlly contains 1 1 in. of perfect wood. The wood of 
this tree is renwkably wnite wben newly sawn iato pUnks; whence tba 
common Americau namefor it of white pioe. Tbe rata of growth ofthia trea 
in Britain is, except in very faToureble sitaations, slower than that of most 
Enropean pinea. NerertheleBB, in the climate of Lpndon, it wiil attain the 
hdgbt of lefLor lOyears from tbe seed. When planted singly, 
like most other pines, it forms a brBuchy bead; but, when drawn np Bmong 
otho' treea of the same spedea, it bas a- -'~- - •—■-t i- »"•-." — ;- 

I clear a tnmk ii 

America. The seneral appearBiice of ths tree, when nanding ainglv in 
BnttKah parlu ana pleasure-arounds, is well represented by/ig. S196., which 
isthe portrait, to a scale of Slll. to t in., of s Weymouth pine in Studley 
Park, which, in IS36, was 60ft.6io. bigh, with a trunk about Sft. in ciKimf 
ference, at 1 fL from the ground. 

n the state of Vemiont. 


though Dot uniforml]', over s VMt exteDt 
ofcountTf ; but that it ia incapable t>f 
aupporting either intense heat or intense 
coid. The eliler Michaux, after travers- 
ing 300 miles, on hia retum from Hud- 
Bon's Bay, ttithout perceiving a vcBtigc 
of i[, Grnt obierveii ii about 40 leacuea 
(rom the nioutli of the MistssBin, which 3 
diachargei itself into the Lake St. John, ' 
in Canada,in n. lat. 4S° 50'. Two de- 

Srees fartber south, he found it comman. 
E ia, however, most abundant between 
N. lat. 43° and n. lat. 47" : fcrther aouth, 
it is found in the vbIIcjs and dedivitiei 
of the Alleghaniea, but will not grow a 
any Jiatance from the mountaina on 
dther side, on account of the wamith of 
the cliniate. In New Hampshire, in 
tbe atate of Vermont, and near the 
it of the river St. Lawrence, 
largest dimenaioni. " In 
nes," etya the younger 
Hichaux, " I have seen it in very dif- 
ferent situationa; end it aeem* to accommodate itself to all v 
except such as consist wholly of aand, and such es are almost c 
aubmerged ; but I have aeen the largest specimens in the bottora of soft', 
fiiable, aod fertile valleya, on the banks of rivers compoaed of deep, coot, 
black aand ; and in swamps filled with the white cedar (Cupr^ssus ffayoldea), 
and covered with a thick and constantly humid carnet of Sph&gnum. Near 
Norridgewock, on the river Kennebeck, in one of these swamps which is 
accessible oul^* in the middle of suinmer, I measured two trunlis felled for 
canoes, of which one waa 154 ft. long, and 54 in. in diaroeter, and the otber 
IfSft. long, and 44 in. in dianieter, at 3R. trom the ground, Mention ia 
made, in Belkna{i'B Hutory of Xew HamptMre, of a white pine felled near the 
riv^ Merrimac, 7 (t. 8 in. in diameter ; and near Hollowell, I saw a stump 
exceeding 6 ft. in diameCer. These enormous trees had probablj reached the 
greatest he%ht attained by the species, which is about IBOti. I have been 
BSBured, by persons worthy of belief, that, in a few inatances, they had felled 
individual treeB of nearly this stature." (Mic/u!. Narth Amrr. Syi., iii. p. 161.) 
Michaux adds that he haa " alwBva observed the influence of soil to be rrester 
on re^nous than on broad-leaved treea." The qnalitiea oF the white pine, b 
particular, are strikinglv aflected by it. In loos^ deen, humid aoils, it unitea 
in the highesC degrce hL the valuable propertiea hj wnich it ia cliaracteriaed, 
eapecially lightness and fineneas of texlure, so that it uiay be snioothly cut in 
every direction; and hence, perhapB, is derived the nanie of pumpkin pine. 
On drj elevated landa, ita wood is finner and more resinoua, with a coarsa- 
endn and more dielant concentric circles, and it is then call^ sapling pine. 
In the district af Maine, and the province of Nova Scotia, thc white pine has 
been observed to be the firat to take possession of barren deserted laads, and 
the most hardy in reslsting the impetuous gales from the ocean. 

Hittory. Pinus iStrdbug received its name from Linnceua, and waa Grat 
eultivated in England by the Ducheas of Beaufort, at Badniineton, in 1705. 
Oreat quantities were aoon ofterwards planted at Longleat, in Wiltshire, the 
•eat of Lord Weymouth, where the trees prospered emazingly, and whence 
the species received the name of the WeymouEh pine. Sevwd were aiso 
planced at Mersham Hatch, in Kent ; and a number at Whitton, by the Duke 
of Argyll. These plants be^an to bear cones with perfect seeds about 1780; 
and the apecies haa been smce exEeniively raiaed by nurserymen, from the 
leedB produced at tbeae places; and the plants have been tbuB distiibuted 



throughout the island. Miller says that the seeds were first brought to 
London for sale firom Mersham Uatch, Sir M^ndham Knatchbuli's seat, 
near Ashford, in Kent, in 1726. There were al^ cones, he says, produced 
at Longleat ; *' but it has been chieily from the seeds of Sir Wyndbam Knatch- 
bull that the much greater number of these trees now in England have been 
raised ; for, although there has annually been some of the seed brought from 
America, yet those have been few in comparison to the produce of the trees 
in Kent ; and many of the trees which nave been raised from the seeds of 
those trees now produce plenty of good seed, particularly those in the garden 
of His Orace the Duke of Argyll, at Whitton, which annually produce large 
quantides of cones, which His Grace most generousiy distributes to all the 
curious." (Dict., ed. 7., 1759.) Many of the trees in these places are stiii in 
ezistence, and are from 70 ft. to 80 ft. high. There are also some remarkably 
fine specimens at Strathfieldsaye : some of them, according to Mitchell, had, in 
1827, trunks 100 fL high, and 10 il. in circumference. The largest tree at 
Whitton was, in 1835, 81 ft. 6 in. high, with a trunk 1 1 ft. 3 in. m circumfe- 
rence at 2 ft. from the ground. This tree stands singly, and divides into 
a great many large woody limbs, so as to form a very irregular head. 
In Scotland, the Weymouth pine is considered rather tender; and, as it 
requires a better soil tlian most other species, it is not much planted for its 
timber. 8ang observes that it is a plant of too delicate a habit ever to 
become a large or valuable tree in Scotland, m exposed situations ; but that, 
where it is sheltered and properly treated, it forms a fine-looking single tree. 
In Ireland, according to Hayes, it was not introduced tili about 1770; but 
there are trees of it in various places above 50 ft. high. The Weymouth pine 
is not very common in France ; but there are trees at the Trianon, which, in 
1834, were between 40 ft. and 50 ft. higb) after being about the same number 
of years planted. 

ProperHes and Utes. The wood oi this species is more employed in 
America than that of any other pine. Throughout the northem states, at 
the time the younger Michaux published his Nortk American Sylva (1819), 
seven tenths of the houses, except in the larger capitals, were of wood ; and 
about three quarters of these were built almost entirely of white pine ; and, 
even in the cities, the beams and principal woodwork of the houses were of 
this wood. " The omamental work of the outer doors, the oomices and friezes 
of apartments, and the mouldings of fireplaces, all of which, in America, are 
ele^mtly wrought, are of this wood. It receives gildine well, and is, there- 
fore, selected for looking-glass and pictiu^e frames. Sculptors employ it 
exclusively for the images that adom the bows of vessels, for whicn they 
prefer the kind called the pumpkin pine. At Boston, and in other towns 
of the northern states, the inside of mahoganv furniture and of trunks, the 
bottoms of Windsor chairs of an inferior quality, water pails, a great part 
of the boxes used for packing goods, the shelves of shops, and an endless 
variety of other objects, are made of white pine. In the district of Maine, it 
is emplo^red for barrels to contain salted fish, especially the kind called the 
sapling pine, which is of a stronger consistence. ror the magnificent wooden 
bridgea over the Schuylkill at Philadelphia, and the Delaware at Trenton ; and 
for Uiose which unite Cambridge and Charleston with Boston, of which the 
first is 1500 ft., and the second 3000 ft., in length ; the white pine has been 
cbosen for its durability. It serves exciusively for the masts ot the numerous 
vesseb constructed in the northem and middle states ; and for this purpose it 
would be difficult to replace it in North America. The principal superiority 
of white pine masts over those brought from Riga is their lightness; but tbey 
have less strength, and are said to decay more rapidly between decks, and at 
the point of intersection of the ^ards. This renders the long-leaved pine 
(P. australis) superior to the white pine, in the opinion of the greater part of 
the American shipbuilders ; but some of them assert that the white pine would 
be equally durable, if the top were carefully protected from the weather. 
With this view, an experiment has been suggested, of a hole, several feet deep. 


made in the top of the mast, filled with oil, B&d hennetioally tealed ; the oil ie 
■aid to be absorbed in a iew months. The bowsprits and yards of ahipa of 
war are of thiB species. The wood is not reanous enough to fumiah tnrpen* 
tine for commace." ( Jfiol;r.) Before the American war, Engbuid ia said 
to hare fbmiBhed henelf with maets from die United States; and she mSH 
completes from America the demand which cannot be supplied (rom the north 
of £urope. The finest timber of this M>ecies is brought from Maine, and 
particularlj from the river Kennebeck. Soon after the establishment of tlie 
American colonies, England became sensible of the value of this resourcey and 
solidtous for its presenration. In 1711 and 1791, severe ordinances were 
enacted, prohibitti^ the cutdng of any trees proper for roasts on the pos- 
sesrions of the crown. The order had reference to the vast countries bounded 
on the south by New Jersej, and on the nortb bj the upper limit of Not» 
Scotia, *' I am unable to saj/' adds Micbaux, ** with what degree of r^^r 
it was enforced before the American revolution | bu^ for a spaoe o£ 600 milesi 
from Philadelphia to a dtstance bevond Boston, 1 did not observe a single 
tree of the wbite pine large enougfa for the mast of a vessd of 600 tons.'* 
(ilficA^.) The white pine is also u»ed extensivelj in America for e]ap4)oards 
and shingtes. The clap-boards are of an indeterminate length, 6 in widei, | in« 
thick at one edge, and much thinner at the other | thej form the exterior 
covering of the walis of the wooden houses, and are placed horizontallj, lapping 
one over the other, so that the thinner edge is covered. The shingles are com- 
monlj 18 in. long, from 3 in. to 6 in. wide, | in. thick at one end, and 1 line thtck 
at the other i thej should be free from knots, and made onlj of the periect wood* 
These shingles are used instead of tiles to almost all the houses east of die 
river Hudson ; but thej onlj last 12 or 15 jears. Thej are exported in great 
quantities to iJie West Tndies. The timber of the Wejmouth pine continues to 
be imported into Britain in immense quantities ; but it is considered as verv 
inferior to some of the other American pines, and to the pine timbea* of the north 
of Europe. In M*CuIloch's Dictionaty qf Commerce, speaking of tbe whiie 
pine of America, as compared with the Baltic ptne, an extract tB given irom 
the evidence of Mr. Copland, an extensive builder and timber^erchant, 
when examined before parliament as to the comparative valueofBuropean 
and American Timber. " The American pine is much inferior in qualitj, mucb 
softer in its nature, not so durable, and verj llable to drj rot : indeed, it is 
not allowed bj anj professional man under govemment to be used; nor is it 
ever emplojed in the best buildings in London : it is onlj speculators that ara 
induced to use it, firom the price of it bdng much lower (in consequenoe of 
its exemption from dutj) than the Baltic timber. If jou were to iaj two 
planks or American timber upon each other, in the course of a twelvemonth 
thej would have tfae drj rot, almost invariablj, to a certain extent." M'Cul- 
loch adds that " manj passages to the same effect might be produced from the 
evtdence of persons of the greatest experience in shin-buildmg." {M*CuUoch'$ 
Com, Dict,, art. Timber Trade.) Ttie wood of Wejmouth pines grown in 
England has been used for iloors, and bj cabinet-makers ; but, as the species 
is gcnerallj valued as an ornamentai tree, it is seldom cut down for timber. 
Its ptcturesque beautj, accordinff to Oilpin, is not great. ** It is admired,** 
he sajs, " for its polisned bark, though tne painter^s eje {wvs littie attention 
to so trivial a circumstance, even when the tree is considered as a single 
object : naj, its polisbed bark rather depreciates its value, for the picturesque 
eje dwells with raore pleasure on rough surfaces than on smooth : it sees 
more richness in them and more varietj. But we object chieflj to the Wej- 
nouth pine on account of the regularitj of its stem and the meagreness of its 
foliage. Its stem rises with perpendicular exactness ; it rarel j varies ; and its 
branches issue with equal rormalitj from its sides. Its foliage, too, is thin, 
and wants both richness and effect. If I were speaking, inde^, of this tree 
in composition, I might add that it maj often appear to great advantage in a 
plantation. Contrast, we know, produces beautj, even from deformitj itself. 
Opposed, therefore, to the wildness of other trees, the rcigularitj of the Wej- 


mouth pine may bave its beauty : its fonnality may be concealed. A few of 
its branches, hanging from a macs of heavier foUage, may appear light and 
feathery, while its spirj head may often form an agreeable apex to a dump." 
(For, Scen., i. p. 87.) 

Soil^ SUuatioriy ^rc^ We have already obfteryed that the soil and rituation 
for this tree ought to be better than for most other species of pines. Seeds 
are procured in abundance; and the plants, when sown in spring, come up 
the nrst year, and may be treated like those of the Scotch pine. 

Stattmet, In tbe Btavirout oT Loodon. At Vniittoa Plaoe, tbere ara many treea, tbe talleitof 
whiebii8Ift.6ia hiyfa, and the dJameter of the tnmk 4 ft. t et York HoiMe, Twiekenhem, it i« 48 ft. 
hiffh, thediameter ofthe trunli 1 ft. 6ln., and of thehead 18 ft. ; at Chiiwick Villa, there are Tarioui 
treec ftom fiOft. to 00 ft. high j at Aberoora Prionr, neax Stanmore, It is fiSft. higb, diameter of the 
trunk 1 ft. 9 in., and of the head 30 ft. — . Soutb of London. In Doraetsbire, at Melbury Paifc, 40 yeare 
old, it l0 36 ft. high ; at CompCon Houie, 60 yean old, it ia 80 ft. higb, with a trunk 8 ft. In dlameter. 
In Hampahlre, at Alretfbrd, 41 jeart pUintecf, It itfiS ft. bigb j at StratbfleldBaye, it ii flfift higb, witb 
a tnink 4 ft. 6 In. in diameter. In Someraetihire, at Kingiton, it ia dSft. hlgh, wlth a trunk Sft. bi 
dlameter. In Surrey, at Claremont, It It 60 ft. higb, the dlameter of tbe trunk 8 ft., and of tbe liead 
S6 ft. ; at Deepdene, 10 yean planted, it la 82 ft. hleh. In Wiluhire, at Wardour Caatle, 50 yeart 
nlant^, it !• 60 ft. high, the dlametcr of the trunk 8 ft. 9 In., and of tbe bead fi7 ftv— Nortb of Lon. 
doo. In BedftMrdsbbre, at Soutbbill. it i« 46 ft. blgh, with a tnink 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Jn Berkabfare, 
at Bear Wood, 14 ycen planted, it It 30 ft. blgh. In BuckinghamshinL at Temple Houie, 40 yean 
pteDted, it ia 50 ft. bigb. In EKirbam, at Soutbend, 40 yean planted, it !• 60ft hisfa t at Stanwlck 
Park ii one with a trunk 8 ft. in diameter. In LeiceMenhireL at Elvaaton Caitle, s3 yean iriianted, 
It ia 418 ft. blgb. In Nottingbamihlre, at Ctumber Park, it b 54 ft. blgh, the dlameter of tbe tnink 

and of Ihe bead 50 ft. In Warwiekibire, at Coombe Abbey . 60 yean planted, It ii 60 ft. bigb ; the dls. 
meter of tbe trunk 3ft., and of tbe bead 33 ft. la Yorsibirc^ at Orimiton, 18 ycan jdanted, it is 
3Sft. bigb. 

Pbutf ttrdbiu im ScoiUmd. tn tbe Enrirona of Edlnbuttb. At HopetouD Houae, tt ia SOIt 
high, the diameter of the trunk 8 ft. 10 in., and of the bead 40 ft. — Soutb of Edinburgh. In Ayr- 
•hire, at Dalquharran, 65 yean planted, It b 68 ft bigh, the diameter of tbe trunk 8 ft. In Berwidt- 
iblre, at the Hinel, 80 yean pUuiled, It li 80 ft. hlgli. I n Renftewihire, at Enkine Hotue, It ii 55 ft: 
higb, with a tnmk 8 ft. 4 In. in diameter. — Noitb of Edtnburgb. In A igyllihire, at Toward Castle. 
13 yean planted, it b 80 ft. higb. In BanlBibire, at Gordon Caitle, it ii «B ft hlgb, tbe diameter of 
the trunk 8 ft. 6 in., and of the head 86 ft. In Clackmannanibire, in tbe gardcn or the Dollar Inctito. 
tloo, 18 yean pbuited, it b 80 ft. higb. In Forfuvhire, at Klnnaird Castle, 45 yean planted, It b 45 ft. 
bigb, the diamecer of the trunk 1 ft. 6ln. i at Courtachy Caitle, 14 yean plantcd, it b Ifift high. 

In InTemeii-ihire,at Cowan,30 yeanplanted, it b XfL bigb, the dlameter of tbe trunk 1 ft., and of 
the bead 95 ft. In Stlrllngifalre, at Blair Orummond, 180 yean oid, it ii 73 ft. bigb, the diameter of 
the trunk 8 ft. 6 in., and of the bead 48 ft.<f at Bnicefldd, it b 60 ft. hlgh, tbe diameter of the trunk 
1 ft. 6 in., aad of the bead 30it ; at Callendar Park, 39 yean plantcd, It b 46ft hlah. 

PbNw Slrdta* <i» JreUmd, In Down, at Ballyleady, 60 ycan planted, it b 46ft. hlgb. In Fer. 
managh, at Florence Court, 30 yean planted, it b 55 ft. hlgb. . In Oalway, at Coole, It b 40 ft. bigb, 
tbe duuneter of the trunk 8 ft. 

PlMttv StfrMui ha Fore^n Ccmirie», In Fyanoe, near Parli, at BeauTab, 30 vcan planted, it 
b 80ft bigb, the diameter of the trunk 3ft., andoftbe bead 30 ft.; atColombey, near Mcts, 
70 yean planted. It ii 60ft. high, tbe diameter of tbe trunk 9ft.{ at M. AngoCi, 89 yean 
planted, It b 40ft. hlgh j In tbe Park at Clerrauz, 38 yean plantcd, it b 71 ft. bigb. In HanoTcr, 
at Harbcke, 10 ycan pUntcd, it ii 16 ft. bigh ; at Schwdbber, 80 yean pUnted, It b 100 ft. hiffb, tbe 
diameter of tfae trunk 3 ft. In Saxony, at Wfirlita, 60 yean planted, It b 80 ft. high, the diaineter 
of tbe trunk 4 ft. 6ln., and of tbe bead 40 ft. In Caaiel, at Wilbelmiboe, eO/ean okl, It baa a trunk 
4ft In dlaineter. In BaTarta, in tbe Botanlo Garden at Munlcb, 18 yean pfanted, it b 80 ft. blgb | 
Intbe Engliab Oarden, 85Teanp1anted,it li.Wft.higb. In Auatrb, atVlcnna, atLuxemburg.SOyean 
plsnted, it b 95 ft hlgb ; in Rocentbari Nunery, 60 yean phmted, it ic 40 ft. bigb ; at HaderMlarf, 
» yeanplanted, it b 40ft. blgb ; at Brdck on the Leytha. 30 yean planted, it ic 40ft. blgh. In 
PruKla, at Berlin, aC Sana Souci, 45 yean pUnted, It b 40 ft. bigb t in the Pfkucii Inad, 40 ycnn 
plantad, it b 50 ft. bigb. In Italy, at I>edo^ near Monsa, It b 70 ft. blgb, tbe dlameter of the tnmk 
8 ft. 6 in.. and of tbe bend 30 ft 

Cammercial StatMc», Plants, in the London nurseries, are, per thousand. 
1 year's seedlings, Bt.\ l^years' seedlings, 12«.; 1 year*s transplanted, 20f.; and 
transplanted plants fironi 9 in. to 12 in. high, 50«. At Bollwyller, plants are 
(rom 1 franc to 2 francs each ; or, per hundred, 4 years old and transplanted^ 
30«. At New Yorlc, plants are lroiBi50 cents to 75 cents, and as high as 
1 dollar each» according to their size. 

f. 40. P. (i9.) EXCB^LSA Wallich. The lofty, or Bhoian, Pine. 

JdenMeaiiim. WalL Pl. Ai. Rar., 1 801. ; Lamb. Pln., 1. 1 SS. ; Royle Illnct; Lawion*a Manual, n, 389U 
Sigpumgmee P. Dicki6n^/ Hort. ; Chilla, or Chylla, Himataifaa ; Kuel, Sinrume and Gwkwai ; Xem- 

ibing, Rkoiea : Racftula, or King of the Fln, Hindottati. 
Eagrariam». Wall. Pl. Aa. Rar., t. 801. ; Lamb. Pin., 1. 1 33. t (mxjlg. 8199L, toour uaual icalef 

and J^r. 8197. and 8198., of tbe natural liae, flrom WalUcb, Lambert, and Arom Uring •pectancnc 

Spee. Char.^ ^e. Leaves in fives, yery long, and slender, loose. Crest of the 
antheris roundish, truncate ; simple, lacerated. Gones cylindrical, smoothy 
pendulous, longer than the leaves. (Wall.) Buds, on the tree in the Hor- 



iiall t«eth ; funiuhed w 

dcultural 8oclety'i Oarden, Jin. long 

and -A in. broad ; conieal, with «traight . 

iide«,andpointcd.(;jik- 21870 I*«»ea i 

rBthermore than Oin. loa^. CoDe9iD. ri 
a long, Bud 8 in. broMl, mth a rooutalk J 
1 I in. loDKi acale 1| in. long, and l^in. ^ 
1 broftd. Beed» -fg in, long, and J in. ^ 
f broad; with the wing, IJin, long, and 

Jin. broad. A niiU*e of Nepal, 
ita inountaiQS. Introduced in IS^3. 
SisT Dacrifilio». A tall, handsome, Pyra- I 
tnidal tree, attainingtheheigbtof frora 90tl. to ' 
I20A. Branches numeroua, ascending, divid- 
ed, disposed in whorU. Bark entire, smootb, \ 
•oft, pale grey, Wood white, aboundinn ir 
a liquid temn. Leavei in five», very long, den 
der, triquetrouB, loose; glaucoua green, ph- 
able ; 5 in. to 7 in, long, roughish od the angles from si 

tbe apex wich a «mall callous mucra, crowded on the branchei, particularij 
towBrds the epexes ; bicanaliculate abore, llBt beneath ; sheaths about } in. 
long, caducouB, imbricatcd with numerouB, linear-oblong, brown, membrana- 
ceous BcaleB. Catkins tennina), with numerous membranaceous brownscalei 
at the buBe; male ovate, short, obtuse, lesBile, dense, collected into a faead 
aboiit 3 lines long, and 1 in. thick. StuneDS taonadelphous. Anthera very short 
roundish, openingbelow 
longitudinaliy, filled with 
■ulphur-coloured pollen ; 
creHt small, roundish, 
■iinple, membranaceous ; e 
daii-brown, Mnged BDd ; 
tom on the margin ; *= 
female oblong, cyUndri- ^ 
cal, in ihrees or fours, ^ 
erect, when youog ()e- 
dunculate; scaleshroBd, 
roundish, imbricaled in- 
wards, coriaceous, thick, 
mBTgined.unooth- Conee 
3 or itogether, cylin- 
drical, pedunculate, db- 
pendulous whcn ripe, 
2 in, in diameter, tomt- 
what ettenuated towards 
the apex ; i%cales broad, 
wedge-^aped, coriace- 
ouK, thick, closely imbri- 
cated, smooth ; light 
^own ; apiculate above, 
with B short, thick, ob- 
tuse, dark brown mucro. 
Seeds ovate, compreised 
on both sidea; tettm 
bonj, black, marked with grey Kpots; wing obk>n»«btuBe, membnnaceoiii, 
ferniginouB, somewliatcimeter-shaped, reticulate. jLamb.') P. excelEa, Mr. 
Lambert obaerveB, approaches bo near in habit, and in the sbepe of it 

to P. 5tr6bus, that, were it not for ihe simple, round, membranaceous crest 
of the Bntbers, it nould be almost imiioBBibie to diBtinguish them specificAUy. 
The lcaves are longM' than in P. Strdbus, and the conea i " 


CHAP. cxm 

CUNI'FER£. PlVus. 

Rofle innkeB a similar remwk 
as to the reEemblance of thii 
tree to P. Ardbus, and adds 
" that it is remariiable for its 
dTDoping branchea, wlience it 
)■ lnw|uently callcd the " weep- 
tng fir," bj travellers in tne 
HimalayM. It is found in 
company with the deodar ce- 
dar at Narainhett;, in Nepat, 
and at Simla, Theog, &c, and 
in tbe Bbotea Pergunnahsof 
Kamaon. Dr. Wallich men- 
tions a variety, if not a species, 
stil) nearer to P. iStrdbus, at 
Bainpa and Toka, in Nepal. 
(Roylr lautl.) The rate of 
growth of this tree, In the cli- |j 
mate of London, appears to be 
aeaz\y the same as that of P. 
Ar6bus. A plant in the Hor- 
ticultunl Society's Oarden, af 
which fg. 8202. is a portrait, 
8 years planted, was, in 1837, 
Mft, bigh; one at Dropmore, 
of which^. 2201. is a portrHit, 
tbe tame age and 10 ft. high, 
ha* produced a cone ; and one 
in the KUnnoul Nurserj', in the 
neighbouTfaood of Perth, was, 
ioiese, ISfLbigb. P.excSsa 
is frequent botb m Upper 
N^mI and Bothsam. In the 
btter couDtry, its timber is 
preferred bj the inbabitants 
tothat oTeTery oiherpine. It 
>Ielda iii great quantities a 

pure aad limpid turpentine, by the slightest incuion. The scales of the cone 
■bo exbibit turpentine, see &. 2200. to the natural size. The species was 
iotroduced into England by Dr. WaUich about 1827; and sereral plants 
•ere raiaed hy Mr, Lambert at Boytoo, and in the Horticultural 8ociety's 
Gardm, in that vear. Some appear, according to Mr. Lawson, to have been 
fwed, also, in the Olasgow Botanic Oarden. Plaots, which are rather rare 
in the London nuraerieB, are 81«. each. 




S 4!. P. (S.) LavbsrtmV^ Dougl. The gigantif, or Lamberfs, Pine, 

IdniUpaiaom. Doii(l. In Lln. Tniu, !£. s. »0. i Umb. Pin., «L E, 1. 1. M. j Ijancft IIunuL 

HSSl.lLodd. OL.hI. 1&3S, 
'VWIHi, Ljunb. Pln.,ad.l.,LM.; «irrb.E9<K., U OUI UHul »1<: lodjlnesQl tonj., 

<* the nitunl ■!» i th* «»« ud •cal* tm DouglM"! mini™ I" *•" ■■—«-■>• ■ f—' — ■- 

^crfawluin, ud thtbudi uid Iutbi fnw tht tiH [n Ihc HoiticuLluri 

Spec. Char., &c. Lmtm in fives, rigid. 

a'iiijb ; sheaths very short,- Coi 
,¥£17 longiCylindriral; scales lcx> 
roundiih. (^Dougbu.) Bud«, in tbe spe- 

cimen from the Horticultunl Socie- 

Ity'B Qarden, f. in. long, uid i in- , 
broad; roundiih.poinEed, andwith / 
3 BQiBller buds. (See^. S!03.) [^ 
LesTci 8}in. to 3in. long; 
Douglu'* specimena, 4) in. i 
Sin. long. Conea from llin. 
16in. long, uid &Bid to be some. 
tiines 18 in. long, aud 4 in. io 
diameter in the widest pirt ; 
scales 11 in. wide, and nearly 8 io. 
**"* long. Seed large, oval, J in. long, 
and nearly ( in. broad ; dark brown ; 
wiug dark wown, and, with the leed, 
1} in. long, and } in, broad in the widett 
part. NBtive of thc north-weit coast of 
Mortli AmericB, where it wu discovered 
by Doujlaa ; and introduced into Eng' 
laod in 1B27. 

Z^imption. According to Dougtu, "the trunk of F. 1 
from 150 ft. to Bbove 200ft. in height, wying from 80 ft. t 
cumference. One ipeciinen,which had been btown down by the wiDd,aii<I whicb 
wax cert^nly not the Urgeat, was of the foUowing dimensionB : — Its entire 
lenMh was S15ft.; its circumference, at 3 ft. from theground, was 57 ft. 9 in., 
ancTat ISlfi.from theground, I7ft.5in. The trunkiauausuallyatraigfat,aiM) 

lAP. rxill. CO«i FERJE. PI KUS. 

dettitute ofbranches i^ut two thirdi of its hei^t. Hie bark it uncominoiily 
•inooth for such targe timber, of a light browD colour on the Bouth, and 
bleached OD thenorth, side. The branches ate pcndulous, and form an open 
pyramidal head, with Ihat app^ence which is pecuUar to the ji^bies tribe. The 
leaTes are between4in. anclfiin. long, and grow infivea, witbshortdcciduous 
■heatha, hke thoBC of P. ScrdbuB : they are rigid, of a bright green colour, but 
Dot gloMv, Mid, Iroin minute denticulations ol the margin, are scabroua h 
Thei .... 


r, Mid,lroin 
le conea sre penduloiii ftom the 

7i 8 

of tbe branchea : Cliey 




are two years in acquir- 

ing tbeir fiill growth ; 

they are at lirEt ujiright, 

and do not b^n to 

droop lill Uie sccond 

vear. When young, they t"' ; * 

have B very tajicr ligure. 'C^ 

When ripe, they are ' '^ 

about 1 1 ID. in drcuni' 

ference at the thickest 

part, and Taryfrom l^ln. 

to 16 in. in length. The iv^iSa 

Bcaleti are lax, rounded *■ -V^\ 

at the apex, and per- ^''' ■ ■ 

fectly deatiiute of pric- i*"-^ 

klcs : tile seeds larfK. V ^tE"^ ^ 

b lines tong, and 4 broad ; '' '.^^'A 

otbI i and, like those of *. .^\ 

the P. Pinea, their kcr- 'l^^ 

nel3 are sweet, and vcry 

pleasant to the taste. 

The win^ i« ineiiibranaccous, of a dolabrirorin ligure, and (uli^ous colour, 

about twice as long aa the seed ; it haa an innuinenible quantity of minute 

stnuous vcssels, firicd with a crinison sulistance, nnij forming nioat beautifiil 

microsconic objects. The embryo has 12 or J3 cotyledons. The whoLe 

tree producea an abundance of pure ainber-colourcd rcsin. Its timber ia 

white, Eoft, and light i it abounds in turpentine reservoirs; ond its tpeciGc 

gevity has hecn oscertaincd, from a hpccimen sent to En^and, to be 0-463. 

Tlie annual layera are very narrow : in the abovc Bpeeimen, thcre were 56 

in the space of 44 in. next the outaide. Thc specics to whicli ihis pine it 

niost nearly allied is.undoubtedly, P. Slrobua, from which, however, it is ex- 

Iremely dinerent in atation, habit, and part» of fructificalion." (Dougl. in 

Linn. Trant., xv. p. 499.) 

Geographi/, Hutory,^c. This species "coverBlari^ie districla about lOOmilea 
from theocean, in lat. 43° n., and extenda aa far to the southas40°." ItGrst 
came under the notice of Douslaa in August, 1825, while at the head waten 
of ihe Multnomah river. In October, 1S26, continues Douglas, '|it waa my 
good fortune to meet vith it beyond a range of mountains running in a south- 
weatem direction from the Rocky Mountains towards the sea, and terminating 
at the Cape Orford of Vancouver. It ctows sparingly upon low hilla, and the 
undulating countrv east of the range oTniountaina juat mentioned,wheretbe 
soil consista entirely of pure sand, and in ^pearance is incapable of supportiog 
vegetntion. Here it attaina ita greatest size, and perfecta its fruit in most 
abundancc. The trees do not form dense foresta, as most of the other pines 
which clothe the face of North-west America ; but, likeP.reBin6<n, which grows 
among them, they are scattered singly over the 
plaius, and may be considered to form a sort of 
connecting link between the gloomy foreais of the 
Dorth and the more tropical-lookjng verdure of 
Califomia." (/fiirf., p. 498.) Planta were raised 
of this species in the Horticultural Sociely's Gar- 
denin 1827, anddistributedinthefollowing year; 
but it ia remarkable that the greater part of them 
have since died, generally when they were aboui 
4 ft. or 5 h. in height. Notwithstanding this, the 
fpecies does not appear to be much more tender * 

than P. 5tr6bua. The largest existing plant that - 

we know of is in the earden of William Wells, Esq,, at Redleaf, where, havb^ 
beensownin I829,itis lOft. Sin. high. One in the Chiswirk Oarden, aowa 
tlie sameyear, andof which/j. 2207. isaponrwt, isonly 6ft. 6in. higfa. 



ProperUei and Utei. The reBin, Douglas obBcrrea, " which exudes from 
the treea ot P. LamberEKtnii, when they are panly burned, losea it* uuial 
llavour, and acquircs b sweet taate; in wtiich state it ia uae<l by the natives aa 
sugar, b«Dg mued with their Tood. The secds are eatcn rousted, or are 
poundedintocoBTae cakesfortheir winter store. Ihave, sinceniyretum.been 
infbriDed by Mr. Menzies, that, when he waa on the coast of California with 
Captain Vancouvcr, in 1793, seeda of a large pinc, reaenibling those of ibe 
Btone piue, were served at the dessert by the Spanish priesls residcnt thcre. 
Thete were, no doubt.the produccof thesneciesnownDticed. The vernacular 
name ofit in tbelanguagc ofthe tJiiiptquoIiidiana,UHa/-c/c/i ' (Ibul,p 499.) 
i 48. P. (S.) HONTi COLA Dougl Tbe Mountain, <» ihiyrl-lemrd Wey. 
amulk, Pine. 


4, «1 a. iftw P 

Emjrnrlmgt. LJvib- P n 
r 1. S?!, wd «r Ai 
nw. nd BS9l, mnB 

Hmiculiunl VctM) 
Spec. Charac, 4^c 
Leavea in fivea, 
■hort, Binootbish, 
obtuse. CoDes 
cylindrical, and 
BiDOOtfa ; scales 
loose, pointed 
{D. Con.) Buds, 
in tfaeplantin tbe 
London Horti- 
cultural Society's 
Oarden, small, re 
■embling thi 

out the Bheatbs. 
Cone, Irom Dou- 
glas's specimeD, 
7 in. long, ukI 
If in. broad ; ra- 
ther obtuse at 
thepointi Bcales 
Jin. broad at the 
widest part, and 
from 1} in. to 
2 iD. long, and 
covered with re- 
sin. Seed small, 
^in. lone, and P 
^in. broad; with 
the wing, H JD. 
long, and } in. 
broad. Cotyle- 
dona F A native 
of tfae high moun- 
lumtna ; and in 
CaUTomia, on tbc 


DiKovered by Douglds, and iatro- 

Detcription, ^e. A reunous tree, with 
brownish-coloured bark. Leaves in fives, 
trii^uetrouB, obtuse ( bicanaliculate above, 
cftnDate below, with a blunt elevated llne ; 
obsoletely crenulated on che margin ; 
Bmootbish, glaucoua greeu; llin. to 3in. 
long. Sheaths iinbricBted with eJliplic-ob- 
long, obluse, thinly membranaceous, looie, 
bright brown Kales, quickly hlling otf. 
Coneti cylindncal, emooth, 6 in. to 8 in. 
long, generally in whorls ; Ecales spathu- 
late, apiculftte i alightly convex bcneath, dark 
Bsh-yellow. Seeds oval, with a cnislaceous 
testai wing hatchet-ahaped, obtuse, alriaCed, 
(lull yellow, ahining. (LoTni.} Except in 
its much shorter and smoother leaves, this 
species differa but little from P. 5tr6bus, of 
which it may prove to be only a variety; 
but, unlil an opmrtunity occura of eiamin- 
ing the male catkinB, and ascertaining other particulan, it is conaidered bett 
to keep it diatinct. Judging from the appearance of the epecimens sent 
bome by Douglas, the tree must abound in reain. The plant in the Horti- 
cultural Society's Garden is only a few inches faigh. Among Douglas'^ spe- 
cimens, there is a variety with red cones, from which no planti have yet 

App. i. Species of Pine •whick are noi yet irttroduced, and o^ 
TBhich little is kncrni. 

V.amltiia DcHi|lu. nc (wJiM-bniiched Phu. BudtroandIdi,i>iihiiiilunlpi]Mt.n>T>rad wlib 
reitn,iiiHlbrawn, Lcat« I )n i ilKUh, i in. loag ; ibcnih Tcrr ihon, imtHiatfil, blick. CaikafnHB 

iln loiiin laoti uidftoni ■■□. tolln. bnndi KalawtUi Uii uIch haTii» • 

r b Ifcminiling in n Munl pofnL rumiifacd wllh ■ aducoui mucn'. Tbi >boa>i 
^ ckael; CDtctfdwilfa Ichth, inuch in 

. 'tIiTii^™™ 


n, Ibui ihoK of F. iilviitriL Tho buda *n Urtc aMuH. 

tfaaHoi^^ c ■«i»fnrii. ThcnrnniidalpolntiorihcKalnirilonK, 'indbintli«kwuil« It ti > 

FrcDcb nurHrta II laihTiiltiinilMbUilT.iiviirlelrorf.iTliMrii, ttaoughBoKcauidcnitadidiBct 
•ptelcL IHamt. Com a-Arric., tiL Pin.! : 
P. ImrSaUla UoK hM l>ic laTH ! in a (heilh, 'Ijlhll; (Uucaui, ■cireelT 1 m. lonf. Tbe bude 

ibhT/t^t'lt ■•'pnSTbl; n'uti>c i>r NoTihAnerica; b!!t*h™dn«l^^ iTuw ^^ DnlntlM 

CUAP. CXtll. 


J^BIES D. Don. The Sprucb Pir. Lin. Syit. Mon(e'cia Monad^lphia. 
Hnlltictimu. D;DoiiliiLimli.Kn.,Ti>LIIL 
^UfHo. ^ui nr Via. •ml othen. )n t*n-, Ple« LMl m ^ttmd. CM(. Akei. Wlntiu. 

atrim, p.m..nH ISETi A'blti of TDum,, UJll., uid olhen, In urt; Flcn or [hs AiMlEuLii 

Suln tpb», IV. 1 Flclitcntiauni, flrr. ; AMaU. AaJ. j AUcU, ^na. 
DtrhaHtm. From at», u> tIh ; lUudlni to tlis iqilrmg babit ur gioirtA ol thc tne ; or, aaninllDt 

to mie, (nnn opto, a pcu tR* ; la •Uiuloii ta Ui« Airni of thc (ruit 

Deicriplioii. Evercreen treea ; nHtivea of Europe, Asia, and America ; re- 
maricabk for Uieir tall, etect, pvramidat fonns, sad profugioti of foliage. One 
oc niore Bpeciea are useful, anJ the rest ortiamental. Id Britain, they flower 
in Hay aad June, and ripen their cones in the spring of the followtng year. 
All the speciea t)ear seed» at a coQiDaratiTely early aee ; and all of them niay 
l>e readily propagBted by cuttings taken 09* in the npnng, accordineto Dumont 
De Courset ; or in autumn, according to the practice of British gardeners. 
All tbe «peciea hitherto iutroduced are quite hardy in British gardena. The 
geauB, taiing it altogether, ia ao tnilj' natural, that, without any great violence, 
all die differeot kinds of whidh it is composed might be reduced to three or 

Sect. i. Leaves tetragonal, a-aol-shaped, scattered m Inserlion. 

(D. Don.) 

I 1. A, bxcb'l8a Dec. The lofty, or JVbruKijr, Spruce Fir, 

UmtmemUtm. Dte.fl Ft.,3.| Pi^r. Dlct OKjt., S. p- BIS. j R Du'Hiin., & p.m 
teMWf. .4. «mmbnU JbM. i AT*t% Fiaa Ulu. Alet.,, lificlU. l). Amtr. ^l.,S.F.m.; 
jri*llb.olltlBlH,*(!., Ltm. HbH. CHff:, m., FlSvc,ti. 1., p.SJa, K. Lam.. ri^ l„ No.3i7., 
OmU S% L |i. ITB. [ Plnut llim T.(n Sp. Pl., irit., 8^1., «L JWch^ *. p. 177^ 1 S<ik., 

rum., 1. p. &, Amom. n m., t f. laa, rai. inmp*.. £ p. eio., aii. Han. Xri 

wmJ. Btm. Arwn., p. ««„ SmbA <■ Awi Cti., Ko. «0., Ijimt. Ptn., ti. %., 1 

i P. Piett DuAnH 


1*3^ lnW V. 



Spec, Char., ^c. Leayes scattered, quadrangalar. Cones cylindricalj terminal, 
pendent ; scales naked, truncate at the summit, flat. Crest of the anthers 
rounded. (Lois,) Cone from 5in. to 7in. long, and from l^in. to2in. 
broad; scale from l in. to l^in. long, and firom ^in. to f in. broad. Seed 
very small, scarcely ^ in. long, and -fg in. broad ; with the wing, f in. iong, 
and ^in. broad. Cotyledons 7 to 9. Indigenous to the north of Europe> 
more particularly to Norway; and in cultivation in Britain since 1548. 


f A. e. 1 commitnis, The common Spruce, or White Fir of Norway.— Tfae 
foliage is shorter, more slender, and lighter-coloured, than in tbe 
following form ; though the difiference may be in part owing to soil 
and situation. In Norway, as we are informed by Mr. White, the 
inhabitants make a distinction between the white and the red spruce: 
the former ^ows on light poor soils, and in elevated situations, 
and has a hghter foliage, and white wood; the latter grows in 
more substantial soils, in the valleys, and has a darker stronger 
foliage, and red wood, which is more resinous, and of much greater 
strength and durability. 
f A. e. 2 nigra. The ^iiac^-leaved Spruce^ or Red Fir of Norway. — There \s a 
tree in Studley Park, known there as the black spruce, of which a 
portrait is given in our iast Volume. In the foliace, it answera to 
the description given of the red fir of Norwav ; its leaves being 
very thick, strong, and dark-coloured ; its bark red ; and its cones 
ionger than those of the common spruce. The leaves, in the speci- 
men sent to us, are l^ in. iu length ; and the cones 
from 5^ in. to 6in. long, and from \\ in. to l^in. 
broad. The scales (see fig. 2213.) are much more 
pointed than thoseofthe common 8pruce,and longer. 
The tree at Studley is 121 ft. high ; and, from its 
dense mass of dark foliage, it is considered a much 
finer tree than the common spruce. 

1 A. e. 3 carpaHca', A. carpitica Hort. and Loud< 
HorL Brit. The Carpathian Spruce. — This variet 
has vigorous shoots, and foliage as dense and iong 
as that of the preceding, but lighter. There is a tree 
at Dropmore, which in 1837, after beiqg five or 
six years planted, was nearly 6 ft. high. ssi 

t A. e. Ab pendula ; A. commiinis p^ndula Booth ; i^nus A'\Ae& pendula 
Lodd. Cat.yeA. 1836. 77ie penduloui, or weeping, branched Norwav 
Spruce. — This is distinguished from the species by the drooping habit 
of its branches ; and also by the darker glossy green colour, and 
greater lenffth, of its leaves. There is a plant in the Hackney ar- 
boretum d-tt. high, the shoots of which are somewhat pendulous. 

1 A. e. 5 folm wmegdiis, P. A. foliis variegktis Lodd. Cat., has the leaves 
blotched with ydlow, and forms a raore compact dwarf-growing tree 
than the species. There is a plant in the Horticultural Society'8 
Garden, 8 years planted, which is 7 ft. high. 

m A. f. 6 CVon^iui/ikna; P. ClanbFBssiUna Lodd. Cat., ed. 1837; is a low, 
compact, round bush, seldom seen higher than 3 ft. or 4 ft., and never, 
that we have heard of, producin^ either male or female blossoms. 
The annual shoots are from 1 m. to 3 in. or 4 in. in length ; the 
leaves frota ^ in. to ^ in. long; and their colour is lighter man that 
of the species. The original plant is said to have been found on the 
estate of Moira, near Belfast, probably about the end of the last 
century ; and to have been first introduced into Great Britain by 
Lord Glanbrasil ; whence the specific name. The laigest plant that 
we know of in the neighbomrhood of London is at Cashiobuiy, near 
Watford ; where, in 1837, it was 3 ft. 6 in. high, having been 30 yeara 

CUAP. CXllI. CONl^FERiE. ^'B1E8. 2295 

planted ; at KJenwood, Hampstead, it is 3 ft. high, after being 8 years 
planted ; at Dropinore, it is 2 flt. 6 in. high ; ai^ in the Horticultural 
So€iety*s Garden, after being 10 years planted, it is 3 ft. high. At 
Cranmore, near Belfast, it is 3 ft. high ; diameter of the stem 2 in.^ 
and of the head 3 ft. It appears to us very doubtful whether such 
a stunted variety as this was ever found in a bed of seedlings : we 
think it much more probable that it is a continuation by cuttings of 
one of those bird-nest^ike monstrosities that are occasionally found 
on all treesy and which are to be met with on several trees of the 
common spruce at Pftin'8 Hill, and various other places. A, e. Clan- 
brasiltana, like the other varieties of the spruce fir, is readily pro* 
pagated by cuttings, and makes a beautifui little fir for growing in 
a pot. 

A A ^. 7 ClanhratUikDa. $tricta, — This variety was found in the |iurk at 
Florence Court, bv Mr. Youn^, gardener there, who sent us a 
drawing of the busb, and a specimen, in 1834. The bush has a dear 
stem oF about 1 ft. in height ; the h^ is of a narrow ovate conical 
form ; and the shoots are of upright rapid growth ; forming, Mr. 
Young observes, a very beautinil shrub for a lawn, Plants of it 
have ^en sent, by Mr. Young, to Mr. Knight of the JSxotic Nursery, 
King^s Road, and to Messrs. Smith, nurserymen, Ayr. ^ 

tt. A. e, Spygmce^a, A. n^na in the Horticultural Societv'B Garden, A. 
^legans Svuth ofAyr^ is said to be a dwarfer plant than A, e. Clan- 
brasiliaiia. A specimen in the Horticulturai Society^s Garden, 2 
years planted, was, in 1837, 6 in. high. 

A A. ^. 9 tenuifolia, A, tenuifolia Smith <fA^, has very slender leaves and 
shoots. A plant in the Hackney arboretum is 1 ft. high. 

f A. e, 10 gigantea, A. gigant^a Smith ofAyr, — There is a plant at Messrs. 
Loddige8's l ft. high, with leaves rather larger ancf stronger than 
those of the species. 

it A. e. II mondrbtay A, monstr^sa Hort,, has the shoots and leaves thicker 
than those of the species, and is said never to make any latend 
branches. The plant in the Horticultural Soeiety'8 Garden, after 
having been 12 years planted, consistb of a sinsle, upright, unnatural* 
looking, thickened shoot, 3 ft. in length, and densety covered with 

Other Farietiet, Bosc roentions a variety which was culttvated in the 
royal nurseries at Paris, and had been sent thither irom the Vosges. It 
had the leaves flatter and more pointed than the common spruce, and 
different cones. Bosc says that tnis kind might, perhaps, forra a distinct 
species ; but that the plant was torn up when the royat nursery in which 
it grew was destroyed, and he had neglected prcviously to describe it. 
Hayes speaks of a seminal variety of the spruce, which has been deno- 
minated the long-coned Comish fir, the cones being frequently nearlv 
1 ft. long ; and of which, in the year 1790, there was a fine tree in the park 
of Avondale, in the county of Wicklow. (Pract, Treat,, p. 165.) Linnsus 
has five varieties in his FTora Suecica ; but, as we are not aware of their 
having been propagated in British nurseries, we have not enumerated them. 
According to Gsertner, the species is exhibited in two forms, called the 
white and the red Norway spruce ; one with pale, and the other with deep- 
coloured, cones ; but the timber of both is white. Although these dis- 
tinctions are not known in British gardens, we have thought it right to 
direct attention to them. 

Detcriptitm, The Norway spruce fir is the loftiest of European trees, 
attaining the height of from 125 ft. to 150 ft., or even, in some cases, 160 ft.; 
with a very straight upright trunk, firom 2ft. to 6ft. in diameter; and 
widely extending brancbea, which spread oat r^hiriy on every nde, so 
aa to form a oooe-iike or pyramidal sbape» terminating in a straight arrow- 


PART llt. 

Ulce leaiUng aboot. The branchea, in young treea, >re diiposed in r^ular 
whorli froro the bsM to the ■umtnit ; but in old treei the lowo' brandies 
^p off, and the tree temiinatea m a pynunid of open uwular branchei, 
to that the rcsular whorls only occupy tne middle portion of the tree. In 
youns tree«, the branches are nearly horizontal j but in old treea tbey droop 
RTMt^y ai thar extremitiei ; and thii penduloui disjiontion of the brancho, 
joined to the darlt aombre e^Beo of the leave*, gi»e« to the wbole tree 
somewhat of b glooroy or melancholjr aipect. (See JSg. 2814^ to a acale 
of V4 ft. to 1 in.) Between the r^tar whoris of branchea, a few small abor- 
dve •hoota appear occaBionally. The bark of the trunk ia rather thin, 
warty, and of a reddish brown, becoming wrinkled and scaly on old tree». 
■nie rooti are spread- 

and with numeroua 
fibrei. The leavea 
are lolitary, of a dark 
gnusy green, gene- 
nilj under 1 in. in 
length, curred or 
bent, shaip^inted, 
very straiglit and 
stiff, and more crowd- 
ed together latenlly 
than on the upper 
aud under sides of 
the branchleti. The 
male catkins are du- 
Dieraus, solitary, in 
psirs, or e few tc^e- 
ther; from Jin. to 



long peduncies; cy- 
linarical, generally 
curved, of a yellow- 
ish colour> tipped 

bliug Bt first a balf- 
ripe strawberry, but 
^;raduBlIy lengthen- 
ing aod becoming 
looser ; and, wben 
ripe, diHcharging : 


extremities of the branches; ond the coDes, as they ripen, become pendent. 
Wben iu flower, the catkina are red or purplish, and pointed; but tbey 
soon take the form of a cooe, or, rmtber, pointed cylinder; their colour 
thra becomes ereeDish, and thts cbBnges, as they ripen, into a ricb red- 
dish browD. Id different soila aad situationa, tbc cobur of the fanale 
catkiuB, when in flower, varies (rom a dark red or purple to a pale red 
or yeilow, or even to a greenish hue, The ripe cones are from 5 in. 
to 7 ia. in length, and from l|in. to Sin. broad. The scalea are rbom- 
boidal, slightly inciirved, and rugged or tootbed at the tip, with two ieeds 
in each scale. The seeds are very smsU, Bud resemble those of P. syl- 
T^tris ; but are sharper-pointed, of a deep reddish brown, and rongber 
to the toueh. In Qerroany, according to Hartig, they are frequentl]' 
used for adulterating those of P. sylvMtris, at they are obtained from 
tbeir cone* with scercely any troublei while thooe of P. sylv^tris reijuire 
i_ ^_._ __j v_i. — ^ ^jjj ^y &equent]y the employmeDt of a 

considerable tine and labour 


kiln, to extricate them. The wings of the seeds are oval, and pale brown ; 

forming at the base a kind of spoon, in which one of the sides of the seed 

is enclosed, while the other is exposed to view. The seed does not es- 

cape iramediately that the cone is ripe, bot requires heat and drying winds 

to open the scales. This generally takes place between the months of 

February and May of the second year. The cones have each eight rows 

of scales in a spiral direction frora the base to the summit ; each row has 

from 20 to 23 scales, in each of which there are two seeds; and, conse- 

quentlv, an ordinary-sized cone contains from 320 to 368 seeds. The 

rate of growth in the spruce is nearly as great as that of the Scotch pine. 

For three or fouryears, at first, it does not average a srowth of more than 

firom 6 in. to 8 in. a year ; but, after the plants are 3 n. high, and till they 

attain the height of 50 ft., the rate of growth is from 2 ft. to 3 ft. a year, 

in iavourable soils. In 10 years from the seed, the plants will attain the 

height of 12 ft. or 15 ft. in the climate of London; and, in 50 years, the 

height of fi-om 90 ft. to 100 ft. The tallest specimens that we know of in 

the neighbourhood of London are at Syon, where it is drawn up among 

other trees, with a slender trunk, to nearlv 100 fl. in height ; but tne most 

Tigorous specimens are at Whitton, and they are from 85 ft. to 90 ft. higfa, 

with trunks firom 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The largest in England, 

that we have had any account of^ is a tree at Studley, of which a portrait 

bf H. W. Jukes, £sq., is ^ven in our iast Volume, and which is 132 h, 

high, with a trunk 6 ft. 5 m. in diameter, regularly clothed witli branches 

from the base to the summit. This tree is said to have been planted by 

Eugene Aram, who was steward of the Studley estate, about the middle 

of the last century. This spruce stands in the pleasure-grounds, near 

one of the cascades. We remarked its great height and fine appeanmce 

wben we visited Studley, in 1806; and Mr. Jukes informs us that it is 

stiil in a state of vigorous growth, and adding to its height yearly. The 

lower branches form an ample canopy, beneath which a person may stand, 

and look up close to the boie of the tree to its very summit; the insertions 

of tbe branches being naked, the trunk perfectly straight, and the remainder 

of the branches being densely clothed with leaves, and forming a thick casing 

which exciudes the light, and acts on tbe vision of a spectator below 

like the tube of a telescope. The duration of the tree in its native ha- 

bitatB 18 considered to be from 100 to 150 years. The trunk seldom, if 

ever, attains so great a thickness as that of P, sylv^stris; but it is uniformly 

straighter; and the wood is whiter, more elastic, less resinous, and con- 

seottently lighter, than the timber of that tree. 

From the pendent habit of the lower branches of the spruce, some 
curious anomalies are occasionally found in its habit of growth. The 
shoots next the cround, when they have attained a considerable length, 
naturaily rest on we soil at their extremities ; and the soil beine kept moist 
by tbe shade of the branches, these oflen root into it; and the points of 
their shoots taking a vertical direction, a series of new trees are formed 
in a circie round the old tree. Some of the most remarkable examples 
of this kind that we are aware of are to be found at the Whim, an 
estate formerly belonging to the Duke of Argyll whose name, as an 
arboriculturist, has been so firequently mentioned in this work. An ac* 
count of these spruces has been given in the Gardenef^t Magatme, by Mr. 
James M'Nab, of the Experimental Garden, Edinburgh, firom which the 
foUowing is an extract : — " The Whim is situated on the hieh ^ounds 
bordering the Pentland range of hills, 14 miles south-west of Edmburgh. 
The soil is chiefly composed of brown moss or bog earth, which is deep 
and spoiigy ; the subsoil is various, but b chiefly a retentive whitish clay. 
A large proportion of this propertv was planted with the Norway spnice 
and a few black spruces, by the Duke of Argyll, soon afler 1730. Nearly 
all the fine old specimens of spruces and other trees on this estate were 
cut down about 1810; but there are stili some spruce firs» about 60 h, higfa. 



Gominon spruce on 
the catote b 5 ft. 
10 io. at tbe nirfoce 
' of the ground ; and 
that of tfae largett 
bUck spruce Lb fi ft. 
lin. The peculjari- 
ties of growtb which 
we haTe meDtioned 
aie Bhown in aeverel 
apecimens in difierent 
parts of tbe proper- 
ty ; the mott fanCMtic 
of which is one grow- 
ing in the centre of 
a piece oS elevated 
moMj ground, about 
an acre in exlent, 
aud within the bound- 
vy of the kitchen- 
Barden wall, called the 
Wildeniess. Thistree 
faas received the ap- 
pelladon of tbe Tra- ^ 
TelJing Fir, on ac- 
count of itt brancbes t,^-, 
haTJng taken root ' " .-.. .--^~ ■ 
wherever they bave -i''-. 

come in contact with ihe soil. In this specimen (Jtg, 2S15., to a s 
I in. to 12 ft.), manji natural layers from the tnink, and from the primary 
■ubttems, have taken root, *o as to form s doubte Beries of young treei, 
in two concentric circle« round the parent trunk. The depth of the peat 
•oil where this remarkable spruce Erows is about 14 II. That portioii of 
Ihe branch which is belween tne trunk of the onginBl tree and the partwbere 
it roota mto the ground, and wbich is Bometimes Bereral feet in lei^th, rarely 
inereaaea in diameter ^tat its extremity has rooted (as Bhown inj^. 2216., 
Ut B Bcale of Sin. to itt,). If these hoHiontal branches do increase ia dift- 
meter, it is in a very slight dc^ree; as Bome branches proceeding both from 
the main trunk and from nrimary Bubatem«, in the first concentric citde 
of young trees formed by them, vary from 2 ii. to 6 ti. in Iragth, and are 
onfy &am IJin. to 3in. in diameter; while their extremitieB, which have 
rooted in the ground, Eind Msumed tbe appearance of stema, wy from 6 in. 
to 8ft. in circumference. The branches pfoceeding from the primair substeme 
have also branches, equally healthy with theinstSves, proceedine Jrom thcm, 
and with every appearance oF their producine othen ; which, if ^owed room, 
ma^, in course of time, cover the whole WildemeiB. That portion of the 
mam stem, or trunk of the parent tree, which remains above the suriiice of 
the Boil, it little more than 4 it. high before upright branches arc produced ; and 
it ia 7 ft- in ita gresteBt circumference. These upright brsnches, or rather limbs, 
are trom 30 ft. to 35 (t. in height. The primary BubBtems, which constitute tbe 
inner concentric circle of young trees, vary trom 8ft. to 2i{t, in height; and 
the secondary BubsteniB, which fbnn the trees of the outer drcle, are fi*om 
4 ft. to 10 ft. high. There are upwards of thirty rooted stems Burrounding 
the mother tree; and SOt^ is thc greatest diameter of the space covered 
by stolontferous brancbes ; though in one case a aecondary tsyer has reaclted 
•a &r as IS tl. from the main trunk. The other specimens of tliis tund of tree 
were hr infcfior in aize lo tbe one now described ; pertiaps owing to the cattle 
browiing tlie ude ahoots, and destroyiug the tops of the youngo^iriiig; 



wfaeress ao caXde could eaCer the Wilderneia to injure the tpruce growiDg 

tJiere. Beeides tbe tree mentioned, oChcr anocnalies, equally interefltitig, 

occur iD two apecimeos, alio of Norway , , i - 

apnice, which were blown down • great 

maay yesra ago. The gardener, Mr. 

Young, has been at the Whim 15 yeare ; 

and, durii^ that period, no difierence, 

be aays, haa been obKrvable on the ho- 

riioQtBl portiona; but he koow* consi' 

derable alteration in the upright atems, 

botb as regarda their circumfercnce and 

heurht. Oue of these is called the Man- 

of-Wv Spruce, ( F^. 8217., to a acale 

of lin. to lift.) It haa four Btema, dif- 

fering in height and diBCance from ench 

otber, aa repreiiented in the figure; the 

talleat being 34 ft. in height froni the 

ground. At first ai^t, thia tree aeems 

to derive ita principal nouriahment froui 

the lower portion of tbe root, at the ex- . 

tremit^ of the fallen stem : sucfa, how- 

erer, u not the caae; fbr, on d 

beside the horiiontal tnink, t 

BtroDg rools were fbund to have pro- 

ceeded from the under portion of it, and 

tbeae roota apread out many feet, at a 

few incbea undcr the Burface. In thc 

other specinieDa (^. 2SIS, to a scale 

of 1 in. to 12l\.), roots were seen pro- 

truding above ground, from the aide of 

the horiaoatal ttem ; aod, wben ez- 

amiDed by digging, the under surbce was also found to hsve produced 



circle, and in tome pUc<« 

rooU. Id both eumplea, tfae ori^iul 

Xhad decaf ed close to the uppennoat 
rescent bwich; no doubt, id coo- 
•equeuce of their not being Bble to tuni 
upright : Dotwithatanding, howerer, the 
extreoiities of both bBTc > tendencj to- 
wards the uprigfat position." (Gard. 
Mag., vol. xiii. p. 849.) 

Geogmphy. Tfae common «pnioe ii 
indigenouB to the hilli and mountains 
of Europe uid Asia, in ploces wtiere 
the BuHice of the soil ia moist, and 
tfae Btmoiphere cold and faumid. It is 
moBt common in Norway, Sweden, Lop- 
land, Denmaric, and throughout the 
north of Oermany. It is fouad on '^'"'i 
Oiountune in Fnuice, on the Alpg, the 
Pyrenees, in the VoBgeB, in Burgundy, ' 
on the Jura, in Switierland, nnd in Bel- 
sium. Accordins to Pallai, it aboundB 
u tbe north of Kussia, and in Siberis ; 
occupying cold, manhj, end apringy 
place*, and the Tatlejs between moun- 
tUDB. Beyond the Lena, and in Kamt- 
■ciiatk^ it iswuiting; but it frequeutly 
occurs in the Kurile Islei. In the norta 
of Rusiia and Siberia, it reaches to the a 

berond it ; and in the north of 6weden and Lapland, as far ai n 
69°. It growE on the SwediBh mountoins at the elevation of 8000 fU 
wbere P. BjrU^BtriB, accordmg to Dr. Agardh (Gard. Mag., toI. xu. p. 63.), i> 
fouod prindpally in the pUine. On tbc Lapland mountainB, it grows at dte 
hei^t of 1000 tt. The spruce, in Norway, accordine to Schouw, extenda to 
N. lat. 70 °, and there grows al an elcTation of 750 h. In the south of Norwaf, 
it growa at the height of 3000 h. The order of hardiness of the ScandinaTian 
trees, accordineto Schouw, is : 1. ihe birch, whicfa grows nearest the sumDuts 
of the mountauis; 8. tfae spnice fir; and, 3. the Scotcfa pine. The nipe- 
rior hardiness of the spruce to any other trees of the pine and fir tribe ii 
tfauB establithed beyond a doubt. (See Gard. Ma^., vol. xii. n. 60.) The 
soil in whieh the q>ruce fir is generallj (bund dif^ from that in which 
tfae Scotrh pine abounds, in faeing softer and moiBter on tbe surioce. 
Among dr; rocks and stones, where the Scotch pine would fiourish, ibe 
spruce fir will «carcely grow. The Bpruce fir, on the AIps of Switierlaiu], 
i» frequently found above 150 ft. in height, with truoks from 4fL to 5ft. 
in diameter, growing in moist soil in mountain TalleyB ; and the timber of 
these trees is bard, tougb, and very durable. Tfae finest forests of dus 
tree which we liaTe seen are on the southem shores of the Baltic, between 
Hemel and Konigsbefg, where the surface conuBtB of a thin Btratum of blad 
peaty soil, incumbent on a i)ed of sand, and the whole of which is under 
water a great part of every winter. We havc also aeen the tree making a 
fine appearanceon rocky faanks iu different partB of Sweden; but scarcdy 
anywbere in thal country is it to be found in situations so grand and pic- 
turesque as it is in Norwsy. 

In the year 1817, and subiequently, h great many views in Norway were 
taken by James Whits, F.sq., all of whii£ he faas kindly lent to us ; and, 
troui these we have made a selection to sbow the effect of the spruce fir, 
the Scotch pine, and, as cooiiected with them, the common bircfa, in land- 
scape scenery. 

Fig. 2219. is a view of the Paia of KjrogleTin, on die road to Rii^crik^ 

near the Lake of Tiri Fiord Bhowbs die effect of tlie sjiruce fir and 
the Scotch pioe. on rockv pTecipice». The like Heii i» the raiddle distance 
u Tiri Fioni. 


Fig. 2880. ii a tiew of k lake, 

and tne lUTToundiiig hills and mouii' .^ 

taini, new Waabottea, between the ^ =: '- :.--..- 

towni of PongTund and Lauririg, , , 

Bhowing the tpnice fir, together ; - •t^ _ 

with lome gronpt and niMKi of 

Scotch pine on mountain Bcenery. 
J^. 2881. 11 n view on the rowl a 

from Poragrund to Laurwig, ool 

from the town of Porsgrund, which i 

(howa the eSect of the spruce fir oi 

low failla Bnd in bottoms. 

Fig. 882S. u a view of Illoe I 

Fora, near Schion, showing an e 

tendTe forest of Scotch pine on an 

eitent of table land, with groupi of ^^^ 

the spruce, ai contrasted with those ofthe birch; and ^owing the Gne effect 

of tbie latter tree wbeu atandtng singly, or in gmall loose groups. In this 

reapect, indeed, the birch differe from most other trees, at no period of it« 

growth haTine a picturesque efiect in maases. 
.Wutary. niny frequently men- 

tions the spruce fir, which he callj 
picea (whence ihe Frencb names 

£'picea aiid Sapin-Pesse), and 

which, he says, produced tears of 

resin that could scarcely be dit- 
tinguiahed from iucenEe. He also 
mentkinR its use in funeral ceremo- 
nies, on which occaiions a branch 
was placed at the door of the house 
of the deceased; and informs us 
that it was used wben green fbr tbe 
funeml pile. 

Though the spruce Gr is geDerally allowed not to be a narive of 
Britain, it appeara to havc been introduced at a very early period. as Tumer 
includet it in his yamet of Hrrbei, published in 164S; and both tierard 
and Parkinson not only give very good engravings of it, but speak t^ iis 
bein^ found in great quantities in dtflerent parta of tbe iiland. The early 
British writera on trees, however, anpear to have often confounded tfae 
Scotch pine with the spruce Gr ; and it u remarkable, that neitfaer of the 
above-mentioned wrilerE mentions the Bcotch pine at all, though it ts probaUy 
e Parkinson means, when he speaks of^the "firre tree" growing wild 

also called the mast tree, and the deale tree. The spruce fir hss always been 
convdered, in Britain, as an omamental tree; and, ntim the time of Milla', 
it has been introduced as such in parks and pleasure.crouiid scenery. About 
the end of the laat century, and m the bc^nning of the present one, it waa 
recommeDded by Adam, Stuig, and othera, in Scotland, and by Pontey tn 
England, as weU adapted for shellering otber trees; but it has never been 
planted u immense masses in Britain, as a timber tree, like the Scotch pioe, 
thougfa it has been so in GemiBny ; and, from ihe varioua uses to wbich 
it may be applied eren in a young state, it well deserves to be so in erery 
country where it will thrive. The timber, which is called, in Norwaj, spruce 

§'ne, hai been for an unknown period imported from that country into 
ritain, chtefly in the (brm of entire trunks, which are used for scafiblding- 
poles, spara, oara, and maats for smoll craft; hut piirtly, also, sawn into plankl 
or deals, known in commerce as white deal, wnite Baltic deal, and white 
ChtutiMia deal ; the red deal being, fbr the most part, the timber of P. syl- 


T^ilna , though, m before Rtated p SSM the wood of the ipruce la red, 
when the tree u grown in certain soiIb and situationB The poles BpHrs, 
snd oan are the thuiDinn of the Norwegian woods and the deals 
and planka nre niade from the iarger trees which are tell The slendereat 
polea are tsken from the largett and oldest woodn, and are called seedlings : 
tbey are alwBva found where the wood la most dense and verj oflen clu e by 
the Bide of B farge tree Thej grow very tall and slender whollj withont 
bnncheB e^cept at the aummit, and tnough oflen only a few inches in 
diaineter are of great Bge Some curious information on this aulyect, 
commumcated by a Norwegtan woodman, will be found in Montenth'» 
Foreiter M Gmdr from p 886 to p 832 

Poettcai AUutKmi According to some the Bpruce fir una dedicated to 
Diana. Virgil speaka of iC aa being uaed in the funeral ceremoniea of Mi- 

In the Georg 

; of the 

The Britiah poets so often mention the Scotch pine under thc namc 
of fir, whicb name they also apply to the spruce fir, that it is aometimes diffi- 
eutt to know which of theae trees is meant ; the following quotationa, how- 
CTM', appear to beloDg to the spruce : — 

" Hen iiilrT fln uund Oirlr iHigllicnM nnki, 

^ieiuer apeaJis of it aa "the fir tbat weepeth still;" and Fairfax terma it 

H Bn In conk IbniM irl 


Properties and Utes. The wood of the spnice fir is light» elastic, and vary- 
ing in durability according to the soil on which it haa grown. Its colour is 
eidier a reddish or a yellowish white, and it is much less resinous than the 
wood of P. sylvestris. AccorJing to Hartig, it weighs 64 Ib. 11 oz. per cubic 
foot when green» 49 Ib. 5 oz. when half-dry, and 35 Ib. 2 oz. when quite dry ; 
and it shrinks in bulk one seventieth part in drying. The value of the wood 
for fuel is to that of the beech as 1079 is to 1540 ; and its charcoal is to tbat 
of tbe beech as 1 176 is to 1500. Both as fuel and charcoal, the spruce fir is 
superior to the silver fir. As fiiel, it is to the silver fir as 1211 to 1079; 
and as charcoad, as 1176 to 1127. The ashes fumish potash ; and the trunk 
produces an immense quantit^ of resin, fi^om which Burgundy pitch is made. 
The resin is obtained by incisions made in the bark, when it oozesout between 
that and the soft wood ; and the mode of procuring and manu&cturing it will 
be detailed hereafter. The bark roay be used for tanning; and the buds and 
young shoots for making spruce beer, the details respecting which will be given 
under the head of A, nigra. The cones, boiled in whey, are considered good in 
cases of scurvy . The principal use to which the wood is applied is, for scaffbld- 
ing-poles, ladders, spars, oars, and masts to small vesseb ; for which purposes, 
the greater proportion of the importations of spruce fir timber from Norway 
are in the form of entire trunks, often with the bark on, from SO ft. to 60 ft. in 
length, and not more than 6 in. or 8 in. in diameter at the thickest end. The 
planks and deals are used for flooring rooms, and by musical instrument makers 
and carvers; they are also used by cabinet-makers for lining fumiture, and for 
packing-boxes, and many similar purposes. The wood, being fine-grained, takes 
a high polish, and does well for gilding on ; and it will take a black stain as well 
as the wood of the pear tree. In carving, the grain is remarkably easy to 
work, taking the tool every way. No wood glues better ; and hence its great use 
for lining furniture, and making musical instruments. The 3'oung trees, espe- 
cially when the bark is kept on, are found to be more durable than young trees 
of any other species of pine or fir, with the single exception of the larch ; and 
' for this reason they are admirably adapted for fencing, for forming rools to 
agricultural buildings, and for a variety of country purposes. The durability 
of young trees of the spruce fir was first pointed out by Pontey in his 
Profitable Planter ; and tne circumstance which led him to discover it was, 
the sound state in which he found the dead branches in spruce fir plantations, 
which, though probably some of them had been dead more than twenty years» 
he uniformly found not only undecayed, but tough. This agrees with an ob- 
servation of Mitchell, tliat the lateral branches of both the silver fir and the 
spmce fir are so full of turpentine, as to be as red as brick, and 4 Ib. per 
foot heavier than oak. On further examination, Pontey diacovered that young 
trees, which had been employed as beams in buildings, were perfectly sound at 
the end of 24 years ; the bark, which had been lefit on, bemg also perfectly 
sound. There are but few spruce fir trees in Britain old enough to jproduce 
timber of large dimensions ; but some of the older trees cut down at Blair, on 
the estate of the Duke of Athol, have been used as spars and topmasts, and 
found equal in <j|uality to those imported from Norway. The value of the 
bark for tannin^ is nearly eaual to tliat of the birch and the larch, quite equal 
to that of the silver fir; and much stronger than thatof the Scotch pine. In 
Sweden, and also (according to Kasthofer) in Switzerland, the young shoots 
form a winter food for cattle and sheep. The inhabitantsof Finmark mix the 
points of the shoots with the oats fipven to their horses ; and the Laplanders 
eat an excrescence about the sizeof a strawberry, which they coUectfiom the 
extremity of the branches, where it is produced by the puncture of insects. 
The floors of rooms in Norway and Sweden, we are inforraed by Mary Wol- 
stonecroft, and also by Samuel Laing, Esq., (the author ofJoumal ofa Xc' 
sidence in Norway during Uie Vears 1834s£5-36,) are, at least once a week, 
strewed ovcr witn the green tops of the fir or juniper; which, on a white 
well-scoured deal floor, have a lively and pretty effect, and prevent the mud on 
the shoes from adhering to and soiling the wood, giving out at the same time. 

/ A. 


when trodden on, a refreshing odour ; the more necessary in countries where 
the rooms being heated by stoves, for the sake of saving fuel, are badly 
▼entikted. At funerals, the road into the churchyard and to the grave is 
strewed with these green sprigs ; the gathering and selling of which is a sort of 
trade for poor old people about the towns. In both Sweden and Norway, the 
inner bark b maae into baskets ; and the canoes, which are roade of the 
timber of the large trees, and which are so light, as Acerbi informs us, as 
to be carried on a man'8 shoulders when a rapid or cascade interrupts the 
navigation, have their planks fastened toffether with strings or cords made of 
the roots, so that not a single nail is usedin their construction. The long and 
slender roots are made use of to form this kind of strings ; and they are ren- 
dered flezible by splitting them down the middle, and by boiling them for two or 
three hours in water mixed with alkali and sea salt. After this, they are dried 
and twisted into cordage, which is used as a substitute for hemp, both for nayat 
and agricultural piuposes. In Britain, the frond-like branches form an excel- 
lent protection to the blossomsof fruit treeson walls ; being tucked in among 
the shoots of thc fruit trees, when the blossom buds of the latter are beginning 
to expand, and left in that position till they have shed their leaves ; by which 
time tne fruit is set, and requires no farther protection. Spruce fir branches 
are aiso ^sed for sticking early peas, to which they form a secure protection 
irom spring frosts ; and they might be used with excellent effect for protecting 
hal^ardy plants, whether against walls or in the open garden. 

T%e Sjpruce Fh' it one ofthe beti Nurtet for other trees, not only firom its dense 
mass of foliage, which may be considered as a reservoir of heat, but because, 
from its conical form, and its being abundantlv fumished with branches on 
the surface of the ground, it acts as a non-conductor, and kecps the soil from 
cold and drought; and, while it protects the plant to be sheltered from hi^ 
winds, it admits the top of that plant to the free enioyment of light and air. 
From the great abundance of resin in the leaves and bark, the tree is consi- 
dered a powerful non-conductor ; and it is said that the snow that falls on its 
branches melts much faster than that which falls on any other tree, which 
is another argument in its &vour as a nurse plant Wiliiam Adam, £sq., of 
Bhiir, in Kinross-shire, a planter of great experience, gave the fbllowing opinion 
as to the comparative merits of the larch, the spruce, and the silver fir, in 
1794 : — tt The larch being deciduous, is not a good nurse ; and, from its quick 
growth, it is probable that it is a great robber of the nourishment of other 
trees. From my own experience, I have no hesitation in sayinff that the 
spruce is to be preferred beyond all the other trees as a nurse. I nave thou- 
sands of instances of oaks and elms growing up uninjured in the bosom of 
spruces. The fact is most important, and reason at tbe same time supports* 
it. Deciduous trees send their roots downwards, pardcularly the oak : thc 
spruce spreads its roots close under the surface ; and their nourishment is 
drawn firom difierent sources. The larger the oak grows, the more it derives its 
nourishment from the subsoil, and, consequently, the less its roots interpose 
with those of the spruce. This iast rises, in a regular and very pointed cone, 
so that it leaves full space for the spreading top of ttie oak. The spruce is thickiy 
clothed with leaves» and its branches are of a strong unpliable nature; conse- 
qnently, it gives much protection, and does little injury to its neighbour; 
and, as it is very much feathered and bushy at the root, it protects the forest 
tree firom being wind-waved. The larch, on the contrary, is naked of leaves 
during the worst of the season ; and, firom itsboughs being thin and pliable, it 
lashes the neighbouring trees unmercifuUy, and it is in a condition, from its 
nakedness, to make every lash be felt just at the time when its ndghbours 
begin to spring. It has also no peculiar thickness at the bottom, to protect 
the others from wind-waving. It might be supposed that the silver fir would 
make as cood a nurse as the spruce ; but, in pomt of fact, I have not observed. 
that the forest tree grows so kindly with this fir as with the spruce ; and it 
may be observed that the silver fir is not so thoroughly leaved as the spruce : 
the sides of the botigh only are covered with leaves ; and the tree itself \» 

7k « 



adaptcd tbui the Rpruce fir (br ptanting in aanow •tri^ 
m i becauM, thou^ the trees ia the iDterior of the >tnp 
bel(iw,^et those on the outude wiil ret^ tbeir brancbe* 

not M wellclothed,eBpeciallyiiev tkenu&ceof theeanfa."(GeK..B£p. &»i., 
»ol. iv. p. 477.) 

Ifo tree is better adaptcd tbao the n 
for tkeiter or tecituion ; becauM, '' 
may become oaked below,^et tt 

froro the ground upwards, and eSeccuallj prerent tbe eye froni aeciDg 
through the ftcreea. The tendenc; of tbe tree to preMrreita lower brauchei 
renden it an eicellent protection U> gaine ; and for thii purpose, and also for 
the Bake of its Terdure during wint^, when planted among deciduous trees, 
andcut down to within 5ft. or 6ft. of theground, it aSbrds a ver; good end 
Terj beautifiil undergrowth. The cree beara the ihesri ; and, as it is of rapid 
growth, it nwkes excellent hedgesforBhelterinnurserygardenB. Sucb hedgea 
■re nnt unfrequent in Swiuerluid, and also in CaipHtnia, and in Bome parti 
of Baden and B«nu4a. In IB14, tliere were Bpruce lir hedges in some 
centlemen'a grounda in theneigbbourfaoodof Mo>cow,between30ft.Bnd40(t. 
bigh. Atthe whim,a]re«dy mentioned,p.8S97.,aspruce &r faedge (j^.2S83.) 
was ptanced, in 1BS3, 
put iu 3 ft. apart ; and, 

vitfa the eiception of '3ft» 2223 

three lett to ahoot up, *™» 

for the purpose of be- 
ing clipped into or- 
Damental figure», the 
whole were cut dowu 
to 5 fL, and afler> 
wards trimmed to thc 
Bfaape repreeented in 
thefigure. Thebe<tee 
WM Grst cut on Ja- 
nuary 25., tfae year 
■fter plantingi and, 
u tfae olants wore 

TTv, about the end 
tbat montb baa 

ting it every ye 

tince. Every portion 

of thii hedge, olr. M'Nab obaervea, " ia beautifiil and green ; and the anoual 

growthi are very short, giving the sui&ce of the hedge a fiiw healthy appcar- 

aDce." (Gard. Mag., toT. xiu. p. 254.) 

Aa an ornamental tree, ell admirers of regularity and symmetry ar« partial 
to the ipruce, unlesa we eicept the autfaor of the Plmter'i Kaiendio; wha 
sayi that, next to tfae Lombardy pophu' and the Scotch pine, it ii tfae lewt 
ornamental of common trees ; ttie meanmg of the writer probably beiiig, 
that it has leas variety in itself. Oilpin is evidently no grcat admirer of the 
troe 1 but still he oilows it to hsTe its peculiar beautiea. " The spruce fir," 
be Bayi, " ia senerally esteemed a more elegant tree tfaan the Scotch pine ; aod 
the reason, I suppose, is, because it often feaChera to the ground, and grow* 
in a more eiact and r^ular riiape: but this is a principal objection to it. 
It otlen wanCa botfa form and variety. We admire ils floadng foliwe, in 
whicb it MHnetimea esceeda all oCher Creea ; but it is rather ^Mgfttme to 
see a r«ieCition of these feathery atnta, beautiful as they are, reaied tier 
aboTe tier, in r^ulnr order, from the bottom of a tree to the top. Itt 
perpendictUar sCem, alio, which haa aeldom tny lineal Tsrietv, maket tbe 
appearance of tfae tree atill more formal, Ic la not alwayi, noi 

me ipruce fir grows with so mucfa regulBri^. Sometimea a lateral brancfa, 
' : lead beyond the reat, breaks somewhat througfa 

Spearance c 
e ipruce fij „ 
bere and Cfatfe, taking the 

CHAP. CXIII. CONrFERJE. ^l^filES. 2307 

the order commoDly obsenred» and forms a few chasms, which have a good 
effect. When thia is the case» the spruce fir ranks among picturesque trees. 
Somedmes it has as good an efifect» and in many drcumstances a better, 
when the contrast appears still stronger; when the tree is shattered br 
some accident, has lost many of its branches, and is scathed and ragged. 
A feathery branch, here and there, among broken stumps has often an 
admhable eflfect ; but it must arise from some particular situation. In aU 
ctrcumstances,^ however, the spruce fir appears best either as a single tree, 
or unmixed with any of its fellows ; for neither it, nor anjr of the spear- 
headed race, wili ever form a beautifiil dump without the assistance of other 
trees." (For. Scen,^ L p. 98.), ** Luzuriantly as the spruce fir grows with us in 
Britain, says Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, *' we must crave for it the same justice 
we have demanded for the Scotch pine, and deprecate any rash judgroent 
being formed, either on its extemal appearance, or on its timber, firom 
any other than the spedmens ezbibited in its native forests; where in« 
dhnduals are to be found 150 ft. liifihy and with trunks 5 ft. in diameter. 
The spruce fir ts the great tree ofue Alps; and» so far as our opinion 
of its efiect in landsc^ mav go, we can only say that, with us, it is 
so mentally associated with the grandeur of Swiss scenery, that the sight 
of it never fiuls to touch chords in our bosom which awaken the most 
pieasing recollections. What ' can be more truly sublime than to behold, 
oppoaed to the intensdy blue ether, the glazed white summits of Mont 
BlanCy or the Junfffrau, risinf over the interminable forests of spruce 
firs which clothe tne bases of the mountains ; whilst some such gigantic 
spedmens as those we have been noticing rise in ^oups among the rodu 
before us, many of them shivered, broken, and mairoea by tempests, dieir 
dark forms opposed to all the brilliant prismatic hues of some imroense 
forgeous dacier, which nourishes in its vast bosom a mighty river, that 
is doomed to fertilise and to enrich whole kiDgdoms." (Lauder^s OUpin^ i. 
p. 178.) Sir James Edward Smith observes that the ionff, sweeping, fan-like 
branches of the spruce, ai^er broken down by loads of dnow, and boiste* 
rous winds, have a mnd effect in alpine landscapes, and have been well 
employed in the subume compositions of Salvator £Losa and the German 

7^ reskious Producis of ihe Spruce Fbr are of a difierent kind fiY>m those 
of most of the trees of the genus Pinus. The sap does not fiow from the tree 
in the form of turpentine, but slowly oozes out firom between the bark and 
the soft wood, hardening by exposure to the air. The prindpal product of 
this tree is the Burgundv pitch of the shops, which is the congealed sap 
mdted, and darified by boiling it in water. To coilect it, the operator, 
in spring, before the sap is in motion, cuts out a strip of bark 3 ft. long, and 
1 in. or I^in. wide, vertically firom the south side of the tree, as deep as the 
soft wood, but without wounding it. This is done with an instrument made 
on purposct resembling a knife, with a crooked blade at one end, and a 
fiat blunt piece of iron at the other. The lower part of the incision, which 
is brought down to within 20 in. of the ground, is cut sloping, so as to prevent 
the rain water from lodging in the groove. As soon as the sap is in motion, 
the sides of this groove begin to fili with resinous matter, wnich, however, 
accumulates very slowly ; and it is not till the month of July or Auguat in 
the following year that the groove will be fuU ; when the resin is scraped out 
with the hooked-bladed knife before mentioned, and put into a conical 
basket, or scuttie, made of bark, till wanted for mauQu&cturing. In the 
spring of the next year, a thin slice of bark is cut off each side of the groove ; 
and in the August of the year foUowing, a second crop of resin is obtained; 
but this is much inferior to the first. As the process ma^ be carried so far 
as to destroy the tree, the foUowing ruies have been laid down by Hartig 
for procuring the resin : — Ist, To choose the trees only firom forests destined 
to mrnish wood for fuel. 2dly, Not to begin io extract resin till within 10 or 
12 years of the period when the trees are destined to be cut down ; and 

7k 3 


not to coUect resin more thaD fiye or dx times firom each tree. Sdly, Not to 
scrape off the resin before the month of July or August of the year after that 
in which the groove has been made, or its edges firesh-pared, in order to give 
the resin time to harden, and tbe bark under it to heal sufficiently to preyent 
the rain from rotting the wood ; and, 4ihly, Not to make more than one groove 
at a time upon a tree if it be smaU, or two if it be large ; and never to 
make the grooves more than 4>ft. in iength or, more than I in. or l|in. 
in width. Attempts have been made to show that rerin may be procured 
from trees artificiallv, without seriously iiyuring them ; and one author (M. 
Burgsdorf) aMcrts that, if the spruce fir has attained its fuU growth, ali its 
resin may be extracted firom it without injuring the quality of the wood for 
fuel or charcoal ; whUe another (M. Malus} assures us that the timber of the 
tree may stiU be used even for the purposes of construction. Du Hamel, 
Hartig, and most other authors, however, are of a very different opinion ; 
Hartig having found that carrying the process of extracting the resm to an 
extreme degree, not only renders the wood unfit for the purposes of con- 
struction, but even makes it aimost nseless for fuel. In Sweden, and on the 
southem shores of the Baltic, a simiiar opinion prevails ; and the resin is 
there only coUected firom those trees which have been pruned; in which 
case it generally oozes out fi*om the wound. 

Mode of preparmg the Bwgundu PUch, This pitch, or rather re8in,]8 
principaUy made in the Vosges. The slightest scar in the bark of the tree 
wiU be sumcient to make the resin ooze out ; but it must be observed that it 
never flows to the ground like turpentine, but congeals as soon as it issues 
from the wound, and remains attached to the baik in tears or crystals, 
something lUce the gum of cherry trees. To procure the sap in abundance, it 
is necessarv, as we nave already observed, to take off a narrow strip^ of bark, 
which is done with the broad end o{ the instrument before mendoned, or 
with a small hatchet ; great care being taken not to wound the wood. The 
resin fi^om young trees is softer than that from old ones ; but it is always 
dry enougn to be put into bags, in which it is kept dll a sufficient quandty 
is coUect^. To prepare the pitch, it is first necessary to melt the resin ; 
and, for this purpose, caldrons are set in masoniy, in such a manner that 
the fire only touches the bottom of the caldron; and the chimney is 
carried to such a height, or to such a distance, as to prevent aU danger 
of the flame issuing from it being driven by the wind or other causes on die 
resin. A quandty of water is then put into the caldron so aa to fiU it 
4 in. or 5 in. liigh ; and into this the resin is put a iitde at a dme, dU the 
caldron is about four fifths fiiU. A gentte nre is dien lighted below. 
which is gradually auemented, dli the water boUs, and the resin is aU meited. 
It must now be genUy stirred; afler which, the fire is withdrawn, and the 
resin is in a state for being purified. This is done by pouring the liquid 
firom the caldron into a bag made of coarse linen, which has been previously 
wetted ; fiiting it not more than two thirds, and afterwards putting it under 
a iight press. ^ The resin flows pure and clear into smaU casks made of 
fir wood; and in this state it is the yellow Burgundy pitch of oommerce. 
The refiise left in the sack, bemg pressed a second time, yieids a blacker 
resin, which is iised for tlie same purposes as the colophony of the pine ; 
and what remains, after this has been pressed out, is bumed in order to 
make lampblack. In general, 100 Ib. of resin, as coUected fi^om the tree, 
yields 50 Ib. of Burgundy pitch, and 8 Ib. of colophony. Treea grown on 
fertile soUs are said to yield a greater proportion of resin than those grown 
on poor BoUs ; and the pitch is said to be better when the resin has been 
coUected in a hot dry summer, than in a cold and humid one. An essendal 
oii is produced from the Burgundy pitch, by disdlladon ; but it is verv inferior 
to spirit of turpendne. A strong and vigorous spmce fir will yiefd, every 
second year, from 40 Ib. to 50 Ib. of congealed resin ; and this may be col- 
lected for from 20 to 25 years, if no other value is set on the tree ; but, if the 
collection of the sap be continued for this length of time, the tree becomes 

CUAP. CXIII. COMl'F£H£. ^'bies. 2809 

rotten and decays, giving birth to myriads of insects, which seriously injure 
the surrounding trees. It is therefore better to cut the trees down after 
eztracting the sap for 10 or 12 years, as before advised; because the wood 
may then probably be used for packing-boxes, &c., and, at any rate, will be 
good for fuei and charcoal. 

Soji, SUuathn, PtopagaHon, and CuUure, AU agree that the spruce fir 
requires a soil somewnat moist. Like all other firs, Sang observes, it will 
crow and thrive in soils of very different aualities ; but it never attains large 
dimensions in shallow soils and exposed places. On dry soils, xt invariably 
becomes stunted, produces a great number of cones at ail early age, and soon 
dies. The check given to large trees by transplanting also tnrows them 
into bearin^ ; by which means, even in the most suitable soils, the proeress 
of the tree m making wood is much impeded. Hence, in the case of the 
spruce, as in all the other ilbi6tinss, the great advantage of transplanting the 
tree when young. The spruce fir grows most luxuriantty in deep loams 
and low situations ; or on acclivities with a north-east aspect, and a moist 
sandy soil i in which last situation, at Blair and other places in Scotland, 
it b found to produce timber as strong and durable as tnat imported from 
Norway. The mature cones may be gathered any time between Noverober 
and April : they should be chosen fi^om healthy vigorous trees, and exposed 
to the heat of the sun, placed in a warm room, or slightly dried on a kiln ; 
after which, the seeds will drop out by merely shaking the cones, or gentlv 
thrashing them. Fifteen gallons of cones wifl produce 2 Ib. of seeds with 
their ¥dngs, or I Ib. 4 oz. without them. After bemg coUected, the seeds may 
be kept three or four years, and wili still preserve their vitality ; but it is 
always safest to sow them immediately after taking them from the cones, or 
in the course of the following March or April. The seeds of the spruce fir, 
benag nearly of the same size as those of the Scotch pine« may be treated in 
the nursery in a similar manner (see p.2 1 79 .) ; but, as the plants, when they come 
up, are more prolific in fibrous roots, and less so in shoots and leaves, they 
may be kept in the nursery, by frequcnt transplanting, till they attain a much 
larger size. The most convenient time for plantin^ them where thev are 
finally to remain is after they have been two years m the seed-bed, and one 
year transplanted ; and the operadon should never be performed but in 
mild weather, and when the air is somewhat moist. Where the seeds are to 
be sown to grow up at once into a plantation, without transplanting, the same 
quantity may be used as in the case of the Scotch pine (see p. 2178.). In 
Germany, and in some parts of France, according to Baudrillart, the seeds 
of the common spruce are sown along with those of oats, rye, or barley, 
at the rate of fit>m 2 quarts to 4< or 5 quarts per acre; and, after the 
crop of com is remoyed, the ground is enclosed, and left to become a 
spruce fir wood. The same thing is practised with the Scotch pine, and 
various other forest trees. The first year from the seed, young plants of the 
spruce fir make very little progress, not producing more than eight or nine 
leaves, and not rising higher than from I m. to 2 in. The second year, they 
push from 2in. to 4in.; and the third year they put out lateral branches. 
The fourth and fifth years, the plants begin to grow fast, showinff whorls 
of branches in the same manner as fiiU-grown trees. The period ofgrowth 
for the annual shoots, from this year, and ever afterwards, is fi*om two to 
two and a half months ; but the roots continue growing the whole summer. 
The eighth year, the length of the leading shoot will be from 2 ft. to 3 ft. 
Where the tree is grown principally for its branches, either as undergrowth 
for hedges, or as strips for shelter or seclusion, the plants ought to be placed 
5 ft. or 6 ft. apart, and thinned out as soon as they touch each other ; but, 
where they are planted in masses for the purpose of producing rods for 
stakes, or poles for hops, fencing, or spars, they may be planted from 3 ft. 
to 6 ft. apart every way, and not thinned till they are of such a length 
as to be sufficient for some useful purpose. FulUgrown plantations of 
spruce firs should be thinned either by cutting out the smallest, where the 

7k 4 


main obiect is to produce timber trees ; or bv cutdng out the laigest when fit for 
poles, if this be the main object. Very little praning is requim for the spruce 
fir, except in the case of large trees ; when the lower branches ma^ be cut 
offclose to the stem, to the heighth of a fourth, or from that to a third, pait 
of the height of the whoie tree. When proned, the branches ougfat to be cut 
off close to the stem» in order that the wound may heal over aa speedily 
as possiUe. Hayes mentions a practice adopted by a gentleman in IrelaDdy 
of cuttinff offevery other tier of branches» for the purpose of streqgdiening 
those which were left; and, by aliowing Uie branches to hang down more 
freely, thus to increase the picturesque appearance of the tree. (JFVoc^. 
Treat,^ p. 166.) At whatever age the trees are cut down, the roots ought 
to be grubbed up, as they furaish a valuable material for fuel or charcoal. 
The season of felung, where the t)ark is to be kept on, should be mid>winter, 
when the sap is in its most dormant state : but, where the bazk is wanted ibr 
tanningy May is preferable ; because then the sap is in motion, and the bark 
easily separates irom the wood. 

8iatUt/ca. Id Ute Eovironi of London. At Mount Orore^ Hamptteid, IS/esn plaiftied, it to 9 It 
blgb ; at SyoD, It !• between 90(t and 100 A. hirii ; at Chlnricic Vllla, it is OOft. bigfa ; at WbittoD. 
between 80 ft. and 90 ft. higb. — South of London. In Somenetthire, at KingflwettoD, it if iSft. 
high, with a tranic S ft. in diameter. In SurreT, at Bacihot Parlc, 16 ymn planted, it ia SSft. higfa ; 
at ClaremoDt, it ia 9&ft. high, the diameterof tbe truni 2ft., and oT the head 36ft. In SuKex, at 
Cowdrey, it is 80 ft. hlgh, with a trunk Sft. 9in. bi diameter. In Wiltsblre, at Liongleat, 80 yeen 

flanted, ft ia 99 it high, tbe diameter oT tbe tronlE 4ft., and of tbe bead 44 ft. — Noitb oT Loodon. 
n Buckingbanubire, at Temple Houae, 40 yean planted, it ia SOft. bigh. In Enes^ at Audley Bad, 
6i yean planted, It is 60 ft. high, the diameter of tne trunk S ft. 6 in.. and of the bead 50 ft. In Here. 
fbrdshire, at Haffleid, 105 jean old, it If 71 ft. bigh, tbe diameter of the trunk S ft. 6 in., and of the 
head 15 ft. In Hertfoedabire, at Aldenbam Abbey, 84 yean planted. itif 66ft. bigb. In Leieek 
tenhlre, at Donnington, S8 yean planted, it is 52 ft. high. In Norfolk, at Meitim Hally it ia 87 ft. 
high, with a trunk 3 ft. 6 In. in dlameter. In ShimMhlre, at Hardwlcke Qcange, 10 yeart planted, H 
ia 28 ft. bigh ; at Wllley Park, 18 yean planted. it U 40ft. hlgh, the dlameter of tbe trunk 1 0. aad 
of tbe head 20 ft. In Suflbrdahlre, at Trentham, it i« 90ft. high, tbe diameter of tbe trunkSft. 
4ln., and of tbe head 80 ft. In Suflblk, at Finborough HaU, 60 yean pUnted, it ia lOOft. blgb, tlM 
diameter of the trunk 8 ft, and of tbe head 50 ft. In Woroestertbire, at Hadsor Houae, 10 yean 

I^lanted, it ia SOft. high. In York8hlr& in Studley Fark, the tree of whlch a figure la giyen fai our 
ast Volume, 132 ft. hlgh.— In Scotland. In Aynhire, at Kilkenran, 55 yean planted, it Is 95ft. 
bigb, witb a trunk 3 ft. 6 In. in dlamcter, and that of the head 80 ft. In Abeideenabir^ at Thainaton, 
54 yean planted, it ii 67ft. high. In Argyllshire, at Toward Caitle, 15yean planted, it is aOft. 
high. In Forfiinbire, at Monboddo. 28 yean planted, it la 30ft. high ; at Courtaohy Caatle, 14 yean 
planted, itis27ft. hlglij another, 50 fears planted, ia 55 ft. higb. In InTemeas-sbire!, at CouaD« 
40 yean planted, it Is 60 ft. hlgh. In Perthshlre, at InTermay, it is 84 ft. higb, the diameter of tbe 
trunk 5 ft. 9 In.. and of the head 64 ft. ; at Taymouth, It is 100 ft. high, the dlameter of tlie trunk 
4 ft. , and of the tiead 51 ft. In Stirlingahire, at Saucfale, it is 96 ft higb, dlameicr of tbe trunk 2 ft. 
6in., andofthe head aoft. : at Blair Drummond, 190 yean old, itit 98 ft. higb, the diameterof 
tbe tnink 2 ft. 6 in.. and of the head 20 ft — In Ireland. In Fermanagh, at Flatence Court, 5S yean 
planted, it is 70 ft. high, the diameterof the trunk 1 ft. 6Ui., andof the bead 60 ft. ; at Caatle COole, it 
is 62 ft. hlgh, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. In Sligo, at lCackree Castle, it is 96 ft. hlgh, the di». 

ahoe, it Is 60 yean old. witb a trunk 4 ft. In diameter. — In Bavarla, in tbe Botanic Gardes at 
Munich, 24 yean planted, It is 40 ft. high..— In Austria, at Vienna, in the Univenity Bctanic Garden» 
80 yean plantcd, it is 50ft. hieh ; at Briick on the Leytha, 60 yean planted, it is 100 ft. high.~.In 
Prussia, near Berlln, at Sans Souci, 40 yean planted, it Is oOft high. 

CommerckU SttUutics, Price of seeds, in London, Ss. per Ib. ; and o£ plants, 
one year^s seedlings, 1«. 6^. per thousand ; three years' seedlings, Ss. per 
thousand ; and transplanted piauts, irom 12 in. to 18 in. high, 25^. per thou- 
sand. At Bollwyller, single plants are 8 cents each ; and at New Yorli:, from 
50 cents to l^ doUar, according to the size. 

i 2. A, a'lba JMichx, The white Spruce Fir. 

JdeBtificatiou. Mlchx. FL Bor. Amer., 2. p. 207., Arb., 1. p. 133. ; N. Amer. SyL, 3. p. IflSL ; Polr. 

Dict Encyc 6l pi 521. ; M. Du Ham., 6. p. 291. 
S^nonumes, Pbius 4n>a AU. Hort. XHew.j 3. p. 371., rFiild. BeroL Aiinns., p.2Sl., Lamb, Pi^ 

ed. 2., 1. t 3& ;